Abstract

We report astonishingly high transmission enhancement factors through a subwavelength aperture at microwave frequencies by placing connected split ring resonators in the vicinity of the aperture. We carried out numerical simulations that are consistent with our experimental conclusions. We experimentally show higher than 70,000-fold extraordinary transmission through a deep subwavelength aperture with an electrical size of λ/31×λ/12 (width × length), in terms of the operational wavelength. We discuss the physical origins of the phenomenon. Our numerical results predict that even more improvements of the enhancement factors are attainable. Theoretically, the approach opens up the possibility for achieving very large enhancement factors by overcoming the physical limitations and thereby minimizes the dependence on the aperture geometries.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. H. A. Bethe, “Theory of diffraction by small holes,” Phys. Rev. 66(7-8), 163–182 (1944).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(6), 1114–1117 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. A. Porto, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and J. B. Pendry, “Transmission resonances on metallic gratings with very narrow slits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(14), 2845–2848 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Bravo-Abad, A. Degiron, F. Przybilla, C. Genet, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, and T. W. Ebbesen, “How light emerges from an illuminated array of subwavelength holes,” Nat. Phys. 2(2), 120–123 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. G. Lee and Q.-H. Park, “Coupling of surface plasmon polaritons and light in metallic nanoslits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(10), 103902 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Y. Xie, A. R. Zakharian, J. V. Moloney, and M. Mansuripur, “Transmission of light through periodic arrays of sub-wavelength slits in metallic hosts,” Opt. Express 14(14), 6400–6413 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. F. J. García de Abajo, J. J. Sáenz, I. Campillo, and J. S. Dolado, “Site and lattice resonances in metallic hole arrays,” Opt. Express 14(1), 7–18 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. F. Marquier, J.-J. Greffet, S. Collin, F. Pardo, and J. L. Pelouard, “Resonant transmission through a metallic film due to coupled modes,” Opt. Express 13(1), 70–76 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, “Plasmon-assisted two-slit transmission: Young’s experiment revisited,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(5), 053901 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. Dogariu, T. Thio, L. J. Wang, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Delay in light transmission through small apertures,” Opt. Lett. 26(7), 450–452 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Q.- Wang, J.- Li, C.- Huang, C. Zhang, and Y.-y. Zhu, “Enhanced optical transmission through metal films with rotation-symmetrical hole arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(9), 091105 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  13. W. L. Barnes, W. A. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon polaritons and their role in the enhanced transmission of light through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes in a metal film,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(10), 107401 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. K. J. K. Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, “Strong influence of hole shape on extraordinary transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(18), 183901 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. T. Matsui, A. Agrawal, A. Nahata, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Transmission resonances through aperiodic arrays of subwavelength apertures,” Nature 446(7135), 517–521 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 6779–6782 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  17. F. J. Garcia de Abajo, “Light transmission through a single cylindrical hole in a metallic film,” Opt. Express 10(25), 1475–1484 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  18. A. R. Zakharian, M. Mansuripur, and J. V. Moloney, “Transmission of light through small elliptical apertures,” Opt. Express 12(12), 2631–2648 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. F. J. García-Vidal, E. Moreno, J. A. Porto, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Transmission of light through a single rectangular hole,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(10), 103901 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, A. Rydh, J. Pearson, U. Welp, S.-H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, D. B. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Surface plasmons at single nanoholes in Au films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(3), 467–469 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. Degiron and T. W. Ebbesen, “Analysis of the transmission process through single apertures surrounded by periodic corrugations,” Opt. Express 12(16), 3694–3700 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, H. J. Lezec, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Focusing light with a single subwavelength aperture flanked by surface corrugations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4500–4502 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  23. H. Caglayan, I. Bulu, and E. Ozbay, “Plasmonic structures with extraordinary transmission and highly directional beaming properties,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 48(12), 2491–2496 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  24. S. S. Akarca-Biyikli, I. Bulu, and E. Ozbay, “Enhanced transmission of microwave radiation in one-dimensional metallic gratings with subwavelength aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1098–1100 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  25. S. S. Akarca-Biyikli, I. Bulu, and E. Ozbay, “Resonant excitation of surface plasmons in one-dimensional metallic grating structures at microwave frequencies,” J. Opt. Pure Appl. Opt. 7(2), S159–S164 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  26. L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(16), 167401 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. G. Gbur, H. F. Schouten, and T. D. Visser, “Achieving superresolution in near-field optical data readout systems using surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(19), 191109 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  29. T. Ishi, J. Fujikata, K. Makita, T. Baba, and K. Ohashi, “Si nano-photodiode with a surface plasmon antenna,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(12), 364–366 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  30. C. Liu, V. Kamaev, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Efficiency enhancement of an organic light-emitting diode with a cathode forming two-dimensional periodic hole array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(14), 143501 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  31. X. Luo and T. Ishihara, “Sub-100-nm photolithography based on plasmon resonance,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 6B), 4017–4021 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  32. D. B. Shao and S. C. Chen, “Surface-plasmon-assisted nanoscale photolithography by polarized light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(25), 253107 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  33. P. R. H. Stark, A. E. Halleck, and D. N. Larson, “Short order nanohole arrays in metals for highly sensitive probing of local indices of refraction as the basis for a highly multiplexed biosensor technology,” Methods 37(1), 37–47 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. S. M. Williams, K. R. Rodriguez, S. Teeters-Kennedy, S. Shah, T. M. Rogers, A. D. Stafford, and J. V. Coe, “Scaffolding for nanotechnology: extraordinary infrared transmission of metal microarrays for stacked sensors and surface spectroscopy,” Nanotechnology 15(10), S495–S503 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  35. H. Rigneault, J. Capoulade, J. Dintinger, J. Wenger, N. Bonod, E. Popov, T. W. Ebbesen, and P.-F. Lenne, “Enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence detection in subwavelength apertures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(11), 117401 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces,” Science 305(5685), 847–848 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, and J. B. Pendry, “Surfaces with holes in them: new plasmonic metamaterials,” J. Opt. Pure Appl. Opt. 7(2), S97–S101 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  38. N. Katsarakis, M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “High transmittance left-handed materials involving symmetric split-ring resonators,” Photon. Nanostructures 5(4), 149–155 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  39. A. Alu, F. Bilotti, N. Engheta, and L. Vegni, “Metamaterial covers over a small aperture,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 54(6), 1632–1643 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  40. R. Marques, F. Mesa, J. Martel, and F. Medina, “Comparative analysis of edge- and broadside- coupled split ring resonators for metamaterial design-theory and experiments,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 51(10), 2572–2581 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  41. K. Aydin, A. O. Cakmak, L. Sahin, Z. Li, F. Bilotti, L. Vegni, and E. Ozbay, “Split-ring-resonator-coupled enhanced transmission through a single subwavelength aperture,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(1), 013904 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  42. A. O. Cakmak, K. Aydin, E. Colak, Z. Li, F. Bilotti, L. Vegni, and E. Ozbay, “Enhanced transmission through a subwavelength aperture using metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 052103 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  43. K. B. Alici, F. Bilotti, L. Vegni, and E. Ozbay, “Optimization and tunability of deep subwavelength resonators for metamaterial applications: complete enhanced transmission through a subwavelength aperture,” Opt. Express 17(8), 5933–5943 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  44. F. Bilotti, L. Scorrano, E. Ozbay, and L. Vegni, “Enhanced transmission through a sub-wavelength aperture: resonant approaches employing metamaterials,” J. Opt. Pure Appl. Opt. 11(11), 114029 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (4)

