Abstract

Quantum point contacts (QPCs) are nanoscale constrictions that are realized in a high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas by applying negative bias to split Schottky gates on top of a semiconductor. Here, we explore the suitability of these nanodevices to THz detection, by making use of their ability to rectify THz signals via the strong nonlinearities that exist in their conductance. In addition to demonstrating the configuration of these devices that provides optimal THz sensitivity, we also determine their noise equivalent power and responsivity. Our studies suggest that, with further optimization, QPCs can provide a viable approach to broadband THz sensing in the range above 1 THz.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
  18. R. A. Wyss, C. C. Eugster, J. A. del Alamo, and Q. Hu, “Far-infrared photon-induced current in a quantum point contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(11), 1522–1524 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  19. T. J. Janssen, J. C. Maan, J. Singleton, N. K. Patel, M. Pepper, J. E. Frost, D. A. Ritchie, and G. A. C. Jones, “A new mechanism for high-frequency rectification in a ballistic quantum point contact,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 6(13), L163–L168 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  21. R. A. Wyss, C. C. Eugster, J. A. del Alamo, Q. Hu, M. J. Rooks, and M. R. Melloch, “Far-infrared radiation-induced thermopower in a quantum point contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(9), 1144–1146 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  22. D. D. Arnone, J. E. F. Frost, C. G. Smith, D. A. Ritchie, G. A. C. Jones, R. J. Butcher, and M. Pepper, “Effect of terahertz irradiation on ballistic transport through one-dimensional quantum point contacts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(23), 3149–3151 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  23. Y. Kawano and K. Ishibashi, “An on-chip near-field terahertz probe and detector,” Nat. Photonics 2(10), 618–621 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano-slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  25. M. Pioro-Ladrière, J. H. Davies, A. R. Long, A. S. Sachrajda, L. Gaudreau, P. Zawadzki, J. Lapointe, J. Gupta, Z. Wasilewski, and S. Studenikin, “Origin of switching noise in GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs lateral gated devices,” Phys. Rev. B 72(11), 115331 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  26. L. P. Kouwenhoven, B. J. van Wees, C. J. P. M. Harmans, J. G. Williamson, H. van Houten, C. W. J. Beenakker, C. T. Foxon, and J. J. Harris, “Nonlinear conductance of quantum point contacts,” Phys. Rev. B 39(11), 8040–8043 (1989).
    [CrossRef]

2009

G. C. Dyer, J. P. Crossno, G. R. Aizin, E. A. Shaner, M. C. Wanke, J. L. Reno, and S. J. Allen, “A plasmonic terahertz detector with a monolithic hot electron bolometer,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(19), 195803 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano-slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

Y. Kawano and K. Ishibashi, “An on-chip near-field terahertz probe and detector,” Nat. Photonics 2(10), 618–621 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Wei, D. Olaya, B. S. Karasik, S. V. Pereverzev, A. V. Sergeev, and M. E. Gershenson, “Ultrasensitive hot-electron nanobolometers for terahertz astrophysics,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Song, N. A. Kabir, Y. Kawano, K. Ishibashi, G. R. Aizin, L. Mourokh, J. L. Reno, A. G. Markelz, and J. P. Bird, “Terahertz response of quantum point contacts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 223115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

E. A. Shaner, M. C. Wanke, A. D. Grine, S. K. Lyo, J. L. Reno, and S. J. Allen, “Enhanced responsivity in membrane isolated split- grating-gate plasmonic terahertz detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 181127 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

V. Ryzhii and M. S. Shur, “Resonant terahertz detector utilizing plasma oscillations in two-dimensional electron system with lateral Schottky junction,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(42), L1118–L1120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Rodriguez-Morales, K. S. Yngvesson, R. Zannoni, E. Gerecht, D. Gu, X. Zhao, N. Wadefalk, and J. J. Nicholson, “Development of integrated HEB/MMIC receivers for near-range terahertz imaging,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54(6), 2301–2311 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

M. Lee, M. C. Wanke, and J. L. Reno, “Millimeter wave mixing using plasmon and bolometric response in a double-quantum-well field-effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 033501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Shaner, M. Lee, M. C. Wanke, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, and S. J. Allen, “Single-quantum-well grating-gated terahertz plasmon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(19), 193507 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Teppe, W. Knap, D. Veksler, M. S. Shur, A. P. Dmitriev, V. Yu. Kachorovskii, and S. Rumyantsev, “Room-temperature plasma waves resonant detection of sub-terahertz radiation by nanometer field-effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(5), 052107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Pioro-Ladrière, J. H. Davies, A. R. Long, A. S. Sachrajda, L. Gaudreau, P. Zawadzki, J. Lapointe, J. Gupta, Z. Wasilewski, and S. Studenikin, “Origin of switching noise in GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs lateral gated devices,” Phys. Rev. B 72(11), 115331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

H. Hashiba, V. Antonov, L. Kulik, S. Komiyama, and C. Stanley, “Highly sensitive detector for submillimeter wavelength range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(24), 6036–6038 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

X. G. Peralta, S. J. Allen, M. C. Wanke, N. E. Harff, J. A. Simmons, M. P. Lilly, J. L. Reno, P. J. Burke, and J. P. Eisenstein, “Terahertz photoconductivity and plasmon modes in double-quantum-well field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(9), 1627–1629 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Knap, Y. Deng, S. Rumyantsev, J.-Q. Lu, M. S. Shur, C. A. Saylor, and L. C. Brunel, “Resonant detection of subterahertz radiation by plasma waves in a submicron field-effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(18), 3433–3435 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Knap, Y. Deng, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Resonant detection of subterahertz and terahertz radiation by plasma waves in submicron field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(24), 4637–4639 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. Astafiev, S. Komiyama, T. Kutsuwa, V. Antonov, Y. Kawaguchi, and K. Hirakawa, “Single-photon detector in the microwave range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(22), 4250–4252 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

J. Kawamura, C.-Y. E. Tong, R. Blundell, D. C. Papa, T. R. Hunter, F. Patt, G. Gol'tsman, and E. Gershenzon, “Terahertz-frequency waveguide NbN hot-electron bolometer mixer,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 11(1), 952–954 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

S. Komiyama, O. Astafiev, V. Antonov, T. Kutsuwa, and H. Hirai, “A single-photon detector in the far-infrared range,” Nature 403(6768), 405–407 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

R. A. Wyss, C. C. Eugster, J. A. del Alamo, Q. Hu, M. J. Rooks, and M. R. Melloch, “Far-infrared radiation-induced thermopower in a quantum point contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(9), 1144–1146 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Arnone, J. E. F. Frost, C. G. Smith, D. A. Ritchie, G. A. C. Jones, R. J. Butcher, and M. Pepper, “Effect of terahertz irradiation on ballistic transport through one-dimensional quantum point contacts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(23), 3149–3151 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

