Abstract

We demonstrate a silicon photonic platform using thin buried oxide silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrates using localized substrate removal. We show high confinement silicon strip waveguides, micro-ring resonators and nanotapers using this technology. Propagation losses for the waveguides using the cutback method are 3.88 dB/cm for the quasi-TE mode and 5.06 dB/cm for the quasi-TM mode. Ring resonators with a loaded quality factor (Q) of 46,500 for the quasi-TM mode and intrinsic Q of 148,000 for the quasi-TE mode have been obtained. This process will enable the integration of photonic structures with thin buried oxide SOI based electronics.

© 2010 OSA

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2009

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, H. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kartner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, “Building many-core processor-to-DRAM networks with monolithic CMOS silicon photonics,” IEEE Micro 29(4), 8–21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

M. Gnan, S. Thoms, D. S. Macintyre, R. M. De La Rue, and M. Sorel, “Fabrication of low-loss photonic wires in silicon-on-insulator using hydrogen silsesquioxane electron-beam resist,” Electron. Lett. 44(2), 115–116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhang, M. Dainese, L. Wosinski, and M. Qiu, “Resonance-splitting and enhanced notch depth in SOI ring resonators with mutual mode coupling,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4621–4630 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Li, Z. Zhang, F. Liu, M. Qiu, and Y. Su, “Dense wavelength conversion and multicasting in a resonance-split silicon microring,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(8), 081113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

C. Gunn, “CMOS photonics for high-speed interconnects,” IEEE Micro 26(2), 58–66 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

M. Lipson, “Guiding, modulating and emitting light on silicon – challenges and opportunities,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(12), 4222–4238 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, and A. Scherer, “High-Q ring resonators in thin silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(16), 3346–3347 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Vlasov and S. McNab, “Losses in single-mode silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and bends,” Opt. Express 12(8), 1622–1631 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

2002

J.-T. Park and J.-P. Colinge, “Multiple-gate SOI MOSFETs: device design guidelines,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 49(12), 2222–2229 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

2000

D. A. B. Miller, “Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 728–749 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Hisamoto, W.-C. Lee, J. Kedzierski, H. Takeuchi, K. Asano, C. Kuo, E. Anderson, T.-J. King, J. Bokor, and C. Hu, “FinFET-a self-aligned double-gate MOSFET scalable to 20 nm,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 47(12), 2320–2325 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

R. Koh, “Buried layer engineering to reduce the drain-induced barrier lowering of sub-0.05 µm SOI-MOSFET,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(Part 1, No. 4B), 2294–2299 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(6), 998–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994

L. T. Su, J. E. Chung, D. A. Antoniadis, K. E. Goodson, and M. I. Flik, “Measurement and modeling of self-heating in SOI NMOSFET’s,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 41(1), 69–75 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, V. R.

Anderson, E.

D. Hisamoto, W.-C. Lee, J. Kedzierski, H. Takeuchi, K. Asano, C. Kuo, E. Anderson, T.-J. King, J. Bokor, and C. Hu, “FinFET-a self-aligned double-gate MOSFET scalable to 20 nm,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 47(12), 2320–2325 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Antoniadis, D. A.

L. T. Su, J. E. Chung, D. A. Antoniadis, K. E. Goodson, and M. I. Flik, “Measurement and modeling of self-heating in SOI NMOSFET’s,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 41(1), 69–75 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Asano, K.

D. Hisamoto, W.-C. Lee, J. Kedzierski, H. Takeuchi, K. Asano, C. Kuo, E. Anderson, T.-J. King, J. Bokor, and C. Hu, “FinFET-a self-aligned double-gate MOSFET scalable to 20 nm,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 47(12), 2320–2325 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Asanovic, K.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, H. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kartner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, “Building many-core processor-to-DRAM networks with monolithic CMOS silicon photonics,” IEEE Micro 29(4), 8–21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Baehr-Jones, T.

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, and A. Scherer, “High-Q ring resonators in thin silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(16), 3346–3347 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Batten, C.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, H. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kartner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, “Building many-core processor-to-DRAM networks with monolithic CMOS silicon photonics,” IEEE Micro 29(4), 8–21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Beckx, S.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bienstman, P.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bokor, J.

D. Hisamoto, W.-C. Lee, J. Kedzierski, H. Takeuchi, K. Asano, C. Kuo, E. Anderson, T.-J. King, J. Bokor, and C. Hu, “FinFET-a self-aligned double-gate MOSFET scalable to 20 nm,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 47(12), 2320–2325 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cerrina, F.

Chu, S. T.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(6), 998–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chung, J. E.

L. T. Su, J. E. Chung, D. A. Antoniadis, K. E. Goodson, and M. I. Flik, “Measurement and modeling of self-heating in SOI NMOSFET’s,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 41(1), 69–75 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, O.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colinge, J.-P.

