Abstract

The photo-Dember effect is a source of impulsive THz emission following femtosecond pulsed optical excitation. This emission results from the ultrafast spatial separation of electron-hole pairs in strong carrier gradients due to their different diffusion coefficients. The associated time dependent polarization is oriented perpendicular to the excited surface which is inaptly for efficient out coupling of THz radiation. We propose a scheme for generating strong carrier gradients parallel to the excited surface. The resulting photo-Dember currents are oriented in the same direction and emit THz radiation into the favorable direction perpendicular to the surface. This effect is demonstrated for GaAs and In0.53Ga0.47As. Surprisingly the photo-Dember THz emitters provide higher bandwidth than photoconductive emitters. Multiplexing of phase coherent photo-Dember currents by periodically tailoring the photoexcited spatial carrier distribution gives rise to a strongly enhanced THz emission, which reaches electric field amplitudes comparable to a high-efficiency externally biased photoconductive emitter.

© 2010 OSA

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2009

2008

G. Acuna, F. Buersgens, C. Lang, M. Handloser, A. Guggenmos, and R. Kersting, “Interdigitated terahertz emitters,” Electron. Lett. 44(3), 229–231 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

M. Awad, M. Nagel, H. Kurz, J. Herfort, and K. Ploog, “Characterization of low temperature GaAs antenna array terahertz emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Upadhya, W. Fan, A. Burnett, J. Cunningham, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, J. Lloyd-Hughes, E. Castro-Camus, M. B. Johnston, and H. Beere, “Excitation-density-dependent generation of broadband terahertz radiation in an asymmetrically excited photoconductive antenna,” Opt. Lett. 32(16), 2297–2299 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 97–105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Bartels, R. Cerna, C. Kistner, A. Thoma, F. Hudert, C. Janke, and T. Dekorsy, “Ultrafast time-domain spectroscopy based on high-speed asynchronous optical sampling,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(3), 035107 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

D. S. Kim and D. S. Citrin, “Coulomb and radiation screening in photoconductive terahertz sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(16), 161117–3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Ascázubi, I. Wilke, K. J. Kim, and P. Dutta, “Terahertz emission from Ga1-xInxSb,” Phys. Rev. B 74(7), 075323 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

E. Castro-Camus, J. Lloyd-Hughes, and M. B. Johnston, “Three-dimensional carrier-dynamics simulation of terahertz emission from photoconductive switches,” Phys. Rev. B 71(19), 195301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Ascázubi, C. Shneider, I. Wilke, R. Pino, and P. S. Dutta, “Enhanced terahertz emission from impurity compensated GaSb,” Phys. Rev. B 72(4), 045328 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Urbanowicz, R. Adomavicius, and A. Krotkus, “Terahertz emission from photoexcited surfaces of Ge crystals,” Physica B 367(1-4), 152–157 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Dreyhaupt, S. Winnerl, T. Dekorsy, and M. Helm, “High-intensity terahertz radiation from a microstructured large-area photoconductor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 121114–3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

M. P. Hasselbeck, L. A. Schlie, and D. Stalnaker, “Emission of electromagnetic radiation by coherent vibrational waves in stimulated Raman scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(2), 173–175 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Nakajima, Y. Oda, and T. Suemoto, “Competing terahertz radiation mechanisms in semi-insulating InP at high-density excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(14), 2694–2696 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

2002

M. B. Johnston, D. M. Whittaker, A. Dowd, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, X. Li, and D. A. Ritchie, “Generation of high-power terahertz pulses in a prism,” Opt. Lett. 27(21), 1935–1937 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 26–33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Zhao, R. N. Schouten, N. van der Valk, W. T. Wenckebach, and P. C. M. Planken, “Design and performance of a THz emission and detection setup based on a semi-insulating GaAs emitter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(4), 1715–1719 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Johnston, D. M. Whittaker, A. Corchia, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Simulation of terahertz generation at semiconductor surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 65(16), 165301 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Gu, M. Tani, S. Kono, K. Sakai, and X.-C. Zhang, “Study of terahertz radiation from InAs and InSb,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(9), 5533–5537 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

