Abstract

We report strong surface plasmon polariton mediated transfer of energy between molecular excitons across the metallic cathode of an electrically-pumped organic heterostructure. The donor molecular excitons at the organic heterojunction resonantly excite surface plasmon modes on both sides of the optically thick metal electrode, which evanescently couple to dye molecules near the electrode’s exterior surface. Dye fluorescence in the capping layer on the exterior of the device shows a 6.5-fold increase in intensity due to this effect, far exceeding any enhancement attributable to Purcell or optical microcavity effects. Demonstration of this energy transfer mechanism for electrically-pumped excitons suggests new sensing and imaging applications with high signal to noise ratio and new routes for performance improvement in energy harvesting devices, plasmonic devices, and organic LEDs (including white light emission).

© 2010 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. H. A. Atwater, “The promise of plasmonics,” Sci. Am. 296(4), 56–62 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. L. Cao and M. L. Brongersma, “Active Plasmonics: Ultrafast developments,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 12–13 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311(5758), 189–193 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. D. K. Gifford and D. G. Hall, “Emission through one of two metal electrodes of an organic light-emitting diode via surface-plasmon cross coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(23), 4315–4317 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. B. Rothenhäusler and W. Knoll, “Surface-plasmon microscopy,” Nature 332(6165), 615–617 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. M. Nie and S. R. Emory, “Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Science 275(5303), 1102–1106 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sen. Actuators B 54(1-2), 3–15 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. Andrew and W. L. Barnes, “Energy transfer across a metal film mediated by surface plasmon polaritons,” Science 306(5698), 1002–1005 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. K. Mapel, M. Singh, M. A. Baldo, and K. Celebi, “Plasmonic excitation of organic double heterostructure solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121102 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Wakamatsu, K. Saito, Y. Sakakibara, and H. Yokoyama, “Enhanced photocurrent in organic photoelectric cells based on surface-plasmon excitations,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Pt. 2, No. 11A), L1467–L1469 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. M. Koller, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, N. Galler, F. Reil, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, E. J. W. List, and J. R. Krenn, “Organic plasmon-emitting diode,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 684–687 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. W. Tang and S. A. Vanslyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Chanyawadee, P. G. Lagoudakis, R. T. Harley, D. G. Lidzey, and M. Henini, “Nonradiative exciton energy transfer in hybrid organic-inorganic heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 77(19), 193402 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Q. Huang, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, V. Lyssenko, G. He, and K. Leo, “Highly efficient top emitting organic light-emitting diodes with organic outcoupling enhancement layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113515 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, W. Rieß, and K. Neyts, “Tuning the emission characteristics of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by means of a dielectric capping layer: An experimental and theoretical study,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(8), 5290–5296 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Feng, T. Okamoto, R. Naraoka, and S. Kawata, “Enhancement of surface plasmon-mediated radiative energy transfer through a corrugated metal cathode in organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051106 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. Wedge, I. R. Hooper, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, “Light emission through a corrugated metal film: The role of cross-coupled surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B 69(24), 245418 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  19. T. D. Heidel, J. K. Mapel, K. Celebi, M. Singh, and M. A. Baldo, “Analysis of surface plasmon polariton mediated energy transfer in organic photovoltaic devices - art. no. 66560I,” Org. Photovoltaics VIII 6656, I6560 (2007).
  20. R. R. Chance, A. Prock, and R. Silbey, “Molecular fluorescence and energy transfer near interfaces,” Adv. Chem. Phys. 37, 1–65 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  21. K. Celebi, T. D. Heidel, and M. A. Baldo, “Simplified calculation of dipole energy transport in a multilayer stack using dyadic Green’s functions,” Opt. Express 15(4), 1762–1772 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. L. W. Li, P. S. Kooi, M. S. Leong, and T. S. Yeo, “On the eigenfunction expansion of dyadic Green-function in planarly stratified media,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 8, 663–678 (1994).
  23. Z. W. Liu, N. Fang, T. J. Yen, and X. Zhang, “Rapid growth of evanescent wave by a silver superlens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(25), 5184–5186 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. N. Fang, Z. W. Liu, T. J. Yen, and X. Zhang, “Regenerating evanescent waves from a silver superlens,” Opt. Express 11(7), 682–687 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. E. M. Purcell, “Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies,” Phys. Rev. 69, 681 (1946).