T. J. Janssen, J. C. Maan, J. Singleton, N. K. Patel, M. Pepper, J. E. Frost, D. A. Ritchie, and G. A. C. Jones, “A new mechanism for high-frequency rectification in a ballistic quantum point contact,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 6(13), L163–L168 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. Karadi, S. Jauhar, L. P. Kouwenhoven, K. Wald, J. Orenstein, P. L. McEuen, Y. Nagamune, and H. Sakaki, “Dynamic response of a quantum point contact,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11(12), 2566–2571 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

R. A. Wyss, C. C. Eugster, J. A. del Alamo, and Q. Hu, “Far-infrared photon-induced current in a quantum point contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(11), 1522–1524 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1989

L. P. Kouwenhoven, B. J. van Wees, C. J. P. M. Harmans, J. G. Williamson, H. van Houten, C. W. J. Beenakker, C. T. Foxon, and J. J. Harris, “Nonlinear conductance of quantum point contacts,” Phys. Rev. B 39(11), 8040–8043 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Aizin, G. R.

G. C. Dyer, J. P. Crossno, G. R. Aizin, E. A. Shaner, M. C. Wanke, J. L. Reno, and S. J. Allen, “A plasmonic terahertz detector with a monolithic hot electron bolometer,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(19), 195803 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Song, N. A. Kabir, Y. Kawano, K. Ishibashi, G. R. Aizin, L. Mourokh, J. L. Reno, A. G. Markelz, and J. P. Bird, “Terahertz response of quantum point contacts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 223115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Allen, S. J.

G. C. Dyer, J. P. Crossno, G. R. Aizin, E. A. Shaner, M. C. Wanke, J. L. Reno, and S. J. Allen, “A plasmonic terahertz detector with a monolithic hot electron bolometer,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(19), 195803 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Shaner, M. C. Wanke, A. D. Grine, S. K. Lyo, J. L. Reno, and S. J. Allen, “Enhanced responsivity in membrane isolated split- grating-gate plasmonic terahertz detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 181127 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Shaner, M. Lee, M. C. Wanke, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, and S. J. Allen, “Single-quantum-well grating-gated terahertz plasmon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(19), 193507 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. G. Peralta, S. J. Allen, M. C. Wanke, N. E. Harff, J. A. Simmons, M. P. Lilly, J. L. Reno, P. J. Burke, and J. P. Eisenstein, “Terahertz photoconductivity and plasmon modes in double-quantum-well field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(9), 1627–1629 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Antonov, V.

H. Hashiba, V. Antonov, L. Kulik, S. Komiyama, and C. Stanley, “Highly sensitive detector for submillimeter wavelength range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(24), 6036–6038 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O. Astafiev, S. Komiyama, T. Kutsuwa, V. Antonov, Y. Kawaguchi, and K. Hirakawa, “Single-photon detector in the microwave range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(22), 4250–4252 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Komiyama, O. Astafiev, V. Antonov, T. Kutsuwa, and H. Hirai, “A single-photon detector in the far-infrared range,” Nature 403(6768), 405–407 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arnone, D. D.

D. D. Arnone, J. E. F. Frost, C. G. Smith, D. A. Ritchie, G. A. C. Jones, R. J. Butcher, and M. Pepper, “Effect of terahertz irradiation on ballistic transport through one-dimensional quantum point contacts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(23), 3149–3151 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Astafiev, O.

O. Astafiev, S. Komiyama, T. Kutsuwa, V. Antonov, Y. Kawaguchi, and K. Hirakawa, “Single-photon detector in the microwave range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(22), 4250–4252 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Komiyama, O. Astafiev, V. Antonov, T. Kutsuwa, and H. Hirai, “A single-photon detector in the far-infrared range,” Nature 403(6768), 405–407 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beenakker, C. W. J.

L. P. Kouwenhoven, B. J. van Wees, C. J. P. M. Harmans, J. G. Williamson, H. van Houten, C. W. J. Beenakker, C. T. Foxon, and J. J. Harris, “Nonlinear conductance of quantum point contacts,” Phys. Rev. B 39(11), 8040–8043 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Bird, J. P.

J. W. Song, N. A. Kabir, Y. Kawano, K. Ishibashi, G. R. Aizin, L. Mourokh, J. L. Reno, A. G. Markelz, and J. P. Bird, “Terahertz response of quantum point contacts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 223115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Blundell, R.

J. Kawamura, C.-Y. E. Tong, R. Blundell, D. C. Papa, T. R. Hunter, F. Patt, G. Gol'tsman, and E. Gershenzon, “Terahertz-frequency waveguide NbN hot-electron bolometer mixer,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 11(1), 952–954 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brunel, L. C.

W. Knap, Y. Deng, S. Rumyantsev, J.-Q. Lu, M. S. Shur, C. A. Saylor, and L. C. Brunel, “Resonant detection of subterahertz radiation by plasma waves in a submicron field-effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(18), 3433–3435 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Burke, P. J.

X. G. Peralta, S. J. Allen, M. C. Wanke, N. E. Harff, J. A. Simmons, M. P. Lilly, J. L. Reno, P. J. Burke, and J. P. Eisenstein, “Terahertz photoconductivity and plasmon modes in double-quantum-well field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(9), 1627–1629 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Butcher, R. J.

D. D. Arnone, J. E. F. Frost, C. G. Smith, D. A. Ritchie, G. A. C. Jones, R. J. Butcher, and M. Pepper, “Effect of terahertz irradiation on ballistic transport through one-dimensional quantum point contacts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(23), 3149–3151 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S. S.

M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano-slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Crossno, J. P.

G. C. Dyer, J. P. Crossno, G. R. Aizin, E. A. Shaner, M. C. Wanke, J. L. Reno, and S. J. Allen, “A plasmonic terahertz detector with a monolithic hot electron bolometer,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(19), 195803 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davies, J. H.

M. Pioro-Ladrière, J. H. Davies, A. R. Long, A. S. Sachrajda, L. Gaudreau, P. Zawadzki, J. Lapointe, J. Gupta, Z. Wasilewski, and S. Studenikin, “Origin of switching noise in GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs lateral gated devices,” Phys. Rev. B 72(11), 115331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

del Alamo, J. A.

R. A. Wyss, C. C. Eugster, J. A. del Alamo, Q. Hu, M. J. Rooks, and M. R. Melloch, “Far-infrared radiation-induced thermopower in a quantum point contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(9), 1144–1146 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Wyss, C. C. Eugster, J. A. del Alamo, and Q. Hu, “Far-infrared photon-induced current in a quantum point contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(11), 1522–1524 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Deng, Y.