R. Huber, A. Brodschelm, F. Tauser, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Generation and field-resolved detection of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses tunable up to 41 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(22), 3191–3193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Bründermann, D. R. Chamberlin, and E. E. Haller, “High duty cycle and continuous terahertz emission from germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(21), 2991–2993 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, M. C. Nuss, and W. H. Knox, “Detectors and sources for ultrabroadband electro-optic sampling: Experiment and theory,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(11), 1516–1518 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(26), 3824–3826 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

R. Kersting, K. Unterrainer, G. Strasser, H. F. Kauffmann, and E. Gornik, “Few-Cycle THz Emission from Cold Plasma Oscillations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79(16), 3038–3041 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast electro-optic field sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(12), 1604–1606 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Dekorsy, H. Auer, H. J. Bakker, H. G. Roskos, and H. Kurz, “THz electromagnetic emission by coherent infrared-active phonons,” Phys. Rev. B 53(7), 4005–4014 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993

T. Dekorsy, T. Pfeifer, W. Kütt, and H. Kurz, “Subpicosecond carrier transport in GaAs surface-space-charge fields,” Phys. Rev. B 47(7), 3842–3849 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

X.-C. Zhang and D. H. Auston, “Optoelectronic measurement of semiconductor surfaces and interfaces with femtosecond optics,” J. Appl. Phys. 71(1), 326–338 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1931

H. Dember, “Über eine photoelektronische Kraft in Kupferoxydul-Kristallen,” Z. Phys. 32, 554 (1931).

Acuna, G.

G. Acuna, F. Buersgens, C. Lang, M. Handloser, A. Guggenmos, and R. Kersting, “Interdigitated terahertz emitters,” Electron. Lett. 44(3), 229–231 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Adomavicius, R.

A. Urbanowicz, R. Adomavicius, and A. Krotkus, “Terahertz emission from photoexcited surfaces of Ge crystals,” Physica B 367(1-4), 152–157 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ascázubi, R.

R. Ascázubi, I. Wilke, K. J. Kim, and P. Dutta, “Terahertz emission from Ga1-xInxSb,” Phys. Rev. B 74(7), 075323 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Ascázubi, C. Shneider, I. Wilke, R. Pino, and P. S. Dutta, “Enhanced terahertz emission from impurity compensated GaSb,” Phys. Rev. B 72(4), 045328 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Auer, H.

T. Dekorsy, H. Auer, H. J. Bakker, H. G. Roskos, and H. Kurz, “THz electromagnetic emission by coherent infrared-active phonons,” Phys. Rev. B 53(7), 4005–4014 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Auston, D. H.

X.-C. Zhang and D. H. Auston, “Optoelectronic measurement of semiconductor surfaces and interfaces with femtosecond optics,” J. Appl. Phys. 71(1), 326–338 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Awad, M.

M. Awad, M. Nagel, H. Kurz, J. Herfort, and K. Ploog, “Characterization of low temperature GaAs antenna array terahertz emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bakker, H. J.

T. Dekorsy, H. Auer, H. J. Bakker, H. G. Roskos, and H. Kurz, “THz electromagnetic emission by coherent infrared-active phonons,” Phys. Rev. B 53(7), 4005–4014 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bartels, A.

G. Klatt, R. Gebs, C. Janke, T. Dekorsy, and A. Bartels, “Rapid-scanning terahertz precision spectrometer with more than 6 THz spectral coverage,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22847–22854 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Bartels, R. Cerna, C. Kistner, A. Thoma, F. Hudert, C. Janke, and T. Dekorsy, “Ultrafast time-domain spectroscopy based on high-speed asynchronous optical sampling,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(3), 035107 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beere, H.

Beere, H. E.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beltram, F.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bolívar, P. H.

Brodschelm, A.

R. Huber, A. Brodschelm, F. Tauser, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Generation and field-resolved detection of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses tunable up to 41 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(22), 3191–3193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bründermann, E.

E. Bründermann, D. R. Chamberlin, and E. E. Haller, “High duty cycle and continuous terahertz emission from germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(21), 2991–2993 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Buersgens, F.

G. Acuna, F. Buersgens, C. Lang, M. Handloser, A. Guggenmos, and R. Kersting, “Interdigitated terahertz emitters,” Electron. Lett. 44(3), 229–231 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Burnett, A.

Calawa, S.