2009 (1)

L. Cao and M. L. Brongersma, “Active Plasmonics: Ultrafast developments,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 12–13 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

D. M. Koller, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, N. Galler, F. Reil, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, E. J. W. List, and J. R. Krenn, “Organic plasmon-emitting diode,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 684–687 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Chanyawadee, P. G. Lagoudakis, R. T. Harley, D. G. Lidzey, and M. Henini, “Nonradiative exciton energy transfer in hybrid organic-inorganic heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 77(19), 193402 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Feng, T. Okamoto, R. Naraoka, and S. Kawata, “Enhancement of surface plasmon-mediated radiative energy transfer through a corrugated metal cathode in organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

J. K. Mapel, M. Singh, M. A. Baldo, and K. Celebi, “Plasmonic excitation of organic double heterostructure solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Atwater, “The promise of plasmonics,” Sci. Am. 296(4), 56–62 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. D. Heidel, J. K. Mapel, K. Celebi, M. Singh, and M. A. Baldo, “Analysis of surface plasmon polariton mediated energy transfer in organic photovoltaic devices - art. no. 66560I,” Org. Photovoltaics VIII 6656, I6560 (2007).

K. Celebi, T. D. Heidel, and M. A. Baldo, “Simplified calculation of dipole energy transport in a multilayer stack using dyadic Green’s functions,” Opt. Express 15(4), 1762–1772 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311(5758), 189–193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Huang, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, V. Lyssenko, G. He, and K. Leo, “Highly efficient top emitting organic light-emitting diodes with organic outcoupling enhancement layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113515 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

S. Wedge, I. R. Hooper, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, “Light emission through a corrugated metal film: The role of cross-coupled surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B 69(24), 245418 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Andrew and W. L. Barnes, “Energy transfer across a metal film mediated by surface plasmon polaritons,” Science 306(5698), 1002–1005 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (3)

H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, W. Rieß, and K. Neyts, “Tuning the emission characteristics of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by means of a dielectric capping layer: An experimental and theoretical study,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(8), 5290–5296 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Fang, Z. W. Liu, T. J. Yen, and X. Zhang, “Regenerating evanescent waves from a silver superlens,” Opt. Express 11(7), 682–687 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. W. Liu, N. Fang, T. J. Yen, and X. Zhang, “Rapid growth of evanescent wave by a silver superlens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(25), 5184–5186 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

D. K. Gifford and D. G. Hall, “Emission through one of two metal electrodes of an organic light-emitting diode via surface-plasmon cross coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(23), 4315–4317 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sen. Actuators B 54(1-2), 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

S. M. Nie and S. R. Emory, “Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Science 275(5303), 1102–1106 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

T. Wakamatsu, K. Saito, Y. Sakakibara, and H. Yokoyama, “Enhanced photocurrent in organic photoelectric cells based on surface-plasmon excitations,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Pt. 2, No. 11A), L1467–L1469 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

L. W. Li, P. S. Kooi, M. S. Leong, and T. S. Yeo, “On the eigenfunction expansion of dyadic Green-function in planarly stratified media,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 8, 663–678 (1994).

1988 (1)

B. Rothenhäusler and W. Knoll, “Surface-plasmon microscopy,” Nature 332(6165), 615–617 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

C. W. Tang and S. A. Vanslyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, and R. Silbey, “Molecular fluorescence and energy transfer near interfaces,” Adv. Chem. Phys. 37, 1–65 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1946 (1)

E. M. Purcell, “Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies,” Phys. Rev. 69, 681 (1946).

Andrew, P.

P. Andrew and W. L. Barnes, “Energy transfer across a metal film mediated by surface plasmon polaritons,” Science 306(5698), 1002–1005 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atwater, H. A.

H. A. Atwater, “The promise of plasmonics,” Sci. Am. 296(4), 56–62 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aussenegg, F. R.

