Abstract

This paper describes a handheld laser scanning confocal microscope for skin microscopy. Beam scanning is accomplished with an electromagnetic MEMS bi-axial micromirror developed for pico projector applications, providing 800x600 (SVGA) resolution at 56 frames per second. The design uses commercial objective lenses with an optional hemisphere front lens, operating with a range of numerical aperture from NA=0.35 to NA=1.1 and corresponding diagonal field of view ranging from 653 μm to 216 μm. Using NA=1.1 and a laser wavelength of 830 nm we measured the axial response to be 1.14 μm full width at half maximum, with a corresponding 10%-90% lateral edge response of 0.39 μm. Image examples showing both epidermal and dermal features including capillary blood flow are provided. These images represent the highest resolution and frame rate yet achieved for tissue imaging with a MEMS bi-axial scan mirror.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. M. Rajadhyaksha, S. González, J. M. Zavislan, R. R. Anderson, and R. H. Webb, “In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin II: advances in instrumentation and comparison with histology,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 113(3), 293–303 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. G. Pellacani, A. M. Cesinaro, and S. Seidenari, “In vivo confocal reflectance microscopy for the characterization of melanocytic nests and correlation with dermoscopy and histology,” Br. J. Dermatol. 152(2), 384–386 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. R. Anderson, “In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin: melanin provides strong contrast,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 104(6), 946–952 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Rajadhyaksha, G. Menaker, T. Flotte, P. J. Dwyer, and S. Gonzalez, “Confocal examination of nonmelanoma cancers in thick skin excisions to potentially guide mohs micrographic surgery without frozen histopathology,” The Society for Investigative Dermatology. 117(5), 1137–1143 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C.-S. J. Chen, M. Elias, K. Busam, M. Rajadhyaksha, and A. A. Marghoob, “Multimodal in vivo optical imaging, including confocal microscopy, facilitates presurgical margin mapping for clinically complex lentigo maligna melanoma,” Br. J. Dermatol. 153(5), 1031–1036 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  21. R. H. Webb, “Optics for laser rasters,” Appl. Opt. 23(20), 3680–3683 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. M. Gu, C. J. R. Sheppard, and X. Gan, “Image formation in a fiber-optical confocal scanning microscope,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 8(11), 1755–1761 (1991).
    [CrossRef]

2008 (3)

K. S. Nehal, D. Gareau, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Skin imaging with reflectance confocal microscopy,” Semin. Cutan. Med. Surg. 27(1), 37–43 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kumar, K. Hoshino, and X. Zhang, “Handheld subcellular-resolution single-fiber confocal microscope using high-reflectivity two-axis vertical combdrive silicon microscanner,” Biomed. Microdevices 10(5), 653–660 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ra, W. Piyawattanametha, M. J. Mandella, P.-L. Hsiung, J. Hardy, T. D. Wang, C. H. Contag, G. S. Kino, and O. Solgaard, “Three-dimensional in vivo imaging by a handheld dual-axes confocal microscope,” Opt. Express 16(10), 7224–7232 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

2005 (3)

G. Pellacani, A. M. Cesinaro, and S. Seidenari, “In vivo confocal reflectance microscopy for the characterization of melanocytic nests and correlation with dermoscopy and histology,” Br. J. Dermatol. 152(2), 384–386 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-S. J. Chen, M. Elias, K. Busam, M. Rajadhyaksha, and A. A. Marghoob, “Multimodal in vivo optical imaging, including confocal microscopy, facilitates presurgical margin mapping for clinically complex lentigo maligna melanoma,” Br. J. Dermatol. 153(5), 1031–1036 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Carlson, M. Chidley, K. B. Sung, M. Descour, A. Gillenwater, M. Follen, and R. Richards-Kortum, “In vivo fiber-optic confocal reflectance microscope with an injection-molded plastic miniature objective lens,” Appl. Opt. 44(10), 1792–1797 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