J.-T. Park and J.-P. Colinge, “Multiple-gate SOI MOSFETs: device design guidelines,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 49(12), 2222–2229 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dainese, M.

De La Rue, R. M.

M. Gnan, S. Thoms, D. S. Macintyre, R. M. De La Rue, and M. Sorel, “Fabrication of low-loss photonic wires in silicon-on-insulator using hydrogen silsesquioxane electron-beam resist,” Electron. Lett. 44(2), 115–116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dumon, P.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Flik, M. I.

L. T. Su, J. E. Chung, D. A. Antoniadis, K. E. Goodson, and M. I. Flik, “Measurement and modeling of self-heating in SOI NMOSFET’s,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 41(1), 69–75 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Foresi, J.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(6), 998–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gnan, M.

M. Gnan, S. Thoms, D. S. Macintyre, R. M. De La Rue, and M. Sorel, “Fabrication of low-loss photonic wires in silicon-on-insulator using hydrogen silsesquioxane electron-beam resist,” Electron. Lett. 44(2), 115–116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Goodson, K. E.

L. T. Su, J. E. Chung, D. A. Antoniadis, K. E. Goodson, and M. I. Flik, “Measurement and modeling of self-heating in SOI NMOSFET’s,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 41(1), 69–75 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gunn, C.

C. Gunn, “CMOS photonics for high-speed interconnects,” IEEE Micro 26(2), 58–66 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(6), 998–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hisamoto, D.

D. Hisamoto, W.-C. Lee, J. Kedzierski, H. Takeuchi, K. Asano, C. Kuo, E. Anderson, T.-J. King, J. Bokor, and C. Hu, “FinFET-a self-aligned double-gate MOSFET scalable to 20 nm,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 47(12), 2320–2325 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hochberg, M.

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, and A. Scherer, “High-Q ring resonators in thin silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(16), 3346–3347 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Holzwarth, C. W.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, H. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kartner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, “Building many-core processor-to-DRAM networks with monolithic CMOS silicon photonics,” IEEE Micro 29(4), 8–21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hoyt, J. L.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, H. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kartner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, “Building many-core processor-to-DRAM networks with monolithic CMOS silicon photonics,” IEEE Micro 29(4), 8–21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hu, C.

D. Hisamoto, W.-C. Lee, J. Kedzierski, H. Takeuchi, K. Asano, C. Kuo, E. Anderson, T.-J. King, J. Bokor, and C. Hu, “FinFET-a self-aligned double-gate MOSFET scalable to 20 nm,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 47(12), 2320–2325 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joshi, A.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, H. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kartner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, “Building many-core processor-to-DRAM networks with monolithic CMOS silicon photonics,” IEEE Micro 29(4), 8–21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kartner, F. X.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, H. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kartner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, “Building many-core processor-to-DRAM networks with monolithic CMOS silicon photonics,” IEEE Micro 29(4), 8–21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kedzierski, J.

D. Hisamoto, W.-C. Lee, J. Kedzierski, H. Takeuchi, K. Asano, C. Kuo, E. Anderson, T.-J. King, J. Bokor, and C. Hu, “FinFET-a self-aligned double-gate MOSFET scalable to 20 nm,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 47(12), 2320–2325 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Khilo, A.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, H. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kartner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, “Building many-core processor-to-DRAM networks with monolithic CMOS silicon photonics,” IEEE Micro 29(4), 8–21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

King, T.-J.

D. Hisamoto, W.-C. Lee, J. Kedzierski, H. Takeuchi, K. Asano, C. Kuo, E. Anderson, T.-J. King, J. Bokor, and C. Hu, “FinFET-a self-aligned double-gate MOSFET scalable to 20 nm,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 47(12), 2320–2325 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Koh, R.

R. Koh, “Buried layer engineering to reduce the drain-induced barrier lowering of sub-0.05 µm SOI-MOSFET,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(Part 1, No. 4B), 2294–2299 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, C.

D. Hisamoto, W.-C. Lee, J. Kedzierski, H. Takeuchi, K. Asano, C. Kuo, E. Anderson, T.-J. King, J. Bokor, and C. Hu, “FinFET-a self-aligned double-gate MOSFET scalable to 20 nm,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 47(12), 2320–2325 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Laine, J.-P.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(6), 998–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. K.

Lee, W.-C.

D. Hisamoto, W.-C. Lee, J. Kedzierski, H. Takeuchi, K. Asano, C. Kuo, E. Anderson, T.-J. King, J. Bokor, and C. Hu, “FinFET-a self-aligned double-gate MOSFET scalable to 20 nm,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 47(12), 2320–2325 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, H. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kartner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, “Building many-core processor-to-DRAM networks with monolithic CMOS silicon photonics,” IEEE Micro 29(4), 8–21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, Q.

