Abstract

Efficient multi-mode (MM) to single-mode (SM) conversion in a 61 port splitter or “Photonic Lantern” is demonstrated. The coupling loss from a 100 µm core diameter MM section to an ensemble of 61 SM fibers and back to another 100 µm core MM section is measured to be as low as 0.76 dB. This demonstration shows the feasibility of using the Photonic Lanterns within the field of astrophotonics for coupling MM star-light to an ensemble of SM fibers in order to perform fiber Bragg grating based spectral filtering.

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References

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  1. S. C. Barden, L. W. Ramsey, and R. J. Truax, “Evaluation of some fiber optical waveguides for astronomical instrumentation,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 93, 154–162 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
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2008

2005

2004

1983

P. M. Gray, “Astronomical uses of optical fibres at the Anglo-Australian Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 374, 160–164 (1983).

1981

S. C. Barden, L. W. Ramsey, and R. J. Truax, “Evaluation of some fiber optical waveguides for astronomical instrumentation,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 93, 154–162 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Barden, S. C.

S. C. Barden, L. W. Ramsey, and R. J. Truax, “Evaluation of some fiber optical waveguides for astronomical instrumentation,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 93, 154–162 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A.

Bland-Hawthorn, J.

Buryak, A.

Edvell, G.

Englund, M.

Gray, P. M.

P. M. Gray, “Astronomical uses of optical fibres at the Anglo-Australian Observatory,” Proc. SPIE 374, 160–164 (1983).

Kolossovski, K.

Leon-Saval, S. G.

Nielsen, M. D.

Noordegraaf, D.

Ramsey, L. W.

S. C. Barden, L. W. Ramsey, and R. J. Truax, “Evaluation of some fiber optical waveguides for astronomical instrumentation,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 93, 154–162 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Skovgaard, P. M. W.

Truax, R. J.

S. C. Barden, L. W. Ramsey, and R. J. Truax, “Evaluation of some fiber optical waveguides for astronomical instrumentation,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 93, 154–162 (1981).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic illustration of an optical system with two Photonic Lanterns in a back-to-back configuration and fiber Bragg gratings in each of the SMF ports.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic illustration of the fabricated Photonic Lantern. (b) Microscope image of the cross section of the MM tip of the Photonic Lantern.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured integrated far-field out of the MM end of the Photonic Lanterns. The far-fields are averaged over 10 measurements made with light coupled into 10 randomly chosen SM ports one at the time.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic illustration of the setup used to characterize two Photonic Lanterns coupled back-to-back.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured integrated far-field coupled into device #1 (solid blue line) and resulting far-field out of device #2 (dashed red line).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spectral transmission loss through two Photonic Lanterns spliced back-to-back (solid blue line). Light is coupled into device #1 with the 95 µm core MM fiber with 95% of the power in an NA below 0.09. The 0.76 dB transmission loss measured with a 1530 nm ASE source is shown by the red square. The dashed green line indicates the higher-order mode cut-off wavelength of the SMF-28 fibers.

Equations (3)

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M 2     V 2 π 2 + 1 ,
V = 2 π λ a N A ,
N A λ a ( M 1 ) 8 = 1.55 μ m 50 μ m ( 61 1 ) 8 = 0.085

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