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(26), 3824–3826 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Castro-Camus, E.

Cerna, R.

A. Bartels, R. Cerna, C. Kistner, A. Thoma, F. Hudert, C. Janke, and T. Dekorsy, “Ultrafast time-domain spectroscopy based on high-speed asynchronous optical sampling,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(3), 035107 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chamberlin, D. R.

E. Bründermann, D. R. Chamberlin, and E. E. Haller, “High duty cycle and continuous terahertz emission from germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(21), 2991–2993 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Citrin, D. S.

D. S. Kim and D. S. Citrin, “Coulomb and radiation screening in photoconductive terahertz sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(16), 161117–3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Coates, N.

J. N. Heyman, N. Coates, A. Reinhardt, and G. Strasser, “Diffusion and drift in terahertz emission at GaAs surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(26), 5476–5478 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Corchia, A.

M. B. Johnston, D. M. Whittaker, A. Corchia, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Simulation of terahertz generation at semiconductor surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 65(16), 165301 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, J.

Davies, A. G.

P. C. Upadhya, W. Fan, A. Burnett, J. Cunningham, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, J. Lloyd-Hughes, E. Castro-Camus, M. B. Johnston, and H. Beere, “Excitation-density-dependent generation of broadband terahertz radiation in an asymmetrically excited photoconductive antenna,” Opt. Lett. 32(16), 2297–2299 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Johnston, D. M. Whittaker, A. Corchia, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Simulation of terahertz generation at semiconductor surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 65(16), 165301 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Johnston, D. M. Whittaker, A. Dowd, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, X. Li, and D. A. Ritchie, “Generation of high-power terahertz pulses in a prism,” Opt. Lett. 27(21), 1935–1937 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dekorsy, T.

G. Klatt, R. Gebs, C. Janke, T. Dekorsy, and A. Bartels, “Rapid-scanning terahertz precision spectrometer with more than 6 THz spectral coverage,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22847–22854 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Bartels, R. Cerna, C. Kistner, A. Thoma, F. Hudert, C. Janke, and T. Dekorsy, “Ultrafast time-domain spectroscopy based on high-speed asynchronous optical sampling,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(3), 035107 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dreyhaupt, S. Winnerl, T. Dekorsy, and M. Helm, “High-intensity terahertz radiation from a microstructured large-area photoconductor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 121114–3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Dekorsy, H. Auer, H. J. Bakker, H. G. Roskos, and H. Kurz, “THz electromagnetic emission by coherent infrared-active phonons,” Phys. Rev. B 53(7), 4005–4014 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Dekorsy, T. Pfeifer, W. Kütt, and H. Kurz, “Subpicosecond carrier transport in GaAs surface-space-charge fields,” Phys. Rev. B 47(7), 3842–3849 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dember, H.

H. Dember, “Über eine photoelektronische Kraft in Kupferoxydul-Kristallen,” Z. Phys. 32, 554 (1931).

Dinatale, W. F.

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(26), 3824–3826 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dowd, A.

Dreyhaupt, A.

A. Dreyhaupt, S. Winnerl, T. Dekorsy, and M. Helm, “High-intensity terahertz radiation from a microstructured large-area photoconductor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 121114–3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Duerr, E. K.

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(26), 3824–3826 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dutta, P.

R. Ascázubi, I. Wilke, K. J. Kim, and P. Dutta, “Terahertz emission from Ga1-xInxSb,” Phys. Rev. B 74(7), 075323 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dutta, P. S.

R. Ascázubi, C. Shneider, I. Wilke, R. Pino, and P. S. Dutta, “Enhanced terahertz emission from impurity compensated GaSb,” Phys. Rev. B 72(4), 045328 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Edamura, T.

C. T. Que, T. Edamura, M. Nakajima, M. Tani, and M. Hangyo, “Terahertz Radiation from InAs Films on Silicon Substrates Excited by Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(1), 010211 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fan, W.

Ferguson, B.

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 26–33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Friederich, F.

Gebs, R.

Gornik, E.

R. Kersting, K. Unterrainer, G. Strasser, H. F. Kauffmann, and E. Gornik, “Few-Cycle THz Emission from Cold Plasma Oscillations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79(16), 3038–3041 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gu, P.