W. Knap, Y. Deng, S. Rumyantsev, J.-Q. Lu, M. S. Shur, C. A. Saylor, and L. C. Brunel, “Resonant detection of subterahertz radiation by plasma waves in a submicron field-effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(18), 3433–3435 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Knap, Y. Deng, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Resonant detection of subterahertz and terahertz radiation by plasma waves in submicron field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(24), 4637–4639 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dmitriev, A. P.

F. Teppe, W. Knap, D. Veksler, M. S. Shur, A. P. Dmitriev, V. Yu. Kachorovskii, and S. Rumyantsev, “Room-temperature plasma waves resonant detection of sub-terahertz radiation by nanometer field-effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(5), 052107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dyer, G. C.

G. C. Dyer, J. P. Crossno, G. R. Aizin, E. A. Shaner, M. C. Wanke, J. L. Reno, and S. J. Allen, “A plasmonic terahertz detector with a monolithic hot electron bolometer,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(19), 195803 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eisenstein, J. P.

X. G. Peralta, S. J. Allen, M. C. Wanke, N. E. Harff, J. A. Simmons, M. P. Lilly, J. L. Reno, P. J. Burke, and J. P. Eisenstein, “Terahertz photoconductivity and plasmon modes in double-quantum-well field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(9), 1627–1629 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Eugster, C. C.

R. A. Wyss, C. C. Eugster, J. A. del Alamo, Q. Hu, M. J. Rooks, and M. R. Melloch, “Far-infrared radiation-induced thermopower in a quantum point contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(9), 1144–1146 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Wyss, C. C. Eugster, J. A. del Alamo, and Q. Hu, “Far-infrared photon-induced current in a quantum point contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(11), 1522–1524 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Foxon, C. T.

L. P. Kouwenhoven, B. J. van Wees, C. J. P. M. Harmans, J. G. Williamson, H. van Houten, C. W. J. Beenakker, C. T. Foxon, and J. J. Harris, “Nonlinear conductance of quantum point contacts,” Phys. Rev. B 39(11), 8040–8043 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Frost, J. E.

T. J. Janssen, J. C. Maan, J. Singleton, N. K. Patel, M. Pepper, J. E. Frost, D. A. Ritchie, and G. A. C. Jones, “A new mechanism for high-frequency rectification in a ballistic quantum point contact,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 6(13), L163–L168 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Frost, J. E. F.

D. D. Arnone, J. E. F. Frost, C. G. Smith, D. A. Ritchie, G. A. C. Jones, R. J. Butcher, and M. Pepper, “Effect of terahertz irradiation on ballistic transport through one-dimensional quantum point contacts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(23), 3149–3151 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gaudreau, L.

M. Pioro-Ladrière, J. H. Davies, A. R. Long, A. S. Sachrajda, L. Gaudreau, P. Zawadzki, J. Lapointe, J. Gupta, Z. Wasilewski, and S. Studenikin, “Origin of switching noise in GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs lateral gated devices,” Phys. Rev. B 72(11), 115331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gerecht, E.

F. Rodriguez-Morales, K. S. Yngvesson, R. Zannoni, E. Gerecht, D. Gu, X. Zhao, N. Wadefalk, and J. J. Nicholson, “Development of integrated HEB/MMIC receivers for near-range terahertz imaging,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54(6), 2301–2311 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gershenson, M. E.

J. Wei, D. Olaya, B. S. Karasik, S. V. Pereverzev, A. V. Sergeev, and M. E. Gershenson, “Ultrasensitive hot-electron nanobolometers for terahertz astrophysics,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gershenzon, E.

J. Kawamura, C.-Y. E. Tong, R. Blundell, D. C. Papa, T. R. Hunter, F. Patt, G. Gol'tsman, and E. Gershenzon, “Terahertz-frequency waveguide NbN hot-electron bolometer mixer,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 11(1), 952–954 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gol'tsman, G.

J. Kawamura, C.-Y. E. Tong, R. Blundell, D. C. Papa, T. R. Hunter, F. Patt, G. Gol'tsman, and E. Gershenzon, “Terahertz-frequency waveguide NbN hot-electron bolometer mixer,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 11(1), 952–954 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Grine, A. D.

E. A. Shaner, M. C. Wanke, A. D. Grine, S. K. Lyo, J. L. Reno, and S. J. Allen, “Enhanced responsivity in membrane isolated split- grating-gate plasmonic terahertz detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 181127 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Shaner, M. Lee, M. C. Wanke, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, and S. J. Allen, “Single-quantum-well grating-gated terahertz plasmon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(19), 193507 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gu, D.

F. Rodriguez-Morales, K. S. Yngvesson, R. Zannoni, E. Gerecht, D. Gu, X. Zhao, N. Wadefalk, and J. J. Nicholson, “Development of integrated HEB/MMIC receivers for near-range terahertz imaging,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54(6), 2301–2311 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, J.

M. Pioro-Ladrière, J. H. Davies, A. R. Long, A. S. Sachrajda, L. Gaudreau, P. Zawadzki, J. Lapointe, J. Gupta, Z. Wasilewski, and S. Studenikin, “Origin of switching noise in GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs lateral gated devices,” Phys. Rev. B 72(11), 115331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Harff, N. E.

X. G. Peralta, S. J. Allen, M. C. Wanke, N. E. Harff, J. A. Simmons, M. P. Lilly, J. L. Reno, P. J. Burke, and J. P. Eisenstein, “Terahertz photoconductivity and plasmon modes in double-quantum-well field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(9), 1627–1629 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Harmans, C. J. P. M.

L. P. Kouwenhoven, B. J. van Wees, C. J. P. M. Harmans, J. G. Williamson, H. van Houten, C. W. J. Beenakker, C. T. Foxon, and J. J. Harris, “Nonlinear conductance of quantum point contacts,” Phys. Rev. B 39(11), 8040–8043 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Harris, J. J.

L. P. Kouwenhoven, B. J. van Wees, C. J. P. M. Harmans, J. G. Williamson, H. van Houten, C. W. J. Beenakker, C. T. Foxon, and J. J. Harris, “Nonlinear conductance of quantum point contacts,” Phys. Rev. B 39(11), 8040–8043 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hashiba, H.

H. Hashiba, V. Antonov, L. Kulik, S. Komiyama, and C. Stanley, “Highly sensitive detector for submillimeter wavelength range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(24), 6036–6038 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hirai, H.

