Abstract

We propose a novel optical 90° hybrid employing a paired-interference-based tapered 2×4 multimode interference coupler and a 2×2 multimode interference coupler. It was experimentally shown that the proposed 90° hybrid has very short device length of less than 227 μm and is never accompanied by any waveguide intersections for coupling to balanced photodiodes. The proposed device exhibited quadrature phase response with a common-mode rejection ratio of more than 20dB and a phase deviation of less than 5° over C-band spectral range.

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  1. K. Kikuchi, “Phase-diversity homodyne detection of multilevel optical modulation with digital carrier phase estimation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(4), 563–570 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Seimetz and C. M. Weinert, “Options, feasibility and availability of 2×4 90° hybrids for coherent optical systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(3), 1317–1322 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. Hoffmann, H. Heidrich, G. Wenke, R. Langenhorst, and E. Dietrich, “Integrated optics eight-port 90° hybrid on LiNbO3,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7(5), 794–798 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Kunkel, H. G. Bach, D. Hoffmann, C. M. Weinert, I. Molina-Fernandez, and R. Halir, “First monolithic InP-based 90° hybrid OEIC comprising balanced detectors for 100GE coherent frontends,” Proc. IPRM 2009, paper TuB2.2 (2009).
  5. C. R. Doerr, D. M. Gill, A. H. Gnauck, L. L. Buhl, P. J. Winzer, M. A. Cappuzzo, A. Wong-Foy, E. Y. Chen, and L. T. Gomez, “Monolithic demodulator for 40-Gb/s DQPSK using a star coupler,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(1), 171–174 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. R. Doerr, L. Zhangl, S. Chandrasekhar, and L. L. Buhl, “Monolithic DQPSK receiver in InP with low polarization sensitivity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(21), 1765–1767 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. Zimmermann, K. Voigt, G. Winzer, K. Petermann, and C. M. Weinert, “C-band optical 90°-hybrids based on Silicon-on-insulator 4×4 waveguide coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(3), 143–145 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. G. Bach, A. Matiss, C. C. Leonhardt, R. Kunkel, D. Schmidt, M. Schell, and A. Umbach, “Monolithic 90° hybrid with balanced pin photodiodes for 100 Gbit/s PM-QPSK receiver applications,” Proc. OFC 2009, paper OMK5 (2009).
  9. M. Baudreau, M. Poirier, G. Yoffe, and B. Pezeshki, “An integrated InP coherent receiver for 40 and 100 Gb/sec telecommunications systems,” Proc. OFC 2009, paper OMK6 (2009).
  10. S.-H. Jeong and K. Morito, “Optical 90° hybrid with broad operating bandwidth of 94 nm,” Opt. Lett. 34(22), 3505–3507 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. B. Soldano and C. M. Pennings, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: Principles and Applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(4), 615–627 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. S. Levy, R. Scarmozzino, and R. M. Osgood, “Length reduction of tapered N×N MMI devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(6), 830–832 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2009

L. Zimmermann, K. Voigt, G. Winzer, K. Petermann, and C. M. Weinert, “C-band optical 90°-hybrids based on Silicon-on-insulator 4×4 waveguide coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(3), 143–145 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S.-H. Jeong and K. Morito, “Optical 90° hybrid with broad operating bandwidth of 94 nm,” Opt. Lett. 34(22), 3505–3507 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007

C. R. Doerr, L. Zhangl, S. Chandrasekhar, and L. L. Buhl, “Monolithic DQPSK receiver in InP with low polarization sensitivity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(21), 1765–1767 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

1998

D. S. Levy, R. Scarmozzino, and R. M. Osgood, “Length reduction of tapered N×N MMI devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(6), 830–832 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995

L. B. Soldano and C. M. Pennings, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: Principles and Applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(4), 615–627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1989

D. Hoffmann, H. Heidrich, G. Wenke, R. Langenhorst, and E. Dietrich, “Integrated optics eight-port 90° hybrid on LiNbO3,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7(5), 794–798 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Buhl, L. L.

C. R. Doerr, L. Zhangl, S. Chandrasekhar, and L. L. Buhl, “Monolithic DQPSK receiver in InP with low polarization sensitivity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(21), 1765–1767 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Doerr, D. M. Gill, A. H. Gnauck, L. L. Buhl, P. J. Winzer, M. A. Cappuzzo, A. Wong-Foy, E. Y. Chen, and L. T. Gomez, “Monolithic demodulator for 40-Gb/s DQPSK using a star coupler,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(1), 171–174 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cappuzzo, M. A.

Chandrasekhar, S.

C. R. Doerr, L. Zhangl, S. Chandrasekhar, and L. L. Buhl, “Monolithic DQPSK receiver in InP with low polarization sensitivity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(21), 1765–1767 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, E. Y.

Dietrich, E.

D. Hoffmann, H. Heidrich, G. Wenke, R. Langenhorst, and E. Dietrich, “Integrated optics eight-port 90° hybrid on LiNbO3,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7(5), 794–798 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Doerr, C. R.

C. R. Doerr, L. Zhangl, S. Chandrasekhar, and L. L. Buhl, “Monolithic DQPSK receiver in InP with low polarization sensitivity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(21), 1765–1767 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Doerr, D. M. Gill, A. H. Gnauck, L. L. Buhl, P. J. Winzer, M. A. Cappuzzo, A. Wong-Foy, E. Y. Chen, and L. T. Gomez, “Monolithic demodulator for 40-Gb/s DQPSK using a star coupler,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(1), 171–174 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gill, D. M.

Gnauck, A. H.

Gomez, L. T.

Heidrich, H.