K. Aydin, A. O. Cakmak, L. Sahin, Z. Li, F. Bilotti, L. Vegni, and E. Ozbay, “Split-ring-resonator-coupled enhanced transmission through a single subwavelength aperture,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(1), 013904 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. O. Cakmak, K. Aydin, E. Colak, Z. Li, F. Bilotti, L. Vegni, and E. Ozbay, “Enhanced transmission through a subwavelength aperture using metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 052103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. B. Alici, F. Bilotti, L. Vegni, and E. Ozbay, “Optimization and tunability of deep subwavelength resonators for metamaterial applications: complete enhanced transmission through a subwavelength aperture,” Opt. Express 17(8), 5933–5943 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Bilotti, L. Scorrano, E. Ozbay, and L. Vegni, “Enhanced transmission through a sub-wavelength aperture: resonant approaches employing metamaterials,” J. Opt. Pure Appl. Opt. 11(11), 114029 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

N. Katsarakis, M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “High transmittance left-handed materials involving symmetric split-ring resonators,” Photon. Nanostructures 5(4), 149–155 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsui, A. Agrawal, A. Nahata, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Transmission resonances through aperiodic arrays of subwavelength apertures,” Nature 446(7135), 517–521 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (5)

J. Bravo-Abad, A. Degiron, F. Przybilla, C. Genet, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, and T. W. Ebbesen, “How light emerges from an illuminated array of subwavelength holes,” Nat. Phys. 2(2), 120–123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Xie, A. R. Zakharian, J. V. Moloney, and M. Mansuripur, “Transmission of light through periodic arrays of sub-wavelength slits in metallic hosts,” Opt. Express 14(14), 6400–6413 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. J. García de Abajo, J. J. Sáenz, I. Campillo, and J. S. Dolado, “Site and lattice resonances in metallic hole arrays,” Opt. Express 14(1), 7–18 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Caglayan, I. Bulu, and E. Ozbay, “Plasmonic structures with extraordinary transmission and highly directional beaming properties,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 48(12), 2491–2496 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Alu, F. Bilotti, N. Engheta, and L. Vegni, “Metamaterial covers over a small aperture,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 54(6), 1632–1643 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (13)

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, and J. B. Pendry, “Surfaces with holes in them: new plasmonic metamaterials,” J. Opt. Pure Appl. Opt. 7(2), S97–S101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Akarca-Biyikli, I. Bulu, and E. Ozbay, “Resonant excitation of surface plasmons in one-dimensional metallic grating structures at microwave frequencies,” J. Opt. Pure Appl. Opt. 7(2), S159–S164 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. J. García-Vidal, E. Moreno, J. A. Porto, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Transmission of light through a single rectangular hole,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(10), 103901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Gbur, H. F. Schouten, and T. D. Visser, “Achieving superresolution in near-field optical data readout systems using surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(19), 191109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Ishi, J. Fujikata, K. Makita, T. Baba, and K. Ohashi, “Si nano-photodiode with a surface plasmon antenna,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(12), 364–366 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Liu, V. Kamaev, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Efficiency enhancement of an organic light-emitting diode with a cathode forming two-dimensional periodic hole array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(14), 143501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Shao and S. C. Chen, “Surface-plasmon-assisted nanoscale photolithography by polarized light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(25), 253107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. R. H. Stark, A. E. Halleck, and D. N. Larson, “Short order nanohole arrays in metals for highly sensitive probing of local indices of refraction as the basis for a highly multiplexed biosensor technology,” Methods 37(1), 37–47 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rigneault, J. Capoulade, J. Dintinger, J. Wenger, N. Bonod, E. Popov, T. W. Ebbesen, and P.-F. Lenne, “Enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence detection in subwavelength apertures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(11), 117401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Marquier, J.-J. Greffet, S. Collin, F. Pardo, and J. L. Pelouard, “Resonant transmission through a metallic film due to coupled modes,” Opt. Express 13(1), 70–76 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, “Plasmon-assisted two-slit transmission: Young’s experiment revisited,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(5), 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. G. Lee and Q.-H. Park, “Coupling of surface plasmon polaritons and light in metallic nanoslits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(10), 103902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q.- Wang, J.- Li, C.- Huang, C. Zhang, and Y.-y. Zhu, “Enhanced optical transmission through metal films with rotation-symmetrical hole arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(9), 091105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (9)

W. L. Barnes, W. A. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon polaritons and their role in the enhanced transmission of light through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes in a metal film,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(10), 107401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. K. Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, “Strong influence of hole shape on extraordinary transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(18), 183901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. R. Zakharian, M. Mansuripur, and J. V. Moloney, “Transmission of light through small elliptical apertures,” Opt. Express 12(12), 2631–2648 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces,” Science 305(5685), 847–848 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Williams, K. R. Rodriguez, S. Teeters-Kennedy, S. Shah, T. M. Rogers, A. D. Stafford, and J. V. Coe, “Scaffolding for nanotechnology: extraordinary infrared transmission of metal microarrays for stacked sensors and surface spectroscopy,” Nanotechnology 15(10), S495–S503 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Luo and T. Ishihara, “Sub-100-nm photolithography based on plasmon resonance,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 6B), 4017–4021 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, A. Rydh, J. Pearson, U. Welp, S.-H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, D. B. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Surface plasmons at single nanoholes in Au films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(3), 467–469 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Degiron and T. W. Ebbesen, “Analysis of the transmission process through single apertures surrounded by periodic corrugations,” Opt. Express 12(16), 3694–3700 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. S. Akarca-Biyikli, I. Bulu, and E. Ozbay, “Enhanced transmission of microwave radiation in one-dimensional metallic gratings with subwavelength aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1098–1100 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(16), 167401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, H. J. Lezec, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Focusing light with a single subwavelength aperture flanked by surface corrugations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4500–4502 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Marques, F. Mesa, J. Martel, and F. Medina, “Comparative analysis of edge- and broadside- coupled split ring resonators for metamaterial design-theory and experiments,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 51(10), 2572–2581 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. J. Garcia de Abajo, “Light transmission through a single cylindrical hole in a metallic film,” Opt. Express 10(25), 1475–1484 (2002).
[PubMed]