P. Gu, M. Tani, S. Kono, K. Sakai, and X.-C. Zhang, “Study of terahertz radiation from InAs and InSb,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(9), 5533–5537 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Guggenmos, A.

G. Acuna, F. Buersgens, C. Lang, M. Handloser, A. Guggenmos, and R. Kersting, “Interdigitated terahertz emitters,” Electron. Lett. 44(3), 229–231 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Haller, E. E.

E. Bründermann, D. R. Chamberlin, and E. E. Haller, “High duty cycle and continuous terahertz emission from germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(21), 2991–2993 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Handloser, M.

G. Acuna, F. Buersgens, C. Lang, M. Handloser, A. Guggenmos, and R. Kersting, “Interdigitated terahertz emitters,” Electron. Lett. 44(3), 229–231 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hangyo, M.

C. T. Que, T. Edamura, M. Nakajima, M. Tani, and M. Hangyo, “Terahertz Radiation from InAs Films on Silicon Substrates Excited by Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(1), 010211 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hasselbeck, M. P.

M. P. Hasselbeck, L. A. Schlie, and D. Stalnaker, “Emission of electromagnetic radiation by coherent vibrational waves in stimulated Raman scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(2), 173–175 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Helm, M.

A. Dreyhaupt, S. Winnerl, T. Dekorsy, and M. Helm, “High-intensity terahertz radiation from a microstructured large-area photoconductor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 121114–3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Herfort, J.

M. Awad, M. Nagel, H. Kurz, J. Herfort, and K. Ploog, “Characterization of low temperature GaAs antenna array terahertz emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Heyman, J. N.

J. N. Heyman, N. Coates, A. Reinhardt, and G. Strasser, “Diffusion and drift in terahertz emission at GaAs surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(26), 5476–5478 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huber, R.

R. Huber, A. Brodschelm, F. Tauser, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Generation and field-resolved detection of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses tunable up to 41 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(22), 3191–3193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hudert, F.

A. Bartels, R. Cerna, C. Kistner, A. Thoma, F. Hudert, C. Janke, and T. Dekorsy, “Ultrafast time-domain spectroscopy based on high-speed asynchronous optical sampling,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(3), 035107 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hunsche, S.

A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, M. C. Nuss, and W. H. Knox, “Detectors and sources for ultrabroadband electro-optic sampling: Experiment and theory,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(11), 1516–1518 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Iotti, R. C.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Janke, C.

G. Klatt, R. Gebs, C. Janke, T. Dekorsy, and A. Bartels, “Rapid-scanning terahertz precision spectrometer with more than 6 THz spectral coverage,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22847–22854 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Bartels, R. Cerna, C. Kistner, A. Thoma, F. Hudert, C. Janke, and T. Dekorsy, “Ultrafast time-domain spectroscopy based on high-speed asynchronous optical sampling,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(3), 035107 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnston, M. B.

P. C. Upadhya, W. Fan, A. Burnett, J. Cunningham, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, J. Lloyd-Hughes, E. Castro-Camus, M. B. Johnston, and H. Beere, “Excitation-density-dependent generation of broadband terahertz radiation in an asymmetrically excited photoconductive antenna,” Opt. Lett. 32(16), 2297–2299 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Castro-Camus, J. Lloyd-Hughes, and M. B. Johnston, “Three-dimensional carrier-dynamics simulation of terahertz emission from photoconductive switches,” Phys. Rev. B 71(19), 195301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Johnston, D. M. Whittaker, A. Dowd, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, X. Li, and D. A. Ritchie, “Generation of high-power terahertz pulses in a prism,” Opt. Lett. 27(21), 1935–1937 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Johnston, D. M. Whittaker, A. Corchia, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Simulation of terahertz generation at semiconductor surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 65(16), 165301 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kauffmann, H. F.

R. Kersting, K. Unterrainer, G. Strasser, H. F. Kauffmann, and E. Gornik, “Few-Cycle THz Emission from Cold Plasma Oscillations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79(16), 3038–3041 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kersting, R.

G. Acuna, F. Buersgens, C. Lang, M. Handloser, A. Guggenmos, and R. Kersting, “Interdigitated terahertz emitters,” Electron. Lett. 44(3), 229–231 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Kersting, K. Unterrainer, G. Strasser, H. F. Kauffmann, and E. Gornik, “Few-Cycle THz Emission from Cold Plasma Oscillations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79(16), 3038–3041 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. S.