Q. Li, Z. Zhang, F. Liu, M. Qiu, and Y. Su, “Dense wavelength conversion and multicasting in a resonance-split silicon microring,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(8), 081113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liao, L.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lim, D. R.

Lipson, M.

Little, B. E.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(6), 998–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Liu, A.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, F.

Q. Li, Z. Zhang, F. Liu, M. Qiu, and Y. Su, “Dense wavelength conversion and multicasting in a resonance-split silicon microring,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(8), 081113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Luyssaert, B.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Macintyre, D. S.

M. Gnan, S. Thoms, D. S. Macintyre, R. M. De La Rue, and M. Sorel, “Fabrication of low-loss photonic wires in silicon-on-insulator using hydrogen silsesquioxane electron-beam resist,” Electron. Lett. 44(2), 115–116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

McNab, S.

Miller, D. A. B.

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[CrossRef]

Moss, B.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, H. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kartner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, “Building many-core processor-to-DRAM networks with monolithic CMOS silicon photonics,” IEEE Micro 29(4), 8–21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nicolaescu, R.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Orcutt, J.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, H. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kartner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, “Building many-core processor-to-DRAM networks with monolithic CMOS silicon photonics,” IEEE Micro 29(4), 8–21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Panepucci, R. R.

Paniccia, M.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, J.-T.

J.-T. Park and J.-P. Colinge, “Multiple-gate SOI MOSFETs: device design guidelines,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 49(12), 2222–2229 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Popovic, M. A.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, H. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kartner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, “Building many-core processor-to-DRAM networks with monolithic CMOS silicon photonics,” IEEE Micro 29(4), 8–21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pradhan, S.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Preston, K.

Qiu, M.

Z. Zhang, M. Dainese, L. Wosinski, and M. Qiu, “Resonance-splitting and enhanced notch depth in SOI ring resonators with mutual mode coupling,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4621–4630 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Li, Z. Zhang, F. Liu, M. Qiu, and Y. Su, “Dense wavelength conversion and multicasting in a resonance-split silicon microring,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(8), 081113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ram, R. J.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, H. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kartner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, “Building many-core processor-to-DRAM networks with monolithic CMOS silicon photonics,” IEEE Micro 29(4), 8–21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rubin, D.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Samara-Rubio, D.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scherer, A.

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, and A. Scherer, “High-Q ring resonators in thin silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(16), 3346–3347 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, B.

Shin, J.

Smith, H. I.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, H. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kartner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, “Building many-core processor-to-DRAM networks with monolithic CMOS silicon photonics,” IEEE Micro 29(4), 8–21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sorel, M.

M. Gnan, S. Thoms, D. S. Macintyre, R. M. De La Rue, and M. Sorel, “Fabrication of low-loss photonic wires in silicon-on-insulator using hydrogen silsesquioxane electron-beam resist,” Electron. Lett. 44(2), 115–116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stojanovic, V.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, H. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kartner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, “Building many-core processor-to-DRAM networks with monolithic CMOS silicon photonics,” IEEE Micro 29(4), 8–21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Su, L. T.

L. T. Su, J. E. Chung, D. A. Antoniadis, K. E. Goodson, and M. I. Flik, “Measurement and modeling of self-heating in SOI NMOSFET’s,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 41(1), 69–75 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Su, Y.

Q. Li, Z. Zhang, F. Liu, M. Qiu, and Y. Su, “Dense wavelength conversion and multicasting in a resonance-split silicon microring,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(8), 081113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Taillaert, D.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Takeuchi, H.

D. Hisamoto, W.-C. Lee, J. Kedzierski, H. Takeuchi, K. Asano, C. Kuo, E. Anderson, T.-J. King, J. Bokor, and C. Hu, “FinFET-a self-aligned double-gate MOSFET scalable to 20 nm,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 47(12), 2320–2325 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Thoms, S.

M. Gnan, S. Thoms, D. S. Macintyre, R. M. De La Rue, and M. Sorel, “Fabrication of low-loss photonic wires in silicon-on-insulator using hydrogen silsesquioxane electron-beam resist,” Electron. Lett. 44(2), 115–116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Van Campenhout, J.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Van Thourhout, D.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y.

Walker, C.

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, and A. Scherer, “High-Q ring resonators in thin silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(16), 3346–3347 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wiaux, V.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wosinski, L.

Wouters, J.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z.