2001 (2)

A. Dogariu, T. Thio, L. J. Wang, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Delay in light transmission through small apertures,” Opt. Lett. 26(7), 450–452 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(6), 1114–1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

J. A. Porto, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and J. B. Pendry, “Transmission resonances on metallic gratings with very narrow slits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(14), 2845–2848 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 6779–6782 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1944 (1)

H. A. Bethe, “Theory of diffraction by small holes,” Phys. Rev. 66(7-8), 163–182 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, A.

T. Matsui, A. Agrawal, A. Nahata, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Transmission resonances through aperiodic arrays of subwavelength apertures,” Nature 446(7135), 517–521 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akarca-Biyikli, S. S.

S. S. Akarca-Biyikli, I. Bulu, and E. Ozbay, “Resonant excitation of surface plasmons in one-dimensional metallic grating structures at microwave frequencies,” J. Opt. Pure Appl. Opt. 7(2), S159–S164 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Akarca-Biyikli, I. Bulu, and E. Ozbay, “Enhanced transmission of microwave radiation in one-dimensional metallic gratings with subwavelength aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1098–1100 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Alici, K. B.

Alkemade, P. F. A.

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, “Plasmon-assisted two-slit transmission: Young’s experiment revisited,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(5), 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alu, A.

A. Alu, F. Bilotti, N. Engheta, and L. Vegni, “Metamaterial covers over a small aperture,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 54(6), 1632–1643 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Aydin, K.

K. Aydin, A. O. Cakmak, L. Sahin, Z. Li, F. Bilotti, L. Vegni, and E. Ozbay, “Split-ring-resonator-coupled enhanced transmission through a single subwavelength aperture,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(1), 013904 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. O. Cakmak, K. Aydin, E. Colak, Z. Li, F. Bilotti, L. Vegni, and E. Ozbay, “Enhanced transmission through a subwavelength aperture using metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 052103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Baba, T.

T. Ishi, J. Fujikata, K. Makita, T. Baba, and K. Ohashi, “Si nano-photodiode with a surface plasmon antenna,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(12), 364–366 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, W. A. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon polaritons and their role in the enhanced transmission of light through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes in a metal film,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(10), 107401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bethe, H. A.

H. A. Bethe, “Theory of diffraction by small holes,” Phys. Rev. 66(7-8), 163–182 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Bilotti, F.

A. O. Cakmak, K. Aydin, E. Colak, Z. Li, F. Bilotti, L. Vegni, and E. Ozbay, “Enhanced transmission through a subwavelength aperture using metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 052103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. B. Alici, F. Bilotti, L. Vegni, and E. Ozbay, “Optimization and tunability of deep subwavelength resonators for metamaterial applications: complete enhanced transmission through a subwavelength aperture,” Opt. Express 17(8), 5933–5943 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Bilotti, L. Scorrano, E. Ozbay, and L. Vegni, “Enhanced transmission through a sub-wavelength aperture: resonant approaches employing metamaterials,” J. Opt. Pure Appl. Opt. 11(11), 114029 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Aydin, A. O. Cakmak, L. Sahin, Z. Li, F. Bilotti, L. Vegni, and E. Ozbay, “Split-ring-resonator-coupled enhanced transmission through a single subwavelength aperture,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(1), 013904 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Alu, F. Bilotti, N. Engheta, and L. Vegni, “Metamaterial covers over a small aperture,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 54(6), 1632–1643 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Blok, H.

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, “Plasmon-assisted two-slit transmission: Young’s experiment revisited,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(5), 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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H. Rigneault, J. Capoulade, J. Dintinger, J. Wenger, N. Bonod, E. Popov, T. W. Ebbesen, and P.-F. Lenne, “Enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence detection in subwavelength apertures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(11), 117401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. Bravo-Abad, A. Degiron, F. Przybilla, C. Genet, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, and T. W. Ebbesen, “How light emerges from an illuminated array of subwavelength holes,” Nat. Phys. 2(2), 120–123 (2006).
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L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, A. Rydh, J. Pearson, U. Welp, S.-H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, D. B. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Surface plasmons at single nanoholes in Au films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(3), 467–469 (2004).
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H. Caglayan, I. Bulu, and E. Ozbay, “Plasmonic structures with extraordinary transmission and highly directional beaming properties,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 48(12), 2491–2496 (2006).
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S. S. Akarca-Biyikli, I. Bulu, and E. Ozbay, “Resonant excitation of surface plasmons in one-dimensional metallic grating structures at microwave frequencies,” J. Opt. Pure Appl. Opt. 7(2), S159–S164 (2005).
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S. S. Akarca-Biyikli, I. Bulu, and E. Ozbay, “Enhanced transmission of microwave radiation in one-dimensional metallic gratings with subwavelength aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1098–1100 (2004).
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H. Caglayan, I. Bulu, and E. Ozbay, “Plasmonic structures with extraordinary transmission and highly directional beaming properties,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 48(12), 2491–2496 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cakmak, A. O.

K. Aydin, A. O. Cakmak, L. Sahin, Z. Li, F. Bilotti, L. Vegni, and E. Ozbay, “Split-ring-resonator-coupled enhanced transmission through a single subwavelength aperture,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(1), 013904 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. O. Cakmak, K. Aydin, E. Colak, Z. Li, F. Bilotti, L. Vegni, and E. Ozbay, “Enhanced transmission through a subwavelength aperture using metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 052103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Campillo, I.

Capoulade, J.

H. Rigneault, J. Capoulade, J. Dintinger, J. Wenger, N. Bonod, E. Popov, T. W. Ebbesen, and P.-F. Lenne, “Enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence detection in subwavelength apertures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(11), 117401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, A. Rydh, J. Pearson, U. Welp, S.-H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, D. B. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Surface plasmons at single nanoholes in Au films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(3), 467–469 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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D. B. Shao and S. C. Chen, “Surface-plasmon-assisted nanoscale photolithography by polarized light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(25), 253107 (2005).
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S. M. Williams, K. R. Rodriguez, S. Teeters-Kennedy, S. Shah, T. M. Rogers, A. D. Stafford, and J. V. Coe, “Scaffolding for nanotechnology: extraordinary infrared transmission of metal microarrays for stacked sensors and surface spectroscopy,” Nanotechnology 15(10), S495–S503 (2004).
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Colak, E.

A. O. Cakmak, K. Aydin, E. Colak, Z. Li, F. Bilotti, L. Vegni, and E. Ozbay, “Enhanced transmission through a subwavelength aperture using metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 052103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Collin, S.

Degiron, A.

J. Bravo-Abad, A. Degiron, F. Przybilla, C. Genet, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, and T. W. Ebbesen, “How light emerges from an illuminated array of subwavelength holes,” Nat. Phys. 2(2), 120–123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Degiron and T. W. Ebbesen, “Analysis of the transmission process through single apertures surrounded by periodic corrugations,” Opt. Express 12(16), 3694–3700 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(16), 167401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Devaux, E.

W. L. Barnes, W. A. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon polaritons and their role in the enhanced transmission of light through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes in a metal film,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(10), 107401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dintinger, J.

H. Rigneault, J. Capoulade, J. Dintinger, J. Wenger, N. Bonod, E. Popov, T. W. Ebbesen, and P.-F. Lenne, “Enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence detection in subwavelength apertures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(11), 117401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. L. Barnes, W. A. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon polaritons and their role in the enhanced transmission of light through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes in a metal film,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(10), 107401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dogariu, A.

Dolado, J. S.

Dubois, G.

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, “Plasmon-assisted two-slit transmission: Young’s experiment revisited,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(5), 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ebbesen, T. W.

J. Bravo-Abad, A. Degiron, F. Przybilla, C. Genet, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, and T. W. Ebbesen, “How light emerges from an illuminated array of subwavelength holes,” Nat. Phys. 2(2), 120–123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Rigneault, J. Capoulade, J. Dintinger, J. Wenger, N. Bonod, E. Popov, T. W. Ebbesen, and P.-F. Lenne, “Enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence detection in subwavelength apertures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(11), 117401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. L. Barnes, W. A. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon polaritons and their role in the enhanced transmission of light through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes in a metal film,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(10), 107401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Degiron and T. W. Ebbesen, “Analysis of the transmission process through single apertures surrounded by periodic corrugations,” Opt. Express 12(16), 3694–3700 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, H. J. Lezec, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Focusing light with a single subwavelength aperture flanked by surface corrugations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4500–4502 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(16), 167401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dogariu, T. Thio, L. J. Wang, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Delay in light transmission through small apertures,” Opt. Lett. 26(7), 450–452 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(6), 1114–1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 6779–6782 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Economou, E. N.

N. Katsarakis, M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “High transmittance left-handed materials involving symmetric split-ring resonators,” Photon. Nanostructures 5(4), 149–155 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Eliel, E. R.

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, “Plasmon-assisted two-slit transmission: Young’s experiment revisited,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(5), 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Engheta, N.

A. Alu, F. Bilotti, N. Engheta, and L. Vegni, “Metamaterial covers over a small aperture,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 54(6), 1632–1643 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Enoch, S.

K. J. K. Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, “Strong influence of hole shape on extraordinary transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(18), 183901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujikata, J.

T. Ishi, J. Fujikata, K. Makita, T. Baba, and K. Ohashi, “Si nano-photodiode with a surface plasmon antenna,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(12), 364–366 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Garcia de Abajo, F. J.

García de Abajo, F. J.

Garcia-Vidal, F. J.

J. Bravo-Abad, A. Degiron, F. Przybilla, C. Genet, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, and T. W. Ebbesen, “How light emerges from an illuminated array of subwavelength holes,” Nat. Phys. 2(2), 120–123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, and J. B. Pendry, “Surfaces with holes in them: new plasmonic metamaterials,” J. Opt. Pure Appl. Opt. 7(2), S97–S101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces,” Science 305(5685), 847–848 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, H. J. Lezec, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Focusing light with a single subwavelength aperture flanked by surface corrugations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4500–4502 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Porto, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and J. B. Pendry, “Transmission resonances on metallic gratings with very narrow slits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(14), 2845–2848 (1999).
[CrossRef]

García-Vidal, F. J.

F. J. García-Vidal, E. Moreno, J. A. Porto, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Transmission of light through a single rectangular hole,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(10), 103901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(16), 167401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(6), 1114–1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gbur, G.

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, “Plasmon-assisted two-slit transmission: Young’s experiment revisited,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(5), 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Gbur, H. F. Schouten, and T. D. Visser, “Achieving superresolution in near-field optical data readout systems using surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(19), 191109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Genet, C.

J. Bravo-Abad, A. Degiron, F. Przybilla, C. Genet, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, and T. W. Ebbesen, “How light emerges from an illuminated array of subwavelength holes,” Nat. Phys. 2(2), 120–123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ghaemi, H. F.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 6779–6782 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gray, S. K.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, A. Rydh, J. Pearson, U. Welp, S.-H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, D. B. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Surface plasmons at single nanoholes in Au films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(3), 467–469 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Greffet, J.-J.

Grupp, D. E.

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 6779–6782 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Halleck, A. E.

P. R. H. Stark, A. E. Halleck, and D. N. Larson, “Short order nanohole arrays in metals for highly sensitive probing of local indices of refraction as the basis for a highly multiplexed biosensor technology,” Methods 37(1), 37–47 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hooft, G. W.

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, “Plasmon-assisted two-slit transmission: Young’s experiment revisited,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(5), 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, C.-

Q.- Wang, J.- Li, C.- Huang, C. Zhang, and Y.-y. Zhu, “Enhanced optical transmission through metal films with rotation-symmetrical hole arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(9), 091105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ishi, T.

T. Ishi, J. Fujikata, K. Makita, T. Baba, and K. Ohashi, “Si nano-photodiode with a surface plasmon antenna,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(12), 364–366 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ishihara, T.

X. Luo and T. Ishihara, “Sub-100-nm photolithography based on plasmon resonance,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 6B), 4017–4021 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kafesaki, M.

N. Katsarakis, M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “High transmittance left-handed materials involving symmetric split-ring resonators,” Photon. Nanostructures 5(4), 149–155 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kamaev, V.

C. Liu, V. Kamaev, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Efficiency enhancement of an organic light-emitting diode with a cathode forming two-dimensional periodic hole array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(14), 143501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Katsarakis, N.

N. Katsarakis, M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “High transmittance left-handed materials involving symmetric split-ring resonators,” Photon. Nanostructures 5(4), 149–155 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kimball, C. W.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, A. Rydh, J. Pearson, U. Welp, S.-H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, D. B. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Surface plasmons at single nanoholes in Au films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(3), 467–469 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Koerkamp, K. J. K.

K. J. K. Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, “Strong influence of hole shape on extraordinary transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(18), 183901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuipers, L.

K. J. K. Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, “Strong influence of hole shape on extraordinary transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(18), 183901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuzmin, N.

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, “Plasmon-assisted two-slit transmission: Young’s experiment revisited,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(5), 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larson, D. N.

P. R. H. Stark, A. E. Halleck, and D. N. Larson, “Short order nanohole arrays in metals for highly sensitive probing of local indices of refraction as the basis for a highly multiplexed biosensor technology,” Methods 37(1), 37–47 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, K. G.

K. G. Lee and Q.-H. Park, “Coupling of surface plasmon polaritons and light in metallic nanoslits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(10), 103902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lenne, P.-F.

H. Rigneault, J. Capoulade, J. Dintinger, J. Wenger, N. Bonod, E. Popov, T. W. Ebbesen, and P.-F. Lenne, “Enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence detection in subwavelength apertures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(11), 117401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lenstra, D.

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, “Plasmon-assisted two-slit transmission: Young’s experiment revisited,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(5), 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lezec, H. J.

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(16), 167401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, H. J. Lezec, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Focusing light with a single subwavelength aperture flanked by surface corrugations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4500–4502 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dogariu, T. Thio, L. J. Wang, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Delay in light transmission through small apertures,” Opt. Lett. 26(7), 450–452 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(6), 1114–1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 6779–6782 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.-

Q.- Wang, J.- Li, C.- Huang, C. Zhang, and Y.-y. Zhu, “Enhanced optical transmission through metal films with rotation-symmetrical hole arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(9), 091105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

K. Aydin, A. O. Cakmak, L. Sahin, Z. Li, F. Bilotti, L. Vegni, and E. Ozbay, “Split-ring-resonator-coupled enhanced transmission through a single subwavelength aperture,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(1), 013904 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. O. Cakmak, K. Aydin, E. Colak, Z. Li, F. Bilotti, L. Vegni, and E. Ozbay, “Enhanced transmission through a subwavelength aperture using metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 052103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Linke, R. A.

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, C.

C. Liu, V. Kamaev, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Efficiency enhancement of an organic light-emitting diode with a cathode forming two-dimensional periodic hole array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(14), 143501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Luo, X.

X. Luo and T. Ishihara, “Sub-100-nm photolithography based on plasmon resonance,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 6B), 4017–4021 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Makita, K.

T. Ishi, J. Fujikata, K. Makita, T. Baba, and K. Ohashi, “Si nano-photodiode with a surface plasmon antenna,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(12), 364–366 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mansuripur, M.

Marques, R.

R. Marques, F. Mesa, J. Martel, and F. Medina, “Comparative analysis of edge- and broadside- coupled split ring resonators for metamaterial design-theory and experiments,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 51(10), 2572–2581 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Marquier, F.

Martel, J.

R. Marques, F. Mesa, J. Martel, and F. Medina, “Comparative analysis of edge- and broadside- coupled split ring resonators for metamaterial design-theory and experiments,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 51(10), 2572–2581 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Martin-Moreno, L.

J. Bravo-Abad, A. Degiron, F. Przybilla, C. Genet, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, and T. W. Ebbesen, “How light emerges from an illuminated array of subwavelength holes,” Nat. Phys. 2(2), 120–123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, and J. B. Pendry, “Surfaces with holes in them: new plasmonic metamaterials,” J. Opt. Pure Appl. Opt. 7(2), S97–S101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, H. J. Lezec, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Focusing light with a single subwavelength aperture flanked by surface corrugations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4500–4502 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, E. Devaux, R. A. Linke, L. Martin-Moreno, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Beaming light from a subwavelength aperture,” Science 297(5582), 820–822 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martín-Moreno, L.

F. J. García-Vidal, E. Moreno, J. A. Porto, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Transmission of light through a single rectangular hole,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(10), 103901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces,” Science 305(5685), 847–848 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(16), 167401 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(6), 1114–1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsui, T.

T. Matsui, A. Agrawal, A. Nahata, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Transmission resonances through aperiodic arrays of subwavelength apertures,” Nature 446(7135), 517–521 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Medina, F.

R. Marques, F. Mesa, J. Martel, and F. Medina, “Comparative analysis of edge- and broadside- coupled split ring resonators for metamaterial design-theory and experiments,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 51(10), 2572–2581 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mesa, F.

R. Marques, F. Mesa, J. Martel, and F. Medina, “Comparative analysis of edge- and broadside- coupled split ring resonators for metamaterial design-theory and experiments,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 51(10), 2572–2581 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Moloney, J. V.

Moreno, E.

F. J. García-Vidal, E. Moreno, J. A. Porto, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Transmission of light through a single rectangular hole,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(10), 103901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murray, W. A.

W. L. Barnes, W. A. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon polaritons and their role in the enhanced transmission of light through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes in a metal film,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(10), 107401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nahata, A.

T. Matsui, A. Agrawal, A. Nahata, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Transmission resonances through aperiodic arrays of subwavelength apertures,” Nature 446(7135), 517–521 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ohashi, K.

T. Ishi, J. Fujikata, K. Makita, T. Baba, and K. Ohashi, “Si nano-photodiode with a surface plasmon antenna,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(12), 364–366 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ozbay, E.

K. Aydin, A. O. Cakmak, L. Sahin, Z. Li, F. Bilotti, L. Vegni, and E. Ozbay, “Split-ring-resonator-coupled enhanced transmission through a single subwavelength aperture,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(1), 013904 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. O. Cakmak, K. Aydin, E. Colak, Z. Li, F. Bilotti, L. Vegni, and E. Ozbay, “Enhanced transmission through a subwavelength aperture using metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 052103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Bilotti, L. Scorrano, E. Ozbay, and L. Vegni, “Enhanced transmission through a sub-wavelength aperture: resonant approaches employing metamaterials,” J. Opt. Pure Appl. Opt. 11(11), 114029 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. B. Alici, F. Bilotti, L. Vegni, and E. Ozbay, “Optimization and tunability of deep subwavelength resonators for metamaterial applications: complete enhanced transmission through a subwavelength aperture,” Opt. Express 17(8), 5933–5943 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Caglayan, I. Bulu, and E. Ozbay, “Plasmonic structures with extraordinary transmission and highly directional beaming properties,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 48(12), 2491–2496 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Akarca-Biyikli, I. Bulu, and E. Ozbay, “Resonant excitation of surface plasmons in one-dimensional metallic grating structures at microwave frequencies,” J. Opt. Pure Appl. Opt. 7(2), S159–S164 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Akarca-Biyikli, I. Bulu, and E. Ozbay, “Enhanced transmission of microwave radiation in one-dimensional metallic gratings with subwavelength aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1098–1100 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pardo, F.

Park, Q.-H.

K. G. Lee and Q.-H. Park, “Coupling of surface plasmon polaritons and light in metallic nanoslits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(10), 103902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pearson, J.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, A. Rydh, J. Pearson, U. Welp, S.-H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, D. B. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Surface plasmons at single nanoholes in Au films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(3), 467–469 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pellerin, K. M.

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(6), 1114–1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pelouard, J. L.

Pendry, J. B.

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, and J. B. Pendry, “Surfaces with holes in them: new plasmonic metamaterials,” J. Opt. Pure Appl. Opt. 7(2), S97–S101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, “Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces,” Science 305(5685), 847–848 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(6), 1114–1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Porto, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and J. B. Pendry, “Transmission resonances on metallic gratings with very narrow slits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(14), 2845–2848 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Popov, E.

H. Rigneault, J. Capoulade, J. Dintinger, J. Wenger, N. Bonod, E. Popov, T. W. Ebbesen, and P.-F. Lenne, “Enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence detection in subwavelength apertures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(11), 117401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Porto, J. A.

F. J. García-Vidal, E. Moreno, J. A. Porto, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Transmission of light through a single rectangular hole,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(10), 103901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Porto, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and J. B. Pendry, “Transmission resonances on metallic gratings with very narrow slits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(14), 2845–2848 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Przybilla, F.

J. Bravo-Abad, A. Degiron, F. Przybilla, C. Genet, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, and T. W. Ebbesen, “How light emerges from an illuminated array of subwavelength holes,” Nat. Phys. 2(2), 120–123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rigneault, H.

H. Rigneault, J. Capoulade, J. Dintinger, J. Wenger, N. Bonod, E. Popov, T. W. Ebbesen, and P.-F. Lenne, “Enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence detection in subwavelength apertures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(11), 117401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodriguez, K. R.

S. M. Williams, K. R. Rodriguez, S. Teeters-Kennedy, S. Shah, T. M. Rogers, A. D. Stafford, and J. V. Coe, “Scaffolding for nanotechnology: extraordinary infrared transmission of metal microarrays for stacked sensors and surface spectroscopy,” Nanotechnology 15(10), S495–S503 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, T. M.

S. M. Williams, K. R. Rodriguez, S. Teeters-Kennedy, S. Shah, T. M. Rogers, A. D. Stafford, and J. V. Coe, “Scaffolding for nanotechnology: extraordinary infrared transmission of metal microarrays for stacked sensors and surface spectroscopy,” Nanotechnology 15(10), S495–S503 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rydh, A.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, A. Rydh, J. Pearson, U. Welp, S.-H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, D. B. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Surface plasmons at single nanoholes in Au films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(3), 467–469 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sáenz, J. J.

Sahin, L.

K. Aydin, A. O. Cakmak, L. Sahin, Z. Li, F. Bilotti, L. Vegni, and E. Ozbay, “Split-ring-resonator-coupled enhanced transmission through a single subwavelength aperture,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(1), 013904 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schatz, G. C.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, A. Rydh, J. Pearson, U. Welp, S.-H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, D. B. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Surface plasmons at single nanoholes in Au films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(3), 467–469 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schouten, H. F.

G. Gbur, H. F. Schouten, and T. D. Visser, “Achieving superresolution in near-field optical data readout systems using surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(19), 191109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, “Plasmon-assisted two-slit transmission: Young’s experiment revisited,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(5), 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scorrano, L.

F. Bilotti, L. Scorrano, E. Ozbay, and L. Vegni, “Enhanced transmission through a sub-wavelength aperture: resonant approaches employing metamaterials,” J. Opt. Pure Appl. Opt. 11(11), 114029 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Segerink, F. B.

K. J. K. Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, “Strong influence of hole shape on extraordinary transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(18), 183901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shah, S.

S. M. Williams, K. R. Rodriguez, S. Teeters-Kennedy, S. Shah, T. M. Rogers, A. D. Stafford, and J. V. Coe, “Scaffolding for nanotechnology: extraordinary infrared transmission of metal microarrays for stacked sensors and surface spectroscopy,” Nanotechnology 15(10), S495–S503 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shao, D. B.

D. B. Shao and S. C. Chen, “Surface-plasmon-assisted nanoscale photolithography by polarized light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(25), 253107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Soukoulis, C. M.

N. Katsarakis, M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “High transmittance left-handed materials involving symmetric split-ring resonators,” Photon. Nanostructures 5(4), 149–155 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stafford, A. D.

S. M. Williams, K. R. Rodriguez, S. Teeters-Kennedy, S. Shah, T. M. Rogers, A. D. Stafford, and J. V. Coe, “Scaffolding for nanotechnology: extraordinary infrared transmission of metal microarrays for stacked sensors and surface spectroscopy,” Nanotechnology 15(10), S495–S503 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stark, P. R. H.

P. R. H. Stark, A. E. Halleck, and D. N. Larson, “Short order nanohole arrays in metals for highly sensitive probing of local indices of refraction as the basis for a highly multiplexed biosensor technology,” Methods 37(1), 37–47 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Teeters-Kennedy, S.

S. M. Williams, K. R. Rodriguez, S. Teeters-Kennedy, S. Shah, T. M. Rogers, A. D. Stafford, and J. V. Coe, “Scaffolding for nanotechnology: extraordinary infrared transmission of metal microarrays for stacked sensors and surface spectroscopy,” Nanotechnology 15(10), S495–S503 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thio, T.

A. Dogariu, T. Thio, L. J. Wang, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Delay in light transmission through small apertures,” Opt. Lett. 26(7), 450–452 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(6), 1114–1117 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 6779–6782 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tsiapa, I.

N. Katsarakis, M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “High transmittance left-handed materials involving symmetric split-ring resonators,” Photon. Nanostructures 5(4), 149–155 (2007).
[CrossRef]

van Hulst, N. F.

K. J. K. Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, “Strong influence of hole shape on extraordinary transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(18), 183901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vardeny, Z. V.

T. Matsui, A. Agrawal, A. Nahata, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Transmission resonances through aperiodic arrays of subwavelength apertures,” Nature 446(7135), 517–521 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Liu, V. Kamaev, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Efficiency enhancement of an organic light-emitting diode with a cathode forming two-dimensional periodic hole array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(14), 143501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vegni, L.

K. Aydin, A. O. Cakmak, L. Sahin, Z. Li, F. Bilotti, L. Vegni, and E. Ozbay, “Split-ring-resonator-coupled enhanced transmission through a single subwavelength aperture,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(1), 013904 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Bilotti, L. Scorrano, E. Ozbay, and L. Vegni, “Enhanced transmission through a sub-wavelength aperture: resonant approaches employing metamaterials,” J. Opt. Pure Appl. Opt. 11(11), 114029 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. B. Alici, F. Bilotti, L. Vegni, and E. Ozbay, “Optimization and tunability of deep subwavelength resonators for metamaterial applications: complete enhanced transmission through a subwavelength aperture,” Opt. Express 17(8), 5933–5943 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. O. Cakmak, K. Aydin, E. Colak, Z. Li, F. Bilotti, L. Vegni, and E. Ozbay, “Enhanced transmission through a subwavelength aperture using metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 052103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Alu, F. Bilotti, N. Engheta, and L. Vegni, “Metamaterial covers over a small aperture,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 54(6), 1632–1643 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Visser, T. D.

G. Gbur, H. F. Schouten, and T. D. Visser, “Achieving superresolution in near-field optical data readout systems using surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(19), 191109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, “Plasmon-assisted two-slit transmission: Young’s experiment revisited,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(5), 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vlasko-Vlasov, V. K.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, A. Rydh, J. Pearson, U. Welp, S.-H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, D. B. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Surface plasmons at single nanoholes in Au films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(3), 467–469 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. J.

Wang, Q.-

Q.- Wang, J.- Li, C.- Huang, C. Zhang, and Y.-y. Zhu, “Enhanced optical transmission through metal films with rotation-symmetrical hole arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(9), 091105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Welp, U.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, A. Rydh, J. Pearson, U. Welp, S.-H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, D. B. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Surface plasmons at single nanoholes in Au films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(3), 467–469 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wenger, J.

H. Rigneault, J. Capoulade, J. Dintinger, J. Wenger, N. Bonod, E. Popov, T. W. Ebbesen, and P.-F. Lenne, “Enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence detection in subwavelength apertures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(11), 117401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, S. M.

S. M. Williams, K. R. Rodriguez, S. Teeters-Kennedy, S. Shah, T. M. Rogers, A. D. Stafford, and J. V. Coe, “Scaffolding for nanotechnology: extraordinary infrared transmission of metal microarrays for stacked sensors and surface spectroscopy,” Nanotechnology 15(10), S495–S503 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wolff, P. A.

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Xie, Y.

Yin, L.

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, A. Rydh, J. Pearson, U. Welp, S.-H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, D. B. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Surface plasmons at single nanoholes in Au films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(3), 467–469 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zakharian, A. R.

Zhang, C.

Q.- Wang, J.- Li, C.- Huang, C. Zhang, and Y.-y. Zhu, “Enhanced optical transmission through metal films with rotation-symmetrical hole arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(9), 091105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Y.-y.

Q.- Wang, J.- Li, C.- Huang, C. Zhang, and Y.-y. Zhu, “Enhanced optical transmission through metal films with rotation-symmetrical hole arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(9), 091105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

Q.- Wang, J.- Li, C.- Huang, C. Zhang, and Y.-y. Zhu, “Enhanced optical transmission through metal films with rotation-symmetrical hole arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(9), 091105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Yin, V. K. Vlasko-Vlasov, A. Rydh, J. Pearson, U. Welp, S.-H. Chang, S. K. Gray, G. C. Schatz, D. B. Brown, and C. W. Kimball, “Surface plasmons at single nanoholes in Au films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(3), 467–469 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, H. J. Lezec, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Focusing light with a single subwavelength aperture flanked by surface corrugations,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 4500–4502 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Akarca-Biyikli, I. Bulu, and E. Ozbay, “Enhanced transmission of microwave radiation in one-dimensional metallic gratings with subwavelength aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1098–1100 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Gbur, H. F. Schouten, and T. D. Visser, “Achieving superresolution in near-field optical data readout systems using surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(19), 191109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Liu, V. Kamaev, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Efficiency enhancement of an organic light-emitting diode with a cathode forming two-dimensional periodic hole array,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(14), 143501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. B. Shao and S. C. Chen, “Surface-plasmon-assisted nanoscale photolithography by polarized light,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(25), 253107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. O. Cakmak, K. Aydin, E. Colak, Z. Li, F. Bilotti, L. Vegni, and E. Ozbay, “Enhanced transmission through a subwavelength aperture using metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 052103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. (2)

A. Alu, F. Bilotti, N. Engheta, and L. Vegni, “Metamaterial covers over a small aperture,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 54(6), 1632–1643 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Marques, F. Mesa, J. Martel, and F. Medina, “Comparative analysis of edge- and broadside- coupled split ring resonators for metamaterial design-theory and experiments,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. 51(10), 2572–2581 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Pure Appl. Opt. (3)

F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, and J. B. Pendry, “Surfaces with holes in them: new plasmonic metamaterials,” J. Opt. Pure Appl. Opt. 7(2), S97–S101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Bilotti, L. Scorrano, E. Ozbay, and L. Vegni, “Enhanced transmission through a sub-wavelength aperture: resonant approaches employing metamaterials,” J. Opt. Pure Appl. Opt. 11(11), 114029 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Akarca-Biyikli, I. Bulu, and E. Ozbay, “Resonant excitation of surface plasmons in one-dimensional metallic grating structures at microwave frequencies,” J. Opt. Pure Appl. Opt. 7(2), S159–S164 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

X. Luo and T. Ishihara, “Sub-100-nm photolithography based on plasmon resonance,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 6B), 4017–4021 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Ishi, J. Fujikata, K. Makita, T. Baba, and K. Ohashi, “Si nano-photodiode with a surface plasmon antenna,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(12), 364–366 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Methods (1)

P. R. H. Stark, A. E. Halleck, and D. N. Larson, “Short order nanohole arrays in metals for highly sensitive probing of local indices of refraction as the basis for a highly multiplexed biosensor technology,” Methods 37(1), 37–47 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. (1)

H. Caglayan, I. Bulu, and E. Ozbay, “Plasmonic structures with extraordinary transmission and highly directional beaming properties,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 48(12), 2491–2496 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology (1)

S. M. Williams, K. R. Rodriguez, S. Teeters-Kennedy, S. Shah, T. M. Rogers, A. D. Stafford, and J. V. Coe, “Scaffolding for nanotechnology: extraordinary infrared transmission of metal microarrays for stacked sensors and surface spectroscopy,” Nanotechnology 15(10), S495–S503 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (1)

J. Bravo-Abad, A. Degiron, F. Przybilla, C. Genet, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, L. Martin-Moreno, and T. W. Ebbesen, “How light emerges from an illuminated array of subwavelength holes,” Nat. Phys. 2(2), 120–123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

T. W. Ebbesen, H. J. Lezec, H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, and P. A. Wolff, “Extraordinary optical transmission through sub-wavelength hole arrays,” Nature 391(6668), 667–669 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Matsui, A. Agrawal, A. Nahata, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Transmission resonances through aperiodic arrays of subwavelength apertures,” Nature 446(7135), 517–521 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (7)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Photon. Nanostructures (1)

N. Katsarakis, M. Kafesaki, I. Tsiapa, E. N. Economou, and C. M. Soukoulis, “High transmittance left-handed materials involving symmetric split-ring resonators,” Photon. Nanostructures 5(4), 149–155 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

H. A. Bethe, “Theory of diffraction by small holes,” Phys. Rev. 66(7-8), 163–182 (1944).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 6779–6782 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (10)

F. J. García-Vidal, E. Moreno, J. A. Porto, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Transmission of light through a single rectangular hole,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(10), 103901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. L. Barnes, W. A. Murray, J. Dintinger, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon polaritons and their role in the enhanced transmission of light through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes in a metal film,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(10), 107401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. K. Koerkamp, S. Enoch, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, and L. Kuipers, “Strong influence of hole shape on extraordinary transmission through periodic arrays of subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(18), 183901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Schouten, N. Kuzmin, G. Dubois, T. D. Visser, G. Gbur, P. F. A. Alkemade, H. Blok, G. W. Hooft, D. Lenstra, and E. R. Eliel, “Plasmon-assisted two-slit transmission: Young’s experiment revisited,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(5), 053901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, K. M. Pellerin, T. Thio, J. B. Pendry, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of extraordinary optical transmission through subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(6), 1114–1117 (2001).
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[CrossRef]

K. G. Lee and Q.-H. Park, “Coupling of surface plasmon polaritons and light in metallic nanoslits,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(10), 103902 (2005).
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L. Martín-Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, H. J. Lezec, A. Degiron, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Theory of highly directional emission from a single subwavelength aperture surrounded by surface corrugations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(16), 167401 (2003).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Supplementary Material (7)

» Media 1: MPG (3350 KB)     
» Media 2: MPG (2202 KB)     
» Media 3: MPG (3342 KB)     
» Media 4: MPG (2008 KB)     
» Media 5: MPG (1230 KB)     
» Media 6: MPG (1242 KB)     
» Media 7: MPG (1235 KB)     

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) CSRR configurations and the labeled dimensions (a=5.5mm, b=3.5mm, g=w=0.5mm, l=5.5mm, Rin =1.75mm, Rout =3mm), (b) Simulated transmission spectra for Sample A (solid blue line), SRR A (dashed blue line), Sample B (solid red line), SRR B (dashed red line), and (c) Sample A incorporated with the deep subwavelength aperture. The front and side views are given together.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured transmission results (solid black line), smoothed measurement results (dashed red line), simulated transmission results (solid blue line).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Simulated transmission results in the presence of diffractions (solid black line), and without diffractions (solid red line) when the transmitter antenna is 0.5mm away from the plate. (b) Simulated field maps on y-z plane when the transmitter antenna is 0.5mm away from the metal screen within a frequency range of 3.3-5 GHz (Media 1). (c) Simulated field maps on y-z plane for the modeled antennas within a frequency range of 3.5-5 GHz (Media 2). (d) Simulated field maps on y-z plane when the transmitter antenna is 5mm away from the metal screen within a frequency range of 3.3-5 GHz (Media 3).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Measured, (b) simulated transmitted intensity results for Sample A (solid red lines) and the aperture (solid blue lines). (c) Experimentally validated enhancement factor for Sample A. (d) Measured, (e) simulated transmitted intensity results for Sample B (solid red lines) and the aperture (solid blue lines). (f) Experimentally validated enhancement factor for Sample B.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Simulated field maps on x-z plane for (a) the single aperture case, (b) Sample A incorporated subwavelength aperture case at the numerically calculated enhancement frequency (3.3 GHz). The transmitter antenna is in the lower half plane and it is located 0.5mm away from the metal plate.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Simulated transmitted intensity figures for different transmitter antenna metal plate separations with Sample B (Metal plate-transmitter distance: 0.5mm solid red line, metal plate-transmitter distance: 5mm solid black line). Simulated field maps on y-z plane in the presence of Sample B when transmitter antenna to the metal plate separation is (b) 0.5mm and (c) 5mm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Plane wave transmission results in dB scale collected with E-field probes for Sample A (solid red line), Sample B (solid black line), Aperture1 (solid blue line) and Aperture2 (solid green line). Bethe’s transmission efficiency predictions for Aperture1 and Aperture2 (dashed orange lines).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Simulated field enhancement results with respect to the single aperture for Sample B incorporated aperture (solid red line), Sample B with inner rings shorted (solid black line), and Sample B with outer rings shorted (solid blue line). (b) Simulated transmitted electric fields at the exit side for Sample B (solid red line), Sample B with inner rings shorted (solid black line), and Sample B with outer rings shorted (solid blue line).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Simulated field enhancement results with respect to the single aperture for the CSRR with given dimensions. The same CSRR is incorporated with Aperture1 (solid red line), which is 3×7.5mm2 and with Aperture2 (solid black line), which is 1×2.5mm2. (b) Simulated transmitted electric fields at the exit side for Aperture1 (solid red line) and Aperture2 (solid black line).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) Simulated field enhancement results with respect to the single aperture for Sample A incorporated aperture (solid red line), Sample A without connecting bars (solid black line), and single SRR (solid blue line). (b) Simulated transmitted electric fields at the exit side for Sample A incorporated aperture (solid red line), Sample A without connecting bars (solid black line), and single SRR affixed to the input side of the aperture (solid blue line).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Animations based on numerical results at the enhancement frequency. (a) Induced surface currents on the CSRRs (Media 4). (b) Field localization around the aperture (aperture is in the middle of the plane) with the help of the CSRRs (Media 5). (c) Electric field localization around the aperture without the connecting bars (Media 6). (d) Electric field localization around the aperture with the connecting bars (Media 7).

Tables (2)

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Table 1 List of the magnetic resonance frequencies

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Table 2 Transmission Enhancement

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