D. M. Koller, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, N. Galler, F. Reil, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, E. J. W. List, and J. R. Krenn, “Organic plasmon-emitting diode,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 684–687 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Baldo, M. A.

J. K. Mapel, M. Singh, M. A. Baldo, and K. Celebi, “Plasmonic excitation of organic double heterostructure solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Celebi, T. D. Heidel, and M. A. Baldo, “Simplified calculation of dipole energy transport in a multilayer stack using dyadic Green’s functions,” Opt. Express 15(4), 1762–1772 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. D. Heidel, J. K. Mapel, K. Celebi, M. Singh, and M. A. Baldo, “Analysis of surface plasmon polariton mediated energy transfer in organic photovoltaic devices - art. no. 66560I,” Org. Photovoltaics VIII 6656, I6560 (2007).

Barnes, W. L.

P. Andrew and W. L. Barnes, “Energy transfer across a metal film mediated by surface plasmon polaritons,” Science 306(5698), 1002–1005 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Wedge, I. R. Hooper, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, “Light emission through a corrugated metal film: The role of cross-coupled surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B 69(24), 245418 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Beierlein, T.

H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, W. Rieß, and K. Neyts, “Tuning the emission characteristics of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by means of a dielectric capping layer: An experimental and theoretical study,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(8), 5290–5296 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brongersma, M. L.

L. Cao and M. L. Brongersma, “Active Plasmonics: Ultrafast developments,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 12–13 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cao, L.

L. Cao and M. L. Brongersma, “Active Plasmonics: Ultrafast developments,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 12–13 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Celebi, K.

K. Celebi, T. D. Heidel, and M. A. Baldo, “Simplified calculation of dipole energy transport in a multilayer stack using dyadic Green’s functions,” Opt. Express 15(4), 1762–1772 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. D. Heidel, J. K. Mapel, K. Celebi, M. Singh, and M. A. Baldo, “Analysis of surface plasmon polariton mediated energy transfer in organic photovoltaic devices - art. no. 66560I,” Org. Photovoltaics VIII 6656, I6560 (2007).

J. K. Mapel, M. Singh, M. A. Baldo, and K. Celebi, “Plasmonic excitation of organic double heterostructure solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chance, R. R.

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, and R. Silbey, “Molecular fluorescence and energy transfer near interfaces,” Adv. Chem. Phys. 37, 1–65 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Chanyawadee, S.

S. Chanyawadee, P. G. Lagoudakis, R. T. Harley, D. G. Lidzey, and M. Henini, “Nonradiative exciton energy transfer in hybrid organic-inorganic heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 77(19), 193402 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ditlbacher, H.

D. M. Koller, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, N. Galler, F. Reil, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, E. J. W. List, and J. R. Krenn, “Organic plasmon-emitting diode,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 684–687 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Emory, S. R.

S. M. Nie and S. R. Emory, “Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Science 275(5303), 1102–1106 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, N.

N. Fang, Z. W. Liu, T. J. Yen, and X. Zhang, “Regenerating evanescent waves from a silver superlens,” Opt. Express 11(7), 682–687 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. W. Liu, N. Fang, T. J. Yen, and X. Zhang, “Rapid growth of evanescent wave by a silver superlens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(25), 5184–5186 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Feng, J.

J. Feng, T. Okamoto, R. Naraoka, and S. Kawata, “Enhancement of surface plasmon-mediated radiative energy transfer through a corrugated metal cathode in organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Galler, N.

D. M. Koller, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, N. Galler, F. Reil, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, E. J. W. List, and J. R. Krenn, “Organic plasmon-emitting diode,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 684–687 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gauglitz, G.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sen. Actuators B 54(1-2), 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gifford, D. K.

D. K. Gifford and D. G. Hall, “Emission through one of two metal electrodes of an organic light-emitting diode via surface-plasmon cross coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(23), 4315–4317 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hall, D. G.

D. K. Gifford and D. G. Hall, “Emission through one of two metal electrodes of an organic light-emitting diode via surface-plasmon cross coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(23), 4315–4317 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Harley, R. T.

S. Chanyawadee, P. G. Lagoudakis, R. T. Harley, D. G. Lidzey, and M. Henini, “Nonradiative exciton energy transfer in hybrid organic-inorganic heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 77(19), 193402 (2008).
[CrossRef]

He, G.

Q. Huang, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, V. Lyssenko, G. He, and K. Leo, “Highly efficient top emitting organic light-emitting diodes with organic outcoupling enhancement layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113515 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Heidel, T. D.

K. Celebi, T. D. Heidel, and M. A. Baldo, “Simplified calculation of dipole energy transport in a multilayer stack using dyadic Green’s functions,” Opt. Express 15(4), 1762–1772 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. D. Heidel, J. K. Mapel, K. Celebi, M. Singh, and M. A. Baldo, “Analysis of surface plasmon polariton mediated energy transfer in organic photovoltaic devices - art. no. 66560I,” Org. Photovoltaics VIII 6656, I6560 (2007).

Henini, M.

S. Chanyawadee, P. G. Lagoudakis, R. T. Harley, D. G. Lidzey, and M. Henini, “Nonradiative exciton energy transfer in hybrid organic-inorganic heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 77(19), 193402 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hohenau, A.

D. M. Koller, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, N. Galler, F. Reil, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, E. J. W. List, and J. R. Krenn, “Organic plasmon-emitting diode,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 684–687 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Homola, J.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sen. Actuators B 54(1-2), 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hooper, I. R.

S. Wedge, I. R. Hooper, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, “Light emission through a corrugated metal film: The role of cross-coupled surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B 69(24), 245418 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Q.

Q. Huang, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, V. Lyssenko, G. He, and K. Leo, “Highly efficient top emitting organic light-emitting diodes with organic outcoupling enhancement layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113515 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Karg, S.

H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, W. Rieß, and K. Neyts, “Tuning the emission characteristics of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by means of a dielectric capping layer: An experimental and theoretical study,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(8), 5290–5296 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, S.

J. Feng, T. Okamoto, R. Naraoka, and S. Kawata, “Enhancement of surface plasmon-mediated radiative energy transfer through a corrugated metal cathode in organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Knoll, W.

B. Rothenhäusler and W. Knoll, “Surface-plasmon microscopy,” Nature 332(6165), 615–617 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Koller, D. M.

D. M. Koller, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, N. Galler, F. Reil, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, E. J. W. List, and J. R. Krenn, “Organic plasmon-emitting diode,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 684–687 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kooi, P. S.

L. W. Li, P. S. Kooi, M. S. Leong, and T. S. Yeo, “On the eigenfunction expansion of dyadic Green-function in planarly stratified media,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 8, 663–678 (1994).

Krenn, J. R.

D. M. Koller, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, N. Galler, F. Reil, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, E. J. W. List, and J. R. Krenn, “Organic plasmon-emitting diode,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 684–687 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lagoudakis, P. G.

S. Chanyawadee, P. G. Lagoudakis, R. T. Harley, D. G. Lidzey, and M. Henini, “Nonradiative exciton energy transfer in hybrid organic-inorganic heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 77(19), 193402 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Leitner, A.

D. M. Koller, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, N. Galler, F. Reil, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, E. J. W. List, and J. R. Krenn, “Organic plasmon-emitting diode,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 684–687 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Leo, K.

Q. Huang, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, V. Lyssenko, G. He, and K. Leo, “Highly efficient top emitting organic light-emitting diodes with organic outcoupling enhancement layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113515 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Leong, M. S.

L. W. Li, P. S. Kooi, M. S. Leong, and T. S. Yeo, “On the eigenfunction expansion of dyadic Green-function in planarly stratified media,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 8, 663–678 (1994).

Li, L. W.

L. W. Li, P. S. Kooi, M. S. Leong, and T. S. Yeo, “On the eigenfunction expansion of dyadic Green-function in planarly stratified media,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 8, 663–678 (1994).

Lidzey, D. G.

S. Chanyawadee, P. G. Lagoudakis, R. T. Harley, D. G. Lidzey, and M. Henini, “Nonradiative exciton energy transfer in hybrid organic-inorganic heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 77(19), 193402 (2008).
[CrossRef]

List, E. J. W.

D. M. Koller, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, N. Galler, F. Reil, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, E. J. W. List, and J. R. Krenn, “Organic plasmon-emitting diode,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 684–687 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z. W.

Z. W. Liu, N. Fang, T. J. Yen, and X. Zhang, “Rapid growth of evanescent wave by a silver superlens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(25), 5184–5186 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Fang, Z. W. Liu, T. J. Yen, and X. Zhang, “Regenerating evanescent waves from a silver superlens,” Opt. Express 11(7), 682–687 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lyssenko, V.

Q. Huang, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, V. Lyssenko, G. He, and K. Leo, “Highly efficient top emitting organic light-emitting diodes with organic outcoupling enhancement layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113515 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mapel, J. K.

T. D. Heidel, J. K. Mapel, K. Celebi, M. Singh, and M. A. Baldo, “Analysis of surface plasmon polariton mediated energy transfer in organic photovoltaic devices - art. no. 66560I,” Org. Photovoltaics VIII 6656, I6560 (2007).

J. K. Mapel, M. Singh, M. A. Baldo, and K. Celebi, “Plasmonic excitation of organic double heterostructure solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mukai, T.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Naraoka, R.

J. Feng, T. Okamoto, R. Naraoka, and S. Kawata, “Enhancement of surface plasmon-mediated radiative energy transfer through a corrugated metal cathode in organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Narukawa, Y.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neyts, K.

H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, W. Rieß, and K. Neyts, “Tuning the emission characteristics of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by means of a dielectric capping layer: An experimental and theoretical study,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(8), 5290–5296 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nie, S. M.

S. M. Nie and S. R. Emory, “Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Science 275(5303), 1102–1106 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Niki, I.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okamoto, K.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okamoto, T.

J. Feng, T. Okamoto, R. Naraoka, and S. Kawata, “Enhancement of surface plasmon-mediated radiative energy transfer through a corrugated metal cathode in organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ozbay, E.

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311(5758), 189–193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pfeiffer, M.

Q. Huang, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, V. Lyssenko, G. He, and K. Leo, “Highly efficient top emitting organic light-emitting diodes with organic outcoupling enhancement layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113515 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Prock, A.

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, and R. Silbey, “Molecular fluorescence and energy transfer near interfaces,” Adv. Chem. Phys. 37, 1–65 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Purcell, E. M.

E. M. Purcell, “Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies,” Phys. Rev. 69, 681 (1946).

Reil, F.

D. M. Koller, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, N. Galler, F. Reil, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, E. J. W. List, and J. R. Krenn, “Organic plasmon-emitting diode,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 684–687 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Riel, H.

H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, W. Rieß, and K. Neyts, “Tuning the emission characteristics of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by means of a dielectric capping layer: An experimental and theoretical study,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(8), 5290–5296 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rieß, W.

H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, W. Rieß, and K. Neyts, “Tuning the emission characteristics of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by means of a dielectric capping layer: An experimental and theoretical study,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(8), 5290–5296 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rothenhäusler, B.

B. Rothenhäusler and W. Knoll, “Surface-plasmon microscopy,” Nature 332(6165), 615–617 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sage, I.

S. Wedge, I. R. Hooper, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, “Light emission through a corrugated metal film: The role of cross-coupled surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B 69(24), 245418 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Saito, K.

T. Wakamatsu, K. Saito, Y. Sakakibara, and H. Yokoyama, “Enhanced photocurrent in organic photoelectric cells based on surface-plasmon excitations,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Pt. 2, No. 11A), L1467–L1469 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sakakibara, Y.

T. Wakamatsu, K. Saito, Y. Sakakibara, and H. Yokoyama, “Enhanced photocurrent in organic photoelectric cells based on surface-plasmon excitations,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Pt. 2, No. 11A), L1467–L1469 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shvartser, A.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silbey, R.

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, and R. Silbey, “Molecular fluorescence and energy transfer near interfaces,” Adv. Chem. Phys. 37, 1–65 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Singh, M.

J. K. Mapel, M. Singh, M. A. Baldo, and K. Celebi, “Plasmonic excitation of organic double heterostructure solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. D. Heidel, J. K. Mapel, K. Celebi, M. Singh, and M. A. Baldo, “Analysis of surface plasmon polariton mediated energy transfer in organic photovoltaic devices - art. no. 66560I,” Org. Photovoltaics VIII 6656, I6560 (2007).

Tang, C. W.

C. W. Tang and S. A. Vanslyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Vanslyke, S. A.

C. W. Tang and S. A. Vanslyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Wakamatsu, T.

T. Wakamatsu, K. Saito, Y. Sakakibara, and H. Yokoyama, “Enhanced photocurrent in organic photoelectric cells based on surface-plasmon excitations,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Pt. 2, No. 11A), L1467–L1469 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Walzer, K.

Q. Huang, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, V. Lyssenko, G. He, and K. Leo, “Highly efficient top emitting organic light-emitting diodes with organic outcoupling enhancement layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113515 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wedge, S.

S. Wedge, I. R. Hooper, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, “Light emission through a corrugated metal film: The role of cross-coupled surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B 69(24), 245418 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yee, S. S.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sen. Actuators B 54(1-2), 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yen, T. J.

N. Fang, Z. W. Liu, T. J. Yen, and X. Zhang, “Regenerating evanescent waves from a silver superlens,” Opt. Express 11(7), 682–687 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. W. Liu, N. Fang, T. J. Yen, and X. Zhang, “Rapid growth of evanescent wave by a silver superlens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(25), 5184–5186 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yeo, T. S.

L. W. Li, P. S. Kooi, M. S. Leong, and T. S. Yeo, “On the eigenfunction expansion of dyadic Green-function in planarly stratified media,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 8, 663–678 (1994).

Yokoyama, H.

T. Wakamatsu, K. Saito, Y. Sakakibara, and H. Yokoyama, “Enhanced photocurrent in organic photoelectric cells based on surface-plasmon excitations,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Pt. 2, No. 11A), L1467–L1469 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

Z. W. Liu, N. Fang, T. J. Yen, and X. Zhang, “Rapid growth of evanescent wave by a silver superlens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(25), 5184–5186 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Fang, Z. W. Liu, T. J. Yen, and X. Zhang, “Regenerating evanescent waves from a silver superlens,” Opt. Express 11(7), 682–687 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Chem. Phys. (1)

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, and R. Silbey, “Molecular fluorescence and energy transfer near interfaces,” Adv. Chem. Phys. 37, 1–65 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

Z. W. Liu, N. Fang, T. J. Yen, and X. Zhang, “Rapid growth of evanescent wave by a silver superlens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(25), 5184–5186 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Gifford and D. G. Hall, “Emission through one of two metal electrodes of an organic light-emitting diode via surface-plasmon cross coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(23), 4315–4317 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Mapel, M. Singh, M. A. Baldo, and K. Celebi, “Plasmonic excitation of organic double heterostructure solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Tang and S. A. Vanslyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Q. Huang, K. Walzer, M. Pfeiffer, V. Lyssenko, G. He, and K. Leo, “Highly efficient top emitting organic light-emitting diodes with organic outcoupling enhancement layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 113515 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Feng, T. Okamoto, R. Naraoka, and S. Kawata, “Enhancement of surface plasmon-mediated radiative energy transfer through a corrugated metal cathode in organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Riel, S. Karg, T. Beierlein, W. Rieß, and K. Neyts, “Tuning the emission characteristics of top-emitting organic light-emitting devices by means of a dielectric capping layer: An experimental and theoretical study,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(8), 5290–5296 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. (1)

L. W. Li, P. S. Kooi, M. S. Leong, and T. S. Yeo, “On the eigenfunction expansion of dyadic Green-function in planarly stratified media,” J. Electromagn. Waves Appl. 8, 663–678 (1994).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Wakamatsu, K. Saito, Y. Sakakibara, and H. Yokoyama, “Enhanced photocurrent in organic photoelectric cells based on surface-plasmon excitations,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Pt. 2, No. 11A), L1467–L1469 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (1)

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater. 3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

L. Cao and M. L. Brongersma, “Active Plasmonics: Ultrafast developments,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 12–13 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Koller, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, N. Galler, F. Reil, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, E. J. W. List, and J. R. Krenn, “Organic plasmon-emitting diode,” Nat. Photonics 2(11), 684–687 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

B. Rothenhäusler and W. Knoll, “Surface-plasmon microscopy,” Nature 332(6165), 615–617 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Org. Photovoltaics VIII (1)

T. D. Heidel, J. K. Mapel, K. Celebi, M. Singh, and M. A. Baldo, “Analysis of surface plasmon polariton mediated energy transfer in organic photovoltaic devices - art. no. 66560I,” Org. Photovoltaics VIII 6656, I6560 (2007).

Phys. Rev. (1)

E. M. Purcell, “Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies,” Phys. Rev. 69, 681 (1946).

Phys. Rev. B (2)

S. Chanyawadee, P. G. Lagoudakis, R. T. Harley, D. G. Lidzey, and M. Henini, “Nonradiative exciton energy transfer in hybrid organic-inorganic heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 77(19), 193402 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Wedge, I. R. Hooper, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, “Light emission through a corrugated metal film: The role of cross-coupled surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B 69(24), 245418 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sci. Am. (1)

H. A. Atwater, “The promise of plasmonics,” Sci. Am. 296(4), 56–62 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (3)

P. Andrew and W. L. Barnes, “Energy transfer across a metal film mediated by surface plasmon polaritons,” Science 306(5698), 1002–1005 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311(5758), 189–193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Nie and S. R. Emory, “Probing single molecules and single nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Science 275(5303), 1102–1106 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sen. Actuators B (1)

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sen. Actuators B 54(1-2), 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Illustration of the energy coupling of exciton dipoles created at the interface of hole and electron transport layers. An energy flux diagram is superimposed on the corresponding layer structure (orange-red shading), indicating energy flux pathways for a normalized in-plane wave vector (u = kx / k0). For u < 1, the exciton energy decays through leaky light emission, which is more easily transmitted through the ITO electrode than the thick metal electrode. Waves with u ≈1.63 are guided in-plane through the device layers; for u ≈2.24, the emitted field strongly couples to bound surface plasmon modes at the two metal/organic interfaces; for higher u values, the energy couples to non-radiative modes. For each mode, the out-of-plane electric field component is drawn. The leaky mode propagates in both directions, the waveguided mode is confined in organic and ITO layers, the surface plasmons are bound at the metal interfaces, and the non-radiative modes are highly confined inside the structure. (b) Cross-section of the device under study. To study the energy transfer across the thick metal film, we separately consider the five pathways by which light can propagate from the top of the device by combinations of leaky and SPP-mediated transport. Straight lines indicate radiative coupling and curved lines indicate non-radiative coupling. In pathway 5 (the focus of this work), energy couples from decaying dipoles into SPP modes, which then evanescently couple to the emissive dye in the capping layer near the metallic surface.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a,b) Calculated decay rate (in log scale false color) as a function of in-plane wave vector (kx) for exciton dipoles in the device structure: glass / ITO (150 nm) / α-NPD (50 nm) / Alq3 (15 nm) / Ag (tm nm) / α-NPD (tc nm), where the metal (tm nm) and capping layer (tc nm) thicknesses are varied to optimize coupling to surface plasmons. As the capping layer and metal thicknesses increase, surface plasmons (near kx/2π = 4) at the organic/metal and metal/capping surfaces start to couple, leading to increased electric field strength and efficient energy transfer from decaying excitons. (c) Rates of exciton energy coupling to leaky and surface plasmon modes as a function of capping layer thickness. Optical interference effects for leaky radiation with increasing capping layer thickness are characteristic of the general layer structure, as shown (upper graph) in calculations of the far-field transmittance of Alq3 (20 nm) / metal / capping layer structures. (d) Similar calculation as a function of metal electrode thickness. (e) Three device structures designed to study energy transfer mechanisms, using an archetypal OLED structure as a common substrate, but observed from the top. Devices I and II have a 150 nm thick capping layer of α-NPD, leading to a strong electric field at both interior and exterior surfaces of the metal film (blue color electric field). DCM2, a red-emitting dye, is doped into the α-NPD capping layer with 5% mass ratio at different locations for Devices I and II. While the dye-doped region of Device I is adjacent to the metal electrode to promote resonant near-field energy transfer, in Device II it is far from the electrode. Device III is a bare OLED, with no capping layer, resulting in an SPP mode that is confined only at the interior of the metal electrode as shown in the (red) electric field.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dispersion diagrams of energy coupling for Device I or II (a) and Device III (b). While surface plasmons are generated only at the interior (Alq3/Ag) metal interface in Device III, coupled surface plasmons are created at both (Alq3/Ag and Ag/α-NPD capping) metal interfaces in Devices I and II. (c), (d) and (e) show the energy flux (outside of the active organic region) through the layers of Devices I, II, and III, calculated from the Poynting vector, clearly indicating energy transfer from decaying electrically-pumped dipoles into leaky, waveguided, surface plasmon, and lossy modes. From (c) and (d) it is clear that a small amount of energy is transferred via coupled surface plasmons to the dye in Device II (in which the dye is far from the metal electrode), and a large amount of energy is transferred to the dye in Device I (in which the dye is near the metal electrode) due to near-field coupling. The scale bar in (c) is logarithmic.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measurement of energy transfer. a) Photograph, (b) Emission spectra, and (c) Emission diagram of the devices deposited onto a common substrate, operating under forward bias (7 V) and imaged from the top (silver electrode side). Top emission for Devices I, II, and III are labeled “A”, “B”, and “C, while bottom emission to the ITO side (which is nearly equal among the three devices) is labeled “D”. In Device I, evanescent SPP fields efficiently couple energy into the DCM2 dye through a resonant near-field process, leading to strong red dye emission (“A”). (d) Device II (“B”) shows a 6-fold increase in green light emission compared to the leaky emission of Device III (“C”) as the increased energy content in SPP modes at the exterior metal surface of Device II is scattered outward into propagating light modes due to metal film roughness. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements of the topography of the Ag electrode shared by all three devices show an RMS roughness of 6 nm, which is sufficient to scatter out SPP modes to propagating light [5]. The good overlap of the scaled “C” spectrum with the “B” spectrum indicates that effects such as downconversion or wavelength-dependent scattering are relatively minor during the SPP-assisted emission process (pathway 3). However, even with this enhanced green emission (which is at the absorption peak of DCM2), very little red emission is observed in Device II. A comparison of the red (DCM2) emission in Devices I and II (in which both have been corrected by subtracting the spectral tail contribution of the green peak) shows a factor of 6.5 enhancement in Device I, significantly greater than the maximum predicted Purcell enhancement factor of 1.9, indicating the near-field transfer of energy to the dye in Device I through pathway 5.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

For a device using an aluminum (rather than silver) cathode, the dispersion diagram (a) and energy flux diagram (b) predict that surface plasmon modes are uncoupled even when a capping layer is present. Surface plasmons excited at the interior interface of Al (Al/Alq3) are confined to that interface, releasing only a tiny amount of energy into the exterior dye. This is confirmed by the observed emission spectra (c) and electroluminescence (inset) of control devices BI, BII, and BIII, which were made with 30 nm Al cathodes instead of 65 nm Ag, and 25 nm Alq3 instead of 15 nm, all other layers being identical with Devices I, II, and III of Fig. 4. All control devices have a very similar green intensity, with only a faint red component observed from the DCM2 dyes in Devices BI and BII. Red emission from BII is presumably from PL of the dye, with some red emission from BI due to energy transfer via surface plasmons, albeit at much lower intensity compared to the devices that use a silver cathode.

Metrics