S. Komiyama, O. Astafiev, V. Antonov, T. Kutsuwa, and H. Hirai, “A single-photon detector in the far-infrared range,” Nature 403(6768), 405–407 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hirakawa, K.

O. Astafiev, S. Komiyama, T. Kutsuwa, V. Antonov, Y. Kawaguchi, and K. Hirakawa, “Single-photon detector in the microwave range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(22), 4250–4252 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Q.

R. A. Wyss, C. C. Eugster, J. A. del Alamo, Q. Hu, M. J. Rooks, and M. R. Melloch, “Far-infrared radiation-induced thermopower in a quantum point contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(9), 1144–1146 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Wyss, C. C. Eugster, J. A. del Alamo, and Q. Hu, “Far-infrared photon-induced current in a quantum point contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(11), 1522–1524 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hunter, T. R.

J. Kawamura, C.-Y. E. Tong, R. Blundell, D. C. Papa, T. R. Hunter, F. Patt, G. Gol'tsman, and E. Gershenzon, “Terahertz-frequency waveguide NbN hot-electron bolometer mixer,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 11(1), 952–954 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ishibashi, K.

J. W. Song, N. A. Kabir, Y. Kawano, K. Ishibashi, G. R. Aizin, L. Mourokh, J. L. Reno, A. G. Markelz, and J. P. Bird, “Terahertz response of quantum point contacts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 223115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kawano and K. Ishibashi, “An on-chip near-field terahertz probe and detector,” Nat. Photonics 2(10), 618–621 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Janssen, T. J.

T. J. Janssen, J. C. Maan, J. Singleton, N. K. Patel, M. Pepper, J. E. Frost, D. A. Ritchie, and G. A. C. Jones, “A new mechanism for high-frequency rectification in a ballistic quantum point contact,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 6(13), L163–L168 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jauhar, S.

Jones, G. A. C.

D. D. Arnone, J. E. F. Frost, C. G. Smith, D. A. Ritchie, G. A. C. Jones, R. J. Butcher, and M. Pepper, “Effect of terahertz irradiation on ballistic transport through one-dimensional quantum point contacts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(23), 3149–3151 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Janssen, J. C. Maan, J. Singleton, N. K. Patel, M. Pepper, J. E. Frost, D. A. Ritchie, and G. A. C. Jones, “A new mechanism for high-frequency rectification in a ballistic quantum point contact,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 6(13), L163–L168 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kabir, N. A.

J. W. Song, N. A. Kabir, Y. Kawano, K. Ishibashi, G. R. Aizin, L. Mourokh, J. L. Reno, A. G. Markelz, and J. P. Bird, “Terahertz response of quantum point contacts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 223115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kachorovskii, V. Yu.

F. Teppe, W. Knap, D. Veksler, M. S. Shur, A. P. Dmitriev, V. Yu. Kachorovskii, and S. Rumyantsev, “Room-temperature plasma waves resonant detection of sub-terahertz radiation by nanometer field-effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(5), 052107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J. H.

M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano-slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Karadi, C.

Karasik, B. S.

J. Wei, D. Olaya, B. S. Karasik, S. V. Pereverzev, A. V. Sergeev, and M. E. Gershenson, “Ultrasensitive hot-electron nanobolometers for terahertz astrophysics,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawaguchi, Y.

O. Astafiev, S. Komiyama, T. Kutsuwa, V. Antonov, Y. Kawaguchi, and K. Hirakawa, “Single-photon detector in the microwave range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(22), 4250–4252 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kawamura, J.

J. Kawamura, C.-Y. E. Tong, R. Blundell, D. C. Papa, T. R. Hunter, F. Patt, G. Gol'tsman, and E. Gershenzon, “Terahertz-frequency waveguide NbN hot-electron bolometer mixer,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 11(1), 952–954 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kawano, Y.

J. W. Song, N. A. Kabir, Y. Kawano, K. Ishibashi, G. R. Aizin, L. Mourokh, J. L. Reno, A. G. Markelz, and J. P. Bird, “Terahertz response of quantum point contacts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 223115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kawano and K. Ishibashi, “An on-chip near-field terahertz probe and detector,” Nat. Photonics 2(10), 618–621 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. S.

M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano-slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Knap, W.

F. Teppe, W. Knap, D. Veksler, M. S. Shur, A. P. Dmitriev, V. Yu. Kachorovskii, and S. Rumyantsev, “Room-temperature plasma waves resonant detection of sub-terahertz radiation by nanometer field-effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(5), 052107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Knap, Y. Deng, S. Rumyantsev, J.-Q. Lu, M. S. Shur, C. A. Saylor, and L. C. Brunel, “Resonant detection of subterahertz radiation by plasma waves in a submicron field-effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(18), 3433–3435 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Knap, Y. Deng, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Resonant detection of subterahertz and terahertz radiation by plasma waves in submicron field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(24), 4637–4639 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Komiyama, S.

H. Hashiba, V. Antonov, L. Kulik, S. Komiyama, and C. Stanley, “Highly sensitive detector for submillimeter wavelength range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(24), 6036–6038 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O. Astafiev, S. Komiyama, T. Kutsuwa, V. Antonov, Y. Kawaguchi, and K. Hirakawa, “Single-photon detector in the microwave range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(22), 4250–4252 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Komiyama, O. Astafiev, V. Antonov, T. Kutsuwa, and H. Hirai, “A single-photon detector in the far-infrared range,” Nature 403(6768), 405–407 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koo, S. M.

M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano-slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kouwenhoven, L. P.

C. Karadi, S. Jauhar, L. P. Kouwenhoven, K. Wald, J. Orenstein, P. L. McEuen, Y. Nagamune, and H. Sakaki, “Dynamic response of a quantum point contact,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11(12), 2566–2571 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. P. Kouwenhoven, B. J. van Wees, C. J. P. M. Harmans, J. G. Williamson, H. van Houten, C. W. J. Beenakker, C. T. Foxon, and J. J. Harris, “Nonlinear conductance of quantum point contacts,” Phys. Rev. B 39(11), 8040–8043 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kulik, L.

H. Hashiba, V. Antonov, L. Kulik, S. Komiyama, and C. Stanley, “Highly sensitive detector for submillimeter wavelength range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(24), 6036–6038 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kutsuwa, T.

O. Astafiev, S. Komiyama, T. Kutsuwa, V. Antonov, Y. Kawaguchi, and K. Hirakawa, “Single-photon detector in the microwave range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(22), 4250–4252 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Komiyama, O. Astafiev, V. Antonov, T. Kutsuwa, and H. Hirai, “A single-photon detector in the far-infrared range,” Nature 403(6768), 405–407 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lapointe, J.

M. Pioro-Ladrière, J. H. Davies, A. R. Long, A. S. Sachrajda, L. Gaudreau, P. Zawadzki, J. Lapointe, J. Gupta, Z. Wasilewski, and S. Studenikin, “Origin of switching noise in GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs lateral gated devices,” Phys. Rev. B 72(11), 115331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.

M. Lee, M. C. Wanke, and J. L. Reno, “Millimeter wave mixing using plasmon and bolometric response in a double-quantum-well field-effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 033501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Shaner, M. Lee, M. C. Wanke, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, and S. J. Allen, “Single-quantum-well grating-gated terahertz plasmon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(19), 193507 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lilly, M. P.

X. G. Peralta, S. J. Allen, M. C. Wanke, N. E. Harff, J. A. Simmons, M. P. Lilly, J. L. Reno, P. J. Burke, and J. P. Eisenstein, “Terahertz photoconductivity and plasmon modes in double-quantum-well field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(9), 1627–1629 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Long, A. R.

M. Pioro-Ladrière, J. H. Davies, A. R. Long, A. S. Sachrajda, L. Gaudreau, P. Zawadzki, J. Lapointe, J. Gupta, Z. Wasilewski, and S. Studenikin, “Origin of switching noise in GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs lateral gated devices,” Phys. Rev. B 72(11), 115331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lu, J.-Q.

W. Knap, Y. Deng, S. Rumyantsev, J.-Q. Lu, M. S. Shur, C. A. Saylor, and L. C. Brunel, “Resonant detection of subterahertz radiation by plasma waves in a submicron field-effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(18), 3433–3435 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lyo, S. K.

E. A. Shaner, M. C. Wanke, A. D. Grine, S. K. Lyo, J. L. Reno, and S. J. Allen, “Enhanced responsivity in membrane isolated split- grating-gate plasmonic terahertz detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 181127 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Maan, J. C.

T. J. Janssen, J. C. Maan, J. Singleton, N. K. Patel, M. Pepper, J. E. Frost, D. A. Ritchie, and G. A. C. Jones, “A new mechanism for high-frequency rectification in a ballistic quantum point contact,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 6(13), L163–L168 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Markelz, A. G.

J. W. Song, N. A. Kabir, Y. Kawano, K. Ishibashi, G. R. Aizin, L. Mourokh, J. L. Reno, A. G. Markelz, and J. P. Bird, “Terahertz response of quantum point contacts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 223115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

McEuen, P. L.

Melloch, M. R.

R. A. Wyss, C. C. Eugster, J. A. del Alamo, Q. Hu, M. J. Rooks, and M. R. Melloch, “Far-infrared radiation-induced thermopower in a quantum point contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(9), 1144–1146 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mourokh, L.

J. W. Song, N. A. Kabir, Y. Kawano, K. Ishibashi, G. R. Aizin, L. Mourokh, J. L. Reno, A. G. Markelz, and J. P. Bird, “Terahertz response of quantum point contacts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 223115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nagamune, Y.

Nicholson, J. J.

F. Rodriguez-Morales, K. S. Yngvesson, R. Zannoni, E. Gerecht, D. Gu, X. Zhao, N. Wadefalk, and J. J. Nicholson, “Development of integrated HEB/MMIC receivers for near-range terahertz imaging,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54(6), 2301–2311 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Olaya, D.

J. Wei, D. Olaya, B. S. Karasik, S. V. Pereverzev, A. V. Sergeev, and M. E. Gershenson, “Ultrasensitive hot-electron nanobolometers for terahertz astrophysics,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Orenstein, J.

Papa, D. C.

J. Kawamura, C.-Y. E. Tong, R. Blundell, D. C. Papa, T. R. Hunter, F. Patt, G. Gol'tsman, and E. Gershenzon, “Terahertz-frequency waveguide NbN hot-electron bolometer mixer,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 11(1), 952–954 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Park, D. J.

M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano-slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, G. S.

M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano-slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, H. R.

M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano-slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, N. K.

M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano-slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, Q. H.

M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano-slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Patel, N. K.

T. J. Janssen, J. C. Maan, J. Singleton, N. K. Patel, M. Pepper, J. E. Frost, D. A. Ritchie, and G. A. C. Jones, “A new mechanism for high-frequency rectification in a ballistic quantum point contact,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 6(13), L163–L168 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Patt, F.

J. Kawamura, C.-Y. E. Tong, R. Blundell, D. C. Papa, T. R. Hunter, F. Patt, G. Gol'tsman, and E. Gershenzon, “Terahertz-frequency waveguide NbN hot-electron bolometer mixer,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 11(1), 952–954 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pepper, M.

D. D. Arnone, J. E. F. Frost, C. G. Smith, D. A. Ritchie, G. A. C. Jones, R. J. Butcher, and M. Pepper, “Effect of terahertz irradiation on ballistic transport through one-dimensional quantum point contacts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(23), 3149–3151 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Janssen, J. C. Maan, J. Singleton, N. K. Patel, M. Pepper, J. E. Frost, D. A. Ritchie, and G. A. C. Jones, “A new mechanism for high-frequency rectification in a ballistic quantum point contact,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 6(13), L163–L168 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Peralta, X. G.

X. G. Peralta, S. J. Allen, M. C. Wanke, N. E. Harff, J. A. Simmons, M. P. Lilly, J. L. Reno, P. J. Burke, and J. P. Eisenstein, “Terahertz photoconductivity and plasmon modes in double-quantum-well field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(9), 1627–1629 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pereverzev, S. V.

J. Wei, D. Olaya, B. S. Karasik, S. V. Pereverzev, A. V. Sergeev, and M. E. Gershenson, “Ultrasensitive hot-electron nanobolometers for terahertz astrophysics,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pioro-Ladrière, M.

M. Pioro-Ladrière, J. H. Davies, A. R. Long, A. S. Sachrajda, L. Gaudreau, P. Zawadzki, J. Lapointe, J. Gupta, Z. Wasilewski, and S. Studenikin, “Origin of switching noise in GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs lateral gated devices,” Phys. Rev. B 72(11), 115331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Planken, P. C. M.

M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano-slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Reno, J. L.

G. C. Dyer, J. P. Crossno, G. R. Aizin, E. A. Shaner, M. C. Wanke, J. L. Reno, and S. J. Allen, “A plasmonic terahertz detector with a monolithic hot electron bolometer,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(19), 195803 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Song, N. A. Kabir, Y. Kawano, K. Ishibashi, G. R. Aizin, L. Mourokh, J. L. Reno, A. G. Markelz, and J. P. Bird, “Terahertz response of quantum point contacts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 223115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Shaner, M. C. Wanke, A. D. Grine, S. K. Lyo, J. L. Reno, and S. J. Allen, “Enhanced responsivity in membrane isolated split- grating-gate plasmonic terahertz detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 181127 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Lee, M. C. Wanke, and J. L. Reno, “Millimeter wave mixing using plasmon and bolometric response in a double-quantum-well field-effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 033501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Shaner, M. Lee, M. C. Wanke, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, and S. J. Allen, “Single-quantum-well grating-gated terahertz plasmon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(19), 193507 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. G. Peralta, S. J. Allen, M. C. Wanke, N. E. Harff, J. A. Simmons, M. P. Lilly, J. L. Reno, P. J. Burke, and J. P. Eisenstein, “Terahertz photoconductivity and plasmon modes in double-quantum-well field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(9), 1627–1629 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, D. A.

D. D. Arnone, J. E. F. Frost, C. G. Smith, D. A. Ritchie, G. A. C. Jones, R. J. Butcher, and M. Pepper, “Effect of terahertz irradiation on ballistic transport through one-dimensional quantum point contacts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(23), 3149–3151 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Janssen, J. C. Maan, J. Singleton, N. K. Patel, M. Pepper, J. E. Frost, D. A. Ritchie, and G. A. C. Jones, “A new mechanism for high-frequency rectification in a ballistic quantum point contact,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 6(13), L163–L168 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez-Morales, F.

F. Rodriguez-Morales, K. S. Yngvesson, R. Zannoni, E. Gerecht, D. Gu, X. Zhao, N. Wadefalk, and J. J. Nicholson, “Development of integrated HEB/MMIC receivers for near-range terahertz imaging,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54(6), 2301–2311 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rooks, M. J.

R. A. Wyss, C. C. Eugster, J. A. del Alamo, Q. Hu, M. J. Rooks, and M. R. Melloch, “Far-infrared radiation-induced thermopower in a quantum point contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(9), 1144–1146 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rumyantsev, S.

F. Teppe, W. Knap, D. Veksler, M. S. Shur, A. P. Dmitriev, V. Yu. Kachorovskii, and S. Rumyantsev, “Room-temperature plasma waves resonant detection of sub-terahertz radiation by nanometer field-effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(5), 052107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Knap, Y. Deng, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Resonant detection of subterahertz and terahertz radiation by plasma waves in submicron field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(24), 4637–4639 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Knap, Y. Deng, S. Rumyantsev, J.-Q. Lu, M. S. Shur, C. A. Saylor, and L. C. Brunel, “Resonant detection of subterahertz radiation by plasma waves in a submicron field-effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(18), 3433–3435 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ryzhii, V.

V. Ryzhii and M. S. Shur, “Resonant terahertz detector utilizing plasma oscillations in two-dimensional electron system with lateral Schottky junction,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(42), L1118–L1120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sachrajda, A. S.

M. Pioro-Ladrière, J. H. Davies, A. R. Long, A. S. Sachrajda, L. Gaudreau, P. Zawadzki, J. Lapointe, J. Gupta, Z. Wasilewski, and S. Studenikin, “Origin of switching noise in GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs lateral gated devices,” Phys. Rev. B 72(11), 115331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sakaki, H.

Saylor, C. A.

W. Knap, Y. Deng, S. Rumyantsev, J.-Q. Lu, M. S. Shur, C. A. Saylor, and L. C. Brunel, “Resonant detection of subterahertz radiation by plasma waves in a submicron field-effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(18), 3433–3435 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Seo, M. A.

M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano-slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sergeev, A. V.

J. Wei, D. Olaya, B. S. Karasik, S. V. Pereverzev, A. V. Sergeev, and M. E. Gershenson, “Ultrasensitive hot-electron nanobolometers for terahertz astrophysics,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shaner, E. A.

G. C. Dyer, J. P. Crossno, G. R. Aizin, E. A. Shaner, M. C. Wanke, J. L. Reno, and S. J. Allen, “A plasmonic terahertz detector with a monolithic hot electron bolometer,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(19), 195803 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Shaner, M. C. Wanke, A. D. Grine, S. K. Lyo, J. L. Reno, and S. J. Allen, “Enhanced responsivity in membrane isolated split- grating-gate plasmonic terahertz detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 181127 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Shaner, M. Lee, M. C. Wanke, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, and S. J. Allen, “Single-quantum-well grating-gated terahertz plasmon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(19), 193507 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shur, M. S.

V. Ryzhii and M. S. Shur, “Resonant terahertz detector utilizing plasma oscillations in two-dimensional electron system with lateral Schottky junction,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(42), L1118–L1120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Teppe, W. Knap, D. Veksler, M. S. Shur, A. P. Dmitriev, V. Yu. Kachorovskii, and S. Rumyantsev, “Room-temperature plasma waves resonant detection of sub-terahertz radiation by nanometer field-effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(5), 052107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Knap, Y. Deng, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Resonant detection of subterahertz and terahertz radiation by plasma waves in submicron field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(24), 4637–4639 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Knap, Y. Deng, S. Rumyantsev, J.-Q. Lu, M. S. Shur, C. A. Saylor, and L. C. Brunel, “Resonant detection of subterahertz radiation by plasma waves in a submicron field-effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(18), 3433–3435 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Simmons, J. A.

X. G. Peralta, S. J. Allen, M. C. Wanke, N. E. Harff, J. A. Simmons, M. P. Lilly, J. L. Reno, P. J. Burke, and J. P. Eisenstein, “Terahertz photoconductivity and plasmon modes in double-quantum-well field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(9), 1627–1629 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Singleton, J.

T. J. Janssen, J. C. Maan, J. Singleton, N. K. Patel, M. Pepper, J. E. Frost, D. A. Ritchie, and G. A. C. Jones, “A new mechanism for high-frequency rectification in a ballistic quantum point contact,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 6(13), L163–L168 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Smith, C. G.

D. D. Arnone, J. E. F. Frost, C. G. Smith, D. A. Ritchie, G. A. C. Jones, R. J. Butcher, and M. Pepper, “Effect of terahertz irradiation on ballistic transport through one-dimensional quantum point contacts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(23), 3149–3151 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Song, J. W.

J. W. Song, N. A. Kabir, Y. Kawano, K. Ishibashi, G. R. Aizin, L. Mourokh, J. L. Reno, A. G. Markelz, and J. P. Bird, “Terahertz response of quantum point contacts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 223115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stanley, C.

H. Hashiba, V. Antonov, L. Kulik, S. Komiyama, and C. Stanley, “Highly sensitive detector for submillimeter wavelength range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(24), 6036–6038 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Studenikin, S.

M. Pioro-Ladrière, J. H. Davies, A. R. Long, A. S. Sachrajda, L. Gaudreau, P. Zawadzki, J. Lapointe, J. Gupta, Z. Wasilewski, and S. Studenikin, “Origin of switching noise in GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs lateral gated devices,” Phys. Rev. B 72(11), 115331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Suwal, O. K.

M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano-slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Teppe, F.

F. Teppe, W. Knap, D. Veksler, M. S. Shur, A. P. Dmitriev, V. Yu. Kachorovskii, and S. Rumyantsev, “Room-temperature plasma waves resonant detection of sub-terahertz radiation by nanometer field-effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(5), 052107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tong, C.-Y. E.

J. Kawamura, C.-Y. E. Tong, R. Blundell, D. C. Papa, T. R. Hunter, F. Patt, G. Gol'tsman, and E. Gershenzon, “Terahertz-frequency waveguide NbN hot-electron bolometer mixer,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 11(1), 952–954 (2001).
[CrossRef]

van Houten, H.

L. P. Kouwenhoven, B. J. van Wees, C. J. P. M. Harmans, J. G. Williamson, H. van Houten, C. W. J. Beenakker, C. T. Foxon, and J. J. Harris, “Nonlinear conductance of quantum point contacts,” Phys. Rev. B 39(11), 8040–8043 (1989).
[CrossRef]

van Wees, B. J.

L. P. Kouwenhoven, B. J. van Wees, C. J. P. M. Harmans, J. G. Williamson, H. van Houten, C. W. J. Beenakker, C. T. Foxon, and J. J. Harris, “Nonlinear conductance of quantum point contacts,” Phys. Rev. B 39(11), 8040–8043 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Veksler, D.

F. Teppe, W. Knap, D. Veksler, M. S. Shur, A. P. Dmitriev, V. Yu. Kachorovskii, and S. Rumyantsev, “Room-temperature plasma waves resonant detection of sub-terahertz radiation by nanometer field-effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(5), 052107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wadefalk, N.

F. Rodriguez-Morales, K. S. Yngvesson, R. Zannoni, E. Gerecht, D. Gu, X. Zhao, N. Wadefalk, and J. J. Nicholson, “Development of integrated HEB/MMIC receivers for near-range terahertz imaging,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54(6), 2301–2311 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wald, K.

Wanke, M. C.

G. C. Dyer, J. P. Crossno, G. R. Aizin, E. A. Shaner, M. C. Wanke, J. L. Reno, and S. J. Allen, “A plasmonic terahertz detector with a monolithic hot electron bolometer,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(19), 195803 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Shaner, M. C. Wanke, A. D. Grine, S. K. Lyo, J. L. Reno, and S. J. Allen, “Enhanced responsivity in membrane isolated split- grating-gate plasmonic terahertz detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 181127 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Lee, M. C. Wanke, and J. L. Reno, “Millimeter wave mixing using plasmon and bolometric response in a double-quantum-well field-effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 033501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Shaner, M. Lee, M. C. Wanke, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, and S. J. Allen, “Single-quantum-well grating-gated terahertz plasmon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(19), 193507 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. G. Peralta, S. J. Allen, M. C. Wanke, N. E. Harff, J. A. Simmons, M. P. Lilly, J. L. Reno, P. J. Burke, and J. P. Eisenstein, “Terahertz photoconductivity and plasmon modes in double-quantum-well field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(9), 1627–1629 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wasilewski, Z.

M. Pioro-Ladrière, J. H. Davies, A. R. Long, A. S. Sachrajda, L. Gaudreau, P. Zawadzki, J. Lapointe, J. Gupta, Z. Wasilewski, and S. Studenikin, “Origin of switching noise in GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs lateral gated devices,” Phys. Rev. B 72(11), 115331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wei, J.

J. Wei, D. Olaya, B. S. Karasik, S. V. Pereverzev, A. V. Sergeev, and M. E. Gershenson, “Ultrasensitive hot-electron nanobolometers for terahertz astrophysics,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williamson, J. G.

L. P. Kouwenhoven, B. J. van Wees, C. J. P. M. Harmans, J. G. Williamson, H. van Houten, C. W. J. Beenakker, C. T. Foxon, and J. J. Harris, “Nonlinear conductance of quantum point contacts,” Phys. Rev. B 39(11), 8040–8043 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Wyss, R. A.

R. A. Wyss, C. C. Eugster, J. A. del Alamo, Q. Hu, M. J. Rooks, and M. R. Melloch, “Far-infrared radiation-induced thermopower in a quantum point contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(9), 1144–1146 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Wyss, C. C. Eugster, J. A. del Alamo, and Q. Hu, “Far-infrared photon-induced current in a quantum point contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(11), 1522–1524 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yngvesson, K. S.

F. Rodriguez-Morales, K. S. Yngvesson, R. Zannoni, E. Gerecht, D. Gu, X. Zhao, N. Wadefalk, and J. J. Nicholson, “Development of integrated HEB/MMIC receivers for near-range terahertz imaging,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54(6), 2301–2311 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zannoni, R.

F. Rodriguez-Morales, K. S. Yngvesson, R. Zannoni, E. Gerecht, D. Gu, X. Zhao, N. Wadefalk, and J. J. Nicholson, “Development of integrated HEB/MMIC receivers for near-range terahertz imaging,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54(6), 2301–2311 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zawadzki, P.

M. Pioro-Ladrière, J. H. Davies, A. R. Long, A. S. Sachrajda, L. Gaudreau, P. Zawadzki, J. Lapointe, J. Gupta, Z. Wasilewski, and S. Studenikin, “Origin of switching noise in GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs lateral gated devices,” Phys. Rev. B 72(11), 115331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, X.

F. Rodriguez-Morales, K. S. Yngvesson, R. Zannoni, E. Gerecht, D. Gu, X. Zhao, N. Wadefalk, and J. J. Nicholson, “Development of integrated HEB/MMIC receivers for near-range terahertz imaging,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54(6), 2301–2311 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

X. G. Peralta, S. J. Allen, M. C. Wanke, N. E. Harff, J. A. Simmons, M. P. Lilly, J. L. Reno, P. J. Burke, and J. P. Eisenstein, “Terahertz photoconductivity and plasmon modes in double-quantum-well field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(9), 1627–1629 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Knap, Y. Deng, S. Rumyantsev, J.-Q. Lu, M. S. Shur, C. A. Saylor, and L. C. Brunel, “Resonant detection of subterahertz radiation by plasma waves in a submicron field-effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(18), 3433–3435 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Knap, Y. Deng, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Resonant detection of subterahertz and terahertz radiation by plasma waves in submicron field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(24), 4637–4639 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Lee, M. C. Wanke, and J. L. Reno, “Millimeter wave mixing using plasmon and bolometric response in a double-quantum-well field-effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 033501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Shaner, M. Lee, M. C. Wanke, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, and S. J. Allen, “Single-quantum-well grating-gated terahertz plasmon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(19), 193507 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Teppe, W. Knap, D. Veksler, M. S. Shur, A. P. Dmitriev, V. Yu. Kachorovskii, and S. Rumyantsev, “Room-temperature plasma waves resonant detection of sub-terahertz radiation by nanometer field-effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(5), 052107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O. Astafiev, S. Komiyama, T. Kutsuwa, V. Antonov, Y. Kawaguchi, and K. Hirakawa, “Single-photon detector in the microwave range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(22), 4250–4252 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Hashiba, V. Antonov, L. Kulik, S. Komiyama, and C. Stanley, “Highly sensitive detector for submillimeter wavelength range,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(24), 6036–6038 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Song, N. A. Kabir, Y. Kawano, K. Ishibashi, G. R. Aizin, L. Mourokh, J. L. Reno, A. G. Markelz, and J. P. Bird, “Terahertz response of quantum point contacts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 223115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Wyss, C. C. Eugster, J. A. del Alamo, and Q. Hu, “Far-infrared photon-induced current in a quantum point contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(11), 1522–1524 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Shaner, M. C. Wanke, A. D. Grine, S. K. Lyo, J. L. Reno, and S. J. Allen, “Enhanced responsivity in membrane isolated split- grating-gate plasmonic terahertz detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 181127 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Wyss, C. C. Eugster, J. A. del Alamo, Q. Hu, M. J. Rooks, and M. R. Melloch, “Far-infrared radiation-induced thermopower in a quantum point contact,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(9), 1144–1146 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. D. Arnone, J. E. F. Frost, C. G. Smith, D. A. Ritchie, G. A. C. Jones, R. J. Butcher, and M. Pepper, “Effect of terahertz irradiation on ballistic transport through one-dimensional quantum point contacts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(23), 3149–3151 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.

J. Kawamura, C.-Y. E. Tong, R. Blundell, D. C. Papa, T. R. Hunter, F. Patt, G. Gol'tsman, and E. Gershenzon, “Terahertz-frequency waveguide NbN hot-electron bolometer mixer,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 11(1), 952–954 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.

F. Rodriguez-Morales, K. S. Yngvesson, R. Zannoni, E. Gerecht, D. Gu, X. Zhao, N. Wadefalk, and J. J. Nicholson, “Development of integrated HEB/MMIC receivers for near-range terahertz imaging,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 54(6), 2301–2311 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. Condens. Matter

G. C. Dyer, J. P. Crossno, G. R. Aizin, E. A. Shaner, M. C. Wanke, J. L. Reno, and S. J. Allen, “A plasmonic terahertz detector with a monolithic hot electron bolometer,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(19), 195803 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Janssen, J. C. Maan, J. Singleton, N. K. Patel, M. Pepper, J. E. Frost, D. A. Ritchie, and G. A. C. Jones, “A new mechanism for high-frequency rectification in a ballistic quantum point contact,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 6(13), L163–L168 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

V. Ryzhii and M. S. Shur, “Resonant terahertz detector utilizing plasma oscillations in two-dimensional electron system with lateral Schottky junction,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(42), L1118–L1120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Nanotechnol.

J. Wei, D. Olaya, B. S. Karasik, S. V. Pereverzev, A. V. Sergeev, and M. E. Gershenson, “Ultrasensitive hot-electron nanobolometers for terahertz astrophysics,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics

Y. Kawano and K. Ishibashi, “An on-chip near-field terahertz probe and detector,” Nat. Photonics 2(10), 618–621 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano-slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature

S. Komiyama, O. Astafiev, V. Antonov, T. Kutsuwa, and H. Hirai, “A single-photon detector in the far-infrared range,” Nature 403(6768), 405–407 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B

M. Pioro-Ladrière, J. H. Davies, A. R. Long, A. S. Sachrajda, L. Gaudreau, P. Zawadzki, J. Lapointe, J. Gupta, Z. Wasilewski, and S. Studenikin, “Origin of switching noise in GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs lateral gated devices,” Phys. Rev. B 72(11), 115331 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. P. Kouwenhoven, B. J. van Wees, C. J. P. M. Harmans, J. G. Williamson, H. van Houten, C. W. J. Beenakker, C. T. Foxon, and J. J. Harris, “Nonlinear conductance of quantum point contacts,” Phys. Rev. B 39(11), 8040–8043 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Other

D. K. Ferry, S. M. Goodnick, and J. P. Bird, Transport in Nanostructures, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K. (2009).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Optical micrograph of the QPC device with integrated bow-tie antenna (BT). The outermost red dotted line indicates the device mesa, which is 300 μm wide and 1 mm long. The inner red dotted line indicates the region where the QPC is formed. (b) QPC conductance and THz response. The right axis plots G QPC(Vg ), both with (black) and without (blue) THz radiation. The left axis plots the change in QPC current induced by THz irradiation, as determined by dynamic sampling at 2.5 K. (c) Static sampling of the QPC conductance for the three different G QPC values indicated as I, II & III in Fig. 1(b). The radiation frequency is 1.4 THz in (b) and (c).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) A comparison of the 2.5-THz-induced current obtained by static (red with open symbols) and dynamic (blue) sampling. In this case we have plotted the QPC conductance, G QPC, on the abscissa, rather than Vg itself. In this way we can clearly see that the THz-induced current oscillates each time the QPC conductance increases by 2e 2/h. (b) The left axis plots the 1.4-THz-induced changes in G QPC (red), while the right axis replots the same data to indicate the maximum sensitivity, ΔG THz/GQPC (blue). The inset plots the variation of G QPC with Vg and the red and blue circles denote the Vg values corresponding to maximum photoconductance (ΔG QPC) and sensitivity (ΔG THz/GQPC ), respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The main panel shows the result of an experiment in which ΔI THz was measured by static sampling for various different laser output powers (indicated). The inset plots the dependence of ΔI THz on laser power on a double-log scale. The dotted line denotes a linear dependence of ΔI THz on power, while the dashed line indicates the value of ΔI THz corresponding to a signal-to-noise ratio of one. (b) The upper panel shows the results of measurements of QPC current for different values of Vsd (indicated). Lines with (without) symbols correspond to the situation without (with) THz-laser excitation. The lower panel shows the THz-induced current change (by dynamic sampling), ΔI THz, for the different Vsd values in the upper panel (not all data points are shown). All measurements were performed for a radiation frequency of 1.4 THz.

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