D. Hoffmann, H. Heidrich, G. Wenke, R. Langenhorst, and E. Dietrich, “Integrated optics eight-port 90° hybrid on LiNbO3,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7(5), 794–798 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, D.

D. Hoffmann, H. Heidrich, G. Wenke, R. Langenhorst, and E. Dietrich, “Integrated optics eight-port 90° hybrid on LiNbO3,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7(5), 794–798 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, S.-H.

Kikuchi, K.

K. Kikuchi, “Phase-diversity homodyne detection of multilevel optical modulation with digital carrier phase estimation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(4), 563–570 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Langenhorst, R.

D. Hoffmann, H. Heidrich, G. Wenke, R. Langenhorst, and E. Dietrich, “Integrated optics eight-port 90° hybrid on LiNbO3,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7(5), 794–798 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Levy, D. S.

D. S. Levy, R. Scarmozzino, and R. M. Osgood, “Length reduction of tapered N×N MMI devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(6), 830–832 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Morito, K.

Osgood, R. M.

D. S. Levy, R. Scarmozzino, and R. M. Osgood, “Length reduction of tapered N×N MMI devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(6), 830–832 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pennings, C. M.

L. B. Soldano and C. M. Pennings, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: Principles and Applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(4), 615–627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Petermann, K.

L. Zimmermann, K. Voigt, G. Winzer, K. Petermann, and C. M. Weinert, “C-band optical 90°-hybrids based on Silicon-on-insulator 4×4 waveguide coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(3), 143–145 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Scarmozzino, R.

D. S. Levy, R. Scarmozzino, and R. M. Osgood, “Length reduction of tapered N×N MMI devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(6), 830–832 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Seimetz, M.

Soldano, L. B.

L. B. Soldano and C. M. Pennings, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: Principles and Applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(4), 615–627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Voigt, K.

L. Zimmermann, K. Voigt, G. Winzer, K. Petermann, and C. M. Weinert, “C-band optical 90°-hybrids based on Silicon-on-insulator 4×4 waveguide coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(3), 143–145 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Weinert, C. M.

L. Zimmermann, K. Voigt, G. Winzer, K. Petermann, and C. M. Weinert, “C-band optical 90°-hybrids based on Silicon-on-insulator 4×4 waveguide coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(3), 143–145 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Seimetz and C. M. Weinert, “Options, feasibility and availability of 2×4 90° hybrids for coherent optical systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(3), 1317–1322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wenke, G.

D. Hoffmann, H. Heidrich, G. Wenke, R. Langenhorst, and E. Dietrich, “Integrated optics eight-port 90° hybrid on LiNbO3,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7(5), 794–798 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Winzer, G.

L. Zimmermann, K. Voigt, G. Winzer, K. Petermann, and C. M. Weinert, “C-band optical 90°-hybrids based on Silicon-on-insulator 4×4 waveguide coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(3), 143–145 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Winzer, P. J.

Wong-Foy, A.

Zhangl, L.

C. R. Doerr, L. Zhangl, S. Chandrasekhar, and L. L. Buhl, “Monolithic DQPSK receiver in InP with low polarization sensitivity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(21), 1765–1767 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zimmermann, L.

L. Zimmermann, K. Voigt, G. Winzer, K. Petermann, and C. M. Weinert, “C-band optical 90°-hybrids based on Silicon-on-insulator 4×4 waveguide coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(3), 143–145 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

K. Kikuchi, “Phase-diversity homodyne detection of multilevel optical modulation with digital carrier phase estimation,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(4), 563–570 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

C. R. Doerr, L. Zhangl, S. Chandrasekhar, and L. L. Buhl, “Monolithic DQPSK receiver in InP with low polarization sensitivity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(21), 1765–1767 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Zimmermann, K. Voigt, G. Winzer, K. Petermann, and C. M. Weinert, “C-band optical 90°-hybrids based on Silicon-on-insulator 4×4 waveguide coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(3), 143–145 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Levy, R. Scarmozzino, and R. M. Osgood, “Length reduction of tapered N×N MMI devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(6), 830–832 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

C. R. Doerr, D. M. Gill, A. H. Gnauck, L. L. Buhl, P. J. Winzer, M. A. Cappuzzo, A. Wong-Foy, E. Y. Chen, and L. T. Gomez, “Monolithic demodulator for 40-Gb/s DQPSK using a star coupler,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(1), 171–174 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Seimetz and C. M. Weinert, “Options, feasibility and availability of 2×4 90° hybrids for coherent optical systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(3), 1317–1322 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Hoffmann, H. Heidrich, G. Wenke, R. Langenhorst, and E. Dietrich, “Integrated optics eight-port 90° hybrid on LiNbO3,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7(5), 794–798 (1989).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Soldano and C. M. Pennings, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: Principles and Applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(4), 615–627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Other

H. G. Bach, A. Matiss, C. C. Leonhardt, R. Kunkel, D. Schmidt, M. Schell, and A. Umbach, “Monolithic 90° hybrid with balanced pin photodiodes for 100 Gbit/s PM-QPSK receiver applications,” Proc. OFC 2009, paper OMK5 (2009).

M. Baudreau, M. Poirier, G. Yoffe, and B. Pezeshki, “An integrated InP coherent receiver for 40 and 100 Gb/sec telecommunications systems,” Proc. OFC 2009, paper OMK6 (2009).

R. Kunkel, H. G. Bach, D. Hoffmann, C. M. Weinert, I. Molina-Fernandez, and R. Halir, “First monolithic InP-based 90° hybrid OEIC comprising balanced detectors for 100GE coherent frontends,” Proc. IPRM 2009, paper TuB2.2 (2009).

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