Z. Zhang, M. Dainese, L. Wosinski, and M. Qiu, “Resonance-splitting and enhanced notch depth in SOI ring resonators with mutual mode coupling,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4621–4630 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Li, Z. Zhang, F. Liu, M. Qiu, and Y. Su, “Dense wavelength conversion and multicasting in a resonance-split silicon microring,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(8), 081113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, and A. Scherer, “High-Q ring resonators in thin silicon-on-insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(16), 3346–3347 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Q. Li, Z. Zhang, F. Liu, M. Qiu, and Y. Su, “Dense wavelength conversion and multicasting in a resonance-split silicon microring,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(8), 081113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

M. Gnan, S. Thoms, D. S. Macintyre, R. M. De La Rue, and M. Sorel, “Fabrication of low-loss photonic wires in silicon-on-insulator using hydrogen silsesquioxane electron-beam resist,” Electron. Lett. 44(2), 115–116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Micro

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, H. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kartner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, “Building many-core processor-to-DRAM networks with monolithic CMOS silicon photonics,” IEEE Micro 29(4), 8–21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Gunn, “CMOS photonics for high-speed interconnects,” IEEE Micro 26(2), 58–66 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(5), 1328–1330 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.

J.-T. Park and J.-P. Colinge, “Multiple-gate SOI MOSFETs: device design guidelines,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 49(12), 2222–2229 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Hisamoto, W.-C. Lee, J. Kedzierski, H. Takeuchi, K. Asano, C. Kuo, E. Anderson, T.-J. King, J. Bokor, and C. Hu, “FinFET-a self-aligned double-gate MOSFET scalable to 20 nm,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 47(12), 2320–2325 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. T. Su, J. E. Chung, D. A. Antoniadis, K. E. Goodson, and M. I. Flik, “Measurement and modeling of self-heating in SOI NMOSFET’s,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 41(1), 69–75 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(6), 998–1005 (1997).
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M. Lipson, “Guiding, modulating and emitting light on silicon – challenges and opportunities,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(12), 4222–4238 (2005).
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R. Koh, “Buried layer engineering to reduce the drain-induced barrier lowering of sub-0.05 µm SOI-MOSFET,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(Part 1, No. 4B), 2294–2299 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nature

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. IEEE

D. A. B. Miller, “Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 728–749 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Ultralow power silicon microdisk modulators and switches,” The 5th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics, 17–19 Sept. 2008, pp. 4–6.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, S. W. Bedell, Y. Zhang, T. Topuria, P. M. Rice, and Y. Vlasov, “CMOS-integrated high-speed germanium waveguide photodetector for optical interconnects,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, CLEO2009, 31 May 2009, paper CTuV1.

S. Manipatruni, Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “High speed carrier injection 18 Gb/s silicon micro-ring electro-optic modulator,” The 20th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, LEOS 2007, 21–25 Oct. 2007, pp. 537–538.

P. B. Chu, J. T. Chen, R. Yeh, G. Lin, J. C. P. Huang, B. A. Warneke, and K. S. J. Pister, “Controlled pulse-etching with xenon difluoride,” International Conference on Solid State Sensors and Actuators, Transducers’97, 16–19 June 1997, pp. 665–668.

C. W. Holzwarth, J. S. Orcutt, H. Li, M. A. Popovic, V. Stojanovic, J. L. Hoyt, R. J. Ram, and H. I. Smith, “Localized substrate removal technique enabling strong-confinement microphotonics in bulk Si CMOS processes,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, CLEO2008, 4 May 2008, paper CThKK5.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Process flow for waveguides and resonators on thin buried oxide SOI: a) Patterned e-beam resist, b) Transfer pattern into 250nm thick silicon device layer through Cl2 ICP etch, c) Photoresist patterned to protect silicon device layer and open windows for localized substrate removal, d) Oxide etched using CHF3/O2 RIE to access substrate silicon, e) Cross-section after substrate removal through XeF2 etch, f) final device cross-section after photoresist strip.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(left) SEM of waveguide showing etch windows in buried oxide and pits in substrate silicon created by XeF2 etch, (right) Close-up of 250 nm silicon waveguide (with XR on top) resting on a 400 nm membrane of buried oxide.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(left) Insertion loss for different waveguide lengths for quasi-TE mode. (right) Optical mode profile for the quasi-TE mode with effective index neff = 2.405 calculated using COMSOL FEM software.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(left) Insertion loss for different waveguide lengths for quasi-TM mode. (right) Optical mode profile for the quasi-TM mode with effective index neff = 1.862 calculated using COMSOL FEM software.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

SEM of nanotaper for coupling from lensed fiber into waveguide.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(left) SEM of ring resonator of 7.5µm radius spaced 400 nm away from the waveguide (right) Normalized transmission spectrum of the ring resonator for the quasi-TM mode.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Normalized transmission for the quasi-TM resonance mode with a loaded Q of 46,500 and an extinction of 14 dB.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Normalized transmission for a quasi–TE resonance mode with the label describing the parameters obtained from fitting the measured data to Eq. (2).

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Q l o a d e d = Q i 2 = π n g λ o α
T ( ω ) = | 1 1 2 Q e ( 1 j ( δ + 1 2 Q u ) + 1 2 Q i + 1 2 Q e + 1 j ( δ 1 2 Q u ) + 1 2 Q i + 1 2 Q e ) | 2

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