D. S. Kim and D. S. Citrin, “Coulomb and radiation screening in photoconductive terahertz sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(16), 161117–3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. J.

R. Ascázubi, I. Wilke, K. J. Kim, and P. Dutta, “Terahertz emission from Ga1-xInxSb,” Phys. Rev. B 74(7), 075323 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kistner, C.

A. Bartels, R. Cerna, C. Kistner, A. Thoma, F. Hudert, C. Janke, and T. Dekorsy, “Ultrafast time-domain spectroscopy based on high-speed asynchronous optical sampling,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(3), 035107 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klatt, G.

Knox, W. H.

A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, M. C. Nuss, and W. H. Knox, “Detectors and sources for ultrabroadband electro-optic sampling: Experiment and theory,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(11), 1516–1518 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Köhler, R.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kono, S.

P. Gu, M. Tani, S. Kono, K. Sakai, and X.-C. Zhang, “Study of terahertz radiation from InAs and InSb,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(9), 5533–5537 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Krotkus, A.

A. Urbanowicz, R. Adomavicius, and A. Krotkus, “Terahertz emission from photoexcited surfaces of Ge crystals,” Physica B 367(1-4), 152–157 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kurz, H.

M. Awad, M. Nagel, H. Kurz, J. Herfort, and K. Ploog, “Characterization of low temperature GaAs antenna array terahertz emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Dekorsy, H. Auer, H. J. Bakker, H. G. Roskos, and H. Kurz, “THz electromagnetic emission by coherent infrared-active phonons,” Phys. Rev. B 53(7), 4005–4014 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Dekorsy, T. Pfeifer, W. Kütt, and H. Kurz, “Subpicosecond carrier transport in GaAs surface-space-charge fields,” Phys. Rev. B 47(7), 3842–3849 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kütt, W.

T. Dekorsy, T. Pfeifer, W. Kütt, and H. Kurz, “Subpicosecond carrier transport in GaAs surface-space-charge fields,” Phys. Rev. B 47(7), 3842–3849 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lang, C.

G. Acuna, F. Buersgens, C. Lang, M. Handloser, A. Guggenmos, and R. Kersting, “Interdigitated terahertz emitters,” Electron. Lett. 44(3), 229–231 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Leitenstorfer, A.

F. Tauser, A. Leitenstorfer, and W. Zinth, “Amplified femtosecond pulses from an Er:fiber system: Nonlinear pulse shortening and selfreferencing detection of the carrier-envelope phase evolution,” Opt. Express 11(6), 594–600 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, A. Brodschelm, F. Tauser, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Generation and field-resolved detection of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses tunable up to 41 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(22), 3191–3193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, M. C. Nuss, and W. H. Knox, “Detectors and sources for ultrabroadband electro-optic sampling: Experiment and theory,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(11), 1516–1518 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

Linfield, E. H.

P. C. Upadhya, W. Fan, A. Burnett, J. Cunningham, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, J. Lloyd-Hughes, E. Castro-Camus, M. B. Johnston, and H. Beere, “Excitation-density-dependent generation of broadband terahertz radiation in an asymmetrically excited photoconductive antenna,” Opt. Lett. 32(16), 2297–2299 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Johnston, D. M. Whittaker, A. Dowd, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, X. Li, and D. A. Ritchie, “Generation of high-power terahertz pulses in a prism,” Opt. Lett. 27(21), 1935–1937 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Johnston, D. M. Whittaker, A. Corchia, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Simulation of terahertz generation at semiconductor surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 65(16), 165301 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lloyd-Hughes, J.

McIntosh, K. A.

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(26), 3824–3826 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Molvar, K. A.

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(26), 3824–3826 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nagel, M.

M. Awad, M. Nagel, H. Kurz, J. Herfort, and K. Ploog, “Characterization of low temperature GaAs antenna array terahertz emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, M.

C. T. Que, T. Edamura, M. Nakajima, M. Tani, and M. Hangyo, “Terahertz Radiation from InAs Films on Silicon Substrates Excited by Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(1), 010211 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Nakajima, Y. Oda, and T. Suemoto, “Competing terahertz radiation mechanisms in semi-insulating InP at high-density excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(14), 2694–2696 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nuss, M. C.

A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, M. C. Nuss, and W. H. Knox, “Detectors and sources for ultrabroadband electro-optic sampling: Experiment and theory,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(11), 1516–1518 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Oda, Y.

M. Nakajima, Y. Oda, and T. Suemoto, “Competing terahertz radiation mechanisms in semi-insulating InP at high-density excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(14), 2694–2696 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pfeifer, T.

T. Dekorsy, T. Pfeifer, W. Kütt, and H. Kurz, “Subpicosecond carrier transport in GaAs surface-space-charge fields,” Phys. Rev. B 47(7), 3842–3849 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pino, R.

R. Ascázubi, C. Shneider, I. Wilke, R. Pino, and P. S. Dutta, “Enhanced terahertz emission from impurity compensated GaSb,” Phys. Rev. B 72(4), 045328 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Planken, P. C. M.

G. Zhao, R. N. Schouten, N. van der Valk, W. T. Wenckebach, and P. C. M. Planken, “Design and performance of a THz emission and detection setup based on a semi-insulating GaAs emitter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(4), 1715–1719 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ploog, K.

M. Awad, M. Nagel, H. Kurz, J. Herfort, and K. Ploog, “Characterization of low temperature GaAs antenna array terahertz emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Que, C. T.

C. T. Que, T. Edamura, M. Nakajima, M. Tani, and M. Hangyo, “Terahertz Radiation from InAs Films on Silicon Substrates Excited by Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(1), 010211 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Reinhardt, A.

J. N. Heyman, N. Coates, A. Reinhardt, and G. Strasser, “Diffusion and drift in terahertz emission at GaAs surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(26), 5476–5478 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, D. A.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Johnston, D. M. Whittaker, A. Dowd, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, X. Li, and D. A. Ritchie, “Generation of high-power terahertz pulses in a prism,” Opt. Lett. 27(21), 1935–1937 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Roskos, H. G.

G. Spickermann, F. Friederich, H. G. Roskos, and P. H. Bolívar, “High signal-to-noise-ratio electro-optical terahertz imaging system based on an optical demodulating detector array,” Opt. Lett. 34(21), 3424–3426 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Dekorsy, H. Auer, H. J. Bakker, H. G. Roskos, and H. Kurz, “THz electromagnetic emission by coherent infrared-active phonons,” Phys. Rev. B 53(7), 4005–4014 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rossi, F.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakai, K.

P. Gu, M. Tani, S. Kono, K. Sakai, and X.-C. Zhang, “Study of terahertz radiation from InAs and InSb,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(9), 5533–5537 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schlie, L. A.

M. P. Hasselbeck, L. A. Schlie, and D. Stalnaker, “Emission of electromagnetic radiation by coherent vibrational waves in stimulated Raman scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(2), 173–175 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schouten, R. N.

G. Zhao, R. N. Schouten, N. van der Valk, W. T. Wenckebach, and P. C. M. Planken, “Design and performance of a THz emission and detection setup based on a semi-insulating GaAs emitter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(4), 1715–1719 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shah, J.

A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, M. C. Nuss, and W. H. Knox, “Detectors and sources for ultrabroadband electro-optic sampling: Experiment and theory,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(11), 1516–1518 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shneider, C.

R. Ascázubi, C. Shneider, I. Wilke, R. Pino, and P. S. Dutta, “Enhanced terahertz emission from impurity compensated GaSb,” Phys. Rev. B 72(4), 045328 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Spickermann, G.

Stalnaker, D.

M. P. Hasselbeck, L. A. Schlie, and D. Stalnaker, “Emission of electromagnetic radiation by coherent vibrational waves in stimulated Raman scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(2), 173–175 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Strasser, G.

J. N. Heyman, N. Coates, A. Reinhardt, and G. Strasser, “Diffusion and drift in terahertz emission at GaAs surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(26), 5476–5478 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Kersting, K. Unterrainer, G. Strasser, H. F. Kauffmann, and E. Gornik, “Few-Cycle THz Emission from Cold Plasma Oscillations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79(16), 3038–3041 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Suemoto, T.