Z. Tannous, A. Torres, and S. González, “In vivo real-time confocal reflectance microscopy: a noninvasive guide for Mohs micrographic surgery facilitated by aluminum chloride, an excellent contrast enhancer,” Dermatol. Surg. 29(8), 839–846 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Miyajima, N. Asaoka, T. Isokawa, M. Ogata, Y. Aoki, M. Imai, O. Fujimori, M. Katashiro, and K. Matsumoto, “A MEMS Electromagnetic Optical Scanner for a Commercial Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 12(3), 243–251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. Rajadhyaksha, G. Menaker, T. Flotte, P. J. Dwyer, and S. Gonzalez, “Confocal examination of nonmelanoma cancers in thick skin excisions to potentially guide mohs micrographic surgery without frozen histopathology,” The Society for Investigative Dermatology. 117(5), 1137–1143 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

M. Rajadhyaksha, S. González, J. M. Zavislan, R. R. Anderson, and R. H. Webb, “In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin II: advances in instrumentation and comparison with histology,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 113(3), 293–303 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rajadhyaksha, R. R. Anderson, and R. H. Webb, “Video-rate confocal scanning laser microscope for imaging human tissues in vivo,” Appl. Opt. 38(10), 2105–2115 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

D. L. Dickensheets and G. S. Kino, “Silicon-micromachined scanning confocal optical microscope,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 7(1), 38–47 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (1)

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. R. Anderson, “In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin: melanin provides strong contrast,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 104(6), 946–952 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

P. Corcuff and J. L. Lévêque, “In vivo vision of the human skin with the tandem scanning microscope,” Dermatology 186(1), 50–54 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

M. Gu, C. J. R. Sheppard, and X. Gan, “Image formation in a fiber-optical confocal scanning microscope,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 8(11), 1755–1761 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

Anderson, R. R.

M. Rajadhyaksha, S. González, J. M. Zavislan, R. R. Anderson, and R. H. Webb, “In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin II: advances in instrumentation and comparison with histology,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 113(3), 293–303 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rajadhyaksha, R. R. Anderson, and R. H. Webb, “Video-rate confocal scanning laser microscope for imaging human tissues in vivo,” Appl. Opt. 38(10), 2105–2115 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. R. Anderson, “In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin: melanin provides strong contrast,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 104(6), 946–952 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aoki, Y.

H. Miyajima, N. Asaoka, T. Isokawa, M. Ogata, Y. Aoki, M. Imai, O. Fujimori, M. Katashiro, and K. Matsumoto, “A MEMS Electromagnetic Optical Scanner for a Commercial Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 12(3), 243–251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Asaoka, N.

H. Miyajima, N. Asaoka, T. Isokawa, M. Ogata, Y. Aoki, M. Imai, O. Fujimori, M. Katashiro, and K. Matsumoto, “A MEMS Electromagnetic Optical Scanner for a Commercial Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 12(3), 243–251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Busam, K.

C.-S. J. Chen, M. Elias, K. Busam, M. Rajadhyaksha, and A. A. Marghoob, “Multimodal in vivo optical imaging, including confocal microscopy, facilitates presurgical margin mapping for clinically complex lentigo maligna melanoma,” Br. J. Dermatol. 153(5), 1031–1036 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carlson, K.

Cesinaro, A. M.

G. Pellacani, A. M. Cesinaro, and S. Seidenari, “In vivo confocal reflectance microscopy for the characterization of melanocytic nests and correlation with dermoscopy and histology,” Br. J. Dermatol. 152(2), 384–386 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, C.-S. J.

C.-S. J. Chen, M. Elias, K. Busam, M. Rajadhyaksha, and A. A. Marghoob, “Multimodal in vivo optical imaging, including confocal microscopy, facilitates presurgical margin mapping for clinically complex lentigo maligna melanoma,” Br. J. Dermatol. 153(5), 1031–1036 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chidley, M.

Christenson, T.

Contag, C. H.

Corcuff, P.

P. Corcuff and J. L. Lévêque, “In vivo vision of the human skin with the tandem scanning microscope,” Dermatology 186(1), 50–54 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Descour, M.

Descour, M. R.

Dickensheets, D. L.

D. L. Dickensheets and G. S. Kino, “Silicon-micromachined scanning confocal optical microscope,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 7(1), 38–47 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Dickensheets and G. S. Kino, “Micromachined scanning confocal optical microscope,” Opt. Lett. 21(10), 764–766 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dwyer, P. J.

M. Rajadhyaksha, G. Menaker, T. Flotte, P. J. Dwyer, and S. Gonzalez, “Confocal examination of nonmelanoma cancers in thick skin excisions to potentially guide mohs micrographic surgery without frozen histopathology,” The Society for Investigative Dermatology. 117(5), 1137–1143 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Elias, M.

C.-S. J. Chen, M. Elias, K. Busam, M. Rajadhyaksha, and A. A. Marghoob, “Multimodal in vivo optical imaging, including confocal microscopy, facilitates presurgical margin mapping for clinically complex lentigo maligna melanoma,” Br. J. Dermatol. 153(5), 1031–1036 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Esterowitz, D.

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. R. Anderson, “In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin: melanin provides strong contrast,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 104(6), 946–952 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flotte, T.

M. Rajadhyaksha, G. Menaker, T. Flotte, P. J. Dwyer, and S. Gonzalez, “Confocal examination of nonmelanoma cancers in thick skin excisions to potentially guide mohs micrographic surgery without frozen histopathology,” The Society for Investigative Dermatology. 117(5), 1137–1143 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Follen, M.

Fujimori, O.

H. Miyajima, N. Asaoka, T. Isokawa, M. Ogata, Y. Aoki, M. Imai, O. Fujimori, M. Katashiro, and K. Matsumoto, “A MEMS Electromagnetic Optical Scanner for a Commercial Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 12(3), 243–251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gan, X.

M. Gu, C. J. R. Sheppard, and X. Gan, “Image formation in a fiber-optical confocal scanning microscope,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 8(11), 1755–1761 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gareau, D.

K. S. Nehal, D. Gareau, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Skin imaging with reflectance confocal microscopy,” Semin. Cutan. Med. Surg. 27(1), 37–43 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gillenwater, A.

Gonzalez, S.

M. Rajadhyaksha, G. Menaker, T. Flotte, P. J. Dwyer, and S. Gonzalez, “Confocal examination of nonmelanoma cancers in thick skin excisions to potentially guide mohs micrographic surgery without frozen histopathology,” The Society for Investigative Dermatology. 117(5), 1137–1143 (2001).
[CrossRef]

González, S.

Z. Tannous, A. Torres, and S. González, “In vivo real-time confocal reflectance microscopy: a noninvasive guide for Mohs micrographic surgery facilitated by aluminum chloride, an excellent contrast enhancer,” Dermatol. Surg. 29(8), 839–846 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rajadhyaksha, S. González, J. M. Zavislan, R. R. Anderson, and R. H. Webb, “In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin II: advances in instrumentation and comparison with histology,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 113(3), 293–303 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grossman, M.

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. R. Anderson, “In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin: melanin provides strong contrast,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 104(6), 946–952 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gu, M.

M. Gu, C. J. R. Sheppard, and X. Gan, “Image formation in a fiber-optical confocal scanning microscope,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 8(11), 1755–1761 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hardy, J.

Hoshino, K.

K. Kumar, K. Hoshino, and X. Zhang, “Handheld subcellular-resolution single-fiber confocal microscope using high-reflectivity two-axis vertical combdrive silicon microscanner,” Biomed. Microdevices 10(5), 653–660 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsiung, P.-L.

Imai, M.

H. Miyajima, N. Asaoka, T. