Abstract

In this paper we present the use of a line focused femtosecond laser beam that is rastered across a 2024 T3 aluminum surface to produce nanoparticles that self assemble into 5-60 micron diameter domed and in some cases sphere-shaped aggregate structures. Each time the laser is rastered over initial aggregates their diameter increases as new layers of nanoparticles self assemble on the surface. The aggregates are thus composed of layers of particles forming discrete layered shells inside of them. When micron size aggregates are removed, using an ultrasonic bath, rings are revealed that have been permanently formed in the sample surface. These rings appear underneath, and extend beyond the physical boundary of the aggregates. The surface is blackened by the formation of these structures and exhibits high light absorption.

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  1. N. Singh, D. R. Alexander, J. Schiffern, and D. Doerr, “Femtosecond laser production of metal surfaces having unique surface structures that are broadband absorbers,” J. Laser Appl. 18(3), 242–244 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Change in absorptance of metals following multi-pulse femtosecond laser ablation,” J. of Phy.: Conference Series 59, 579–584 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Enhanced absorptance of gold following multipulse femtosecond laser ablation,” Phys. Rev. B 72(19), 195422 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Colorizing metals with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 041914 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Dou, R. L. Parkhill, J. Wu, and E. T. Knobbe, “Surface Microstructuring of Aluminum Alloy 2024 Using Femtosecond Excimer Laser Irradiation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 7(4) (2001).
  6. D. Samsonov and J. Goree, “Particle Growth in a Sputtering Discharge,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17(5), 2835 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. M. Robinson and M. J. Jackson, “Femtosecond Laser Micromachining of Aluminum Surfaces Under Controlled Gas Atmospheres,” J. Mater. Eng. Perform. 15(2), 155–160 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2008

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Colorizing metals with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 041914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Change in absorptance of metals following multi-pulse femtosecond laser ablation,” J. of Phy.: Conference Series 59, 579–584 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

N. Singh, D. R. Alexander, J. Schiffern, and D. Doerr, “Femtosecond laser production of metal surfaces having unique surface structures that are broadband absorbers,” J. Laser Appl. 18(3), 242–244 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Robinson and M. J. Jackson, “Femtosecond Laser Micromachining of Aluminum Surfaces Under Controlled Gas Atmospheres,” J. Mater. Eng. Perform. 15(2), 155–160 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Enhanced absorptance of gold following multipulse femtosecond laser ablation,” Phys. Rev. B 72(19), 195422 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2001

K. Dou, R. L. Parkhill, J. Wu, and E. T. Knobbe, “Surface Microstructuring of Aluminum Alloy 2024 Using Femtosecond Excimer Laser Irradiation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 7(4) (2001).

1999

D. Samsonov and J. Goree, “Particle Growth in a Sputtering Discharge,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17(5), 2835 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Alexander, D. R.

N. Singh, D. R. Alexander, J. Schiffern, and D. Doerr, “Femtosecond laser production of metal surfaces having unique surface structures that are broadband absorbers,” J. Laser Appl. 18(3), 242–244 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Doerr, D.

N. Singh, D. R. Alexander, J. Schiffern, and D. Doerr, “Femtosecond laser production of metal surfaces having unique surface structures that are broadband absorbers,” J. Laser Appl. 18(3), 242–244 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dou, K.

K. Dou, R. L. Parkhill, J. Wu, and E. T. Knobbe, “Surface Microstructuring of Aluminum Alloy 2024 Using Femtosecond Excimer Laser Irradiation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 7(4) (2001).

Goree, J.

D. Samsonov and J. Goree, “Particle Growth in a Sputtering Discharge,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17(5), 2835 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Guo, C.

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Colorizing metals with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 041914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Change in absorptance of metals following multi-pulse femtosecond laser ablation,” J. of Phy.: Conference Series 59, 579–584 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Enhanced absorptance of gold following multipulse femtosecond laser ablation,” Phys. Rev. B 72(19), 195422 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, M. J.

G. M. Robinson and M. J. Jackson, “Femtosecond Laser Micromachining of Aluminum Surfaces Under Controlled Gas Atmospheres,” J. Mater. Eng. Perform. 15(2), 155–160 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Knobbe, E. T.

K. Dou, R. L. Parkhill, J. Wu, and E. T. Knobbe, “Surface Microstructuring of Aluminum Alloy 2024 Using Femtosecond Excimer Laser Irradiation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 7(4) (2001).

Parkhill, R. L.

K. Dou, R. L. Parkhill, J. Wu, and E. T. Knobbe, “Surface Microstructuring of Aluminum Alloy 2024 Using Femtosecond Excimer Laser Irradiation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 7(4) (2001).

Robinson, G. M.

G. M. Robinson and M. J. Jackson, “Femtosecond Laser Micromachining of Aluminum Surfaces Under Controlled Gas Atmospheres,” J. Mater. Eng. Perform. 15(2), 155–160 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Samsonov, D.

D. Samsonov and J. Goree, “Particle Growth in a Sputtering Discharge,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17(5), 2835 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schiffern, J.

N. Singh, D. R. Alexander, J. Schiffern, and D. Doerr, “Femtosecond laser production of metal surfaces having unique surface structures that are broadband absorbers,” J. Laser Appl. 18(3), 242–244 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Singh, N.

N. Singh, D. R. Alexander, J. Schiffern, and D. Doerr, “Femtosecond laser production of metal surfaces having unique surface structures that are broadband absorbers,” J. Laser Appl. 18(3), 242–244 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vorobyev, A. Y.

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Colorizing metals with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 041914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Change in absorptance of metals following multi-pulse femtosecond laser ablation,” J. of Phy.: Conference Series 59, 579–584 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Enhanced absorptance of gold following multipulse femtosecond laser ablation,” Phys. Rev. B 72(19), 195422 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.

K. Dou, R. L. Parkhill, J. Wu, and E. T. Knobbe, “Surface Microstructuring of Aluminum Alloy 2024 Using Femtosecond Excimer Laser Irradiation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 7(4) (2001).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Colorizing metals with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 041914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant.

K. Dou, R. L. Parkhill, J. Wu, and E. T. Knobbe, “Surface Microstructuring of Aluminum Alloy 2024 Using Femtosecond Excimer Laser Irradiation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. 7(4) (2001).

J. Laser Appl.

N. Singh, D. R. Alexander, J. Schiffern, and D. Doerr, “Femtosecond laser production of metal surfaces having unique surface structures that are broadband absorbers,” J. Laser Appl. 18(3), 242–244 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Eng. Perform.

G. M. Robinson and M. J. Jackson, “Femtosecond Laser Micromachining of Aluminum Surfaces Under Controlled Gas Atmospheres,” J. Mater. Eng. Perform. 15(2), 155–160 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. of Phy.: Conference Series

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Change in absorptance of metals following multi-pulse femtosecond laser ablation,” J. of Phy.: Conference Series 59, 579–584 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A

D. Samsonov and J. Goree, “Particle Growth in a Sputtering Discharge,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17(5), 2835 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Enhanced absorptance of gold following multipulse femtosecond laser ablation,” Phys. Rev. B 72(19), 195422 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SEM images of damage to aluminum surface from a single shot. (a) Shows the width of the damage area. (b) Shows the length of the damage area.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Experimental setup used in the blackening of the surfaces and the subsequent formation of unique dome shaped structures. (b) Nanomover programmed path used in rastering the surface.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Spherical aggregates on 2024 T3 aluminum surface. (b) Aggregates that have been removed in an ultrasonic cleaner. (c) Ring structure that has developed under an aggregate. (d) An aggregate with several shells broken open. (e) Image of the ring structure left behind from the aggregate in (d). (f) A high magnification view of the inside of one of the aggregates.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Progressive set of SEM images of aggregate growth.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Plot of aggregate and ring diameters versus the number of laser passes made.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Linearly polarized in direction shown in image. (b) Linearly polarized in direction shown in image. (c) Circularly polarized.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Simulated electric field intensities near the sample surface scattered by a half sphere of 10 µm radius. The electric field intensities (a) perpendicular and (b) parallel to the input electric field.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Auger plots of elemental composition for (a) an unablated sample (b) a sample covered in aggregates.

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