M. Nakajima, Y. Oda, and T. Suemoto, “Competing terahertz radiation mechanisms in semi-insulating InP at high-density excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(14), 2694–2696 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tani, M.

C. T. Que, T. Edamura, M. Nakajima, M. Tani, and M. Hangyo, “Terahertz Radiation from InAs Films on Silicon Substrates Excited by Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(1), 010211 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Gu, M. Tani, S. Kono, K. Sakai, and X.-C. Zhang, “Study of terahertz radiation from InAs and InSb,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(9), 5533–5537 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tauser, F.

F. Tauser, A. Leitenstorfer, and W. Zinth, “Amplified femtosecond pulses from an Er:fiber system: Nonlinear pulse shortening and selfreferencing detection of the carrier-envelope phase evolution,” Opt. Express 11(6), 594–600 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, A. Brodschelm, F. Tauser, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Generation and field-resolved detection of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses tunable up to 41 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(22), 3191–3193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Thoma, A.

A. Bartels, R. Cerna, C. Kistner, A. Thoma, F. Hudert, C. Janke, and T. Dekorsy, “Ultrafast time-domain spectroscopy based on high-speed asynchronous optical sampling,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(3), 035107 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tonouchi, M.

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 97–105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tredicucci, A.

R. Köhler, A. Tredicucci, F. Beltram, H. E. Beere, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, D. A. Ritchie, R. C. Iotti, and F. Rossi, “Terahertz semiconductor-heterostructure laser,” Nature 417(6885), 156–159 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Unterrainer, K.

R. Kersting, K. Unterrainer, G. Strasser, H. F. Kauffmann, and E. Gornik, “Few-Cycle THz Emission from Cold Plasma Oscillations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79(16), 3038–3041 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Upadhya, P. C.

Urbanowicz, A.

A. Urbanowicz, R. Adomavicius, and A. Krotkus, “Terahertz emission from photoexcited surfaces of Ge crystals,” Physica B 367(1-4), 152–157 (2005).
[CrossRef]

van der Valk, N.

G. Zhao, R. N. Schouten, N. van der Valk, W. T. Wenckebach, and P. C. M. Planken, “Design and performance of a THz emission and detection setup based on a semi-insulating GaAs emitter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(4), 1715–1719 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Verghese, S.

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(26), 3824–3826 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wenckebach, W. T.

G. Zhao, R. N. Schouten, N. van der Valk, W. T. Wenckebach, and P. C. M. Planken, “Design and performance of a THz emission and detection setup based on a semi-insulating GaAs emitter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(4), 1715–1719 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Whittaker, D. M.

M. B. Johnston, D. M. Whittaker, A. Dowd, A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, X. Li, and D. A. Ritchie, “Generation of high-power terahertz pulses in a prism,” Opt. Lett. 27(21), 1935–1937 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Johnston, D. M. Whittaker, A. Corchia, A. G. Davies, and E. H. Linfield, “Simulation of terahertz generation at semiconductor surfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 65(16), 165301 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wilke, I.

R. Ascázubi, I. Wilke, K. J. Kim, and P. Dutta, “Terahertz emission from Ga1-xInxSb,” Phys. Rev. B 74(7), 075323 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Ascázubi, C. Shneider, I. Wilke, R. Pino, and P. S. Dutta, “Enhanced terahertz emission from impurity compensated GaSb,” Phys. Rev. B 72(4), 045328 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Winnerl, S.

A. Dreyhaupt, S. Winnerl, T. Dekorsy, and M. Helm, “High-intensity terahertz radiation from a microstructured large-area photoconductor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 121114–3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Q.

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast electro-optic field sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(12), 1604–1606 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-C.

P. Gu, M. Tani, S. Kono, K. Sakai, and X.-C. Zhang, “Study of terahertz radiation from InAs and InSb,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(9), 5533–5537 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nat. Mater. 1(1), 26–33 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast electro-optic field sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(12), 1604–1606 (1996).
[CrossRef]

X.-C. Zhang and D. H. Auston, “Optoelectronic measurement of semiconductor surfaces and interfaces with femtosecond optics,” J. Appl. Phys. 71(1), 326–338 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, G.

G. Zhao, R. N. Schouten, N. van der Valk, W. T. Wenckebach, and P. C. M. Planken, “Design and performance of a THz emission and detection setup based on a semi-insulating GaAs emitter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(4), 1715–1719 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zinth, W.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. Huber, A. Brodschelm, F. Tauser, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Generation and field-resolved detection of femtosecond electromagnetic pulses tunable up to 41 THz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(22), 3191–3193 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Dreyhaupt, S. Winnerl, T. Dekorsy, and M. Helm, “High-intensity terahertz radiation from a microstructured large-area photoconductor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 121114–3 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(26), 3824–3826 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Bründermann, D. R. Chamberlin, and E. E. Haller, “High duty cycle and continuous terahertz emission from germanium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(21), 2991–2993 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu and X.-C. Zhang, “Ultrafast electro-optic field sensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(12), 1604–1606 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, M. C. Nuss, and W. H. Knox, “Detectors and sources for ultrabroadband electro-optic sampling: Experiment and theory,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(11), 1516–1518 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Heyman, N. Coates, A. Reinhardt, and G. Strasser, “Diffusion and drift in terahertz emission at GaAs surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(26), 5476–5478 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Hasselbeck, L. A. Schlie, and D. Stalnaker, “Emission of electromagnetic radiation by coherent vibrational waves in stimulated Raman scattering,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(2), 173–175 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Nakajima, Y. Oda, and T. Suemoto, “Competing terahertz radiation mechanisms in semi-insulating InP at high-density excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(14), 2694–2696 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Kim and D. S. Citrin, “Coulomb and radiation screening in photoconductive terahertz sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(16), 161117–3 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Awad, M. Nagel, H. Kurz, J. Herfort, and K. Ploog, “Characterization of low temperature GaAs antenna array terahertz emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(18), 181124 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

G. Acuna, F. Buersgens, C. Lang, M. Handloser, A. Guggenmos, and R. Kersting, “Interdigitated terahertz emitters,” Electron. Lett. 44(3), 229–231 (2008).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a), (b) Principle of the THz emission from lateral photo-Dember currents. In the case of a bare semiconductor surface the gradient of the photoexcited electrons (blue spheres) and holes (red spheres) and the resulting photo-Dember polarization PDember is directed perpendicular to the surface (a). In the case of a partially covered semiconductor surface a strong carrier gradient is achieved at the edge of a metalized stripe, resulting in a photo-Dember polarization parallel to the surface (b). In both pictures the green lobes indicate the dipole radiation patterns of the arising THz radiation. (c) Sketch of the sample with two gold stripes on GaAs used for the line scans shown in the inset of Fig. 2. The green cones show the forward direction of the resulting THz radiation. (d) Sketch of a multiplexed photo-Dember emitter as used for the data shown in Fig. 5.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

THz transients emitted from the left (black) and right (red) metal-semiconductor edge. Left and right are defined as in the schematic drawing shown in Fig. 1(c). The transients are normalized to the maximum electric field value at the right edge. The inset shows the peak-to-peak amplitude of the emitted THz electric field when the metal-semiconductor edge is translated underneath the laser spot. The line scans are normalized to the peak-to-peak amplitude at 12.39 mm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Excitation density dependence of the THz emission of the same sample as used in Fig. 2. The data are normalized to the peak-to-peak amplitude at the highest excitation density. The different colors refer to different spot sizes as given in the text. The inset shows the excitation density dependence of a large area photoconductive emitter with interdigitated electrodes. Again the data are normalized to the value at the highest excitation density. The descriptions of the axis are the same as in the main plot.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Time-domain THz emission (left - a, c) and corresponding Fourier amplitude spectra (right - b, d) of the left (black) and right (red) metal-semiconductor edge on GaAs (top - a, b) and InGaAs (bottom - c, d). Additionally the transients and Fourier amplitude spectra of the bare substrate are shown in every graph (green). The transients and Fourier amplitude spectra are normalized to the right metal-semiconductor edge on GaAs.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of a large area photoconductive emitter with interdigitated electrodes with a multiplexed photo-Dember emitter. The micro-structure of the multiplexed photo-Dember emitter is shown in Fig. 1(d). Figure (a) shows the normalized THz transients, (b) the normalized Fourier amplitude spectra. The inset shows the same data not normalized for absolute comparison on a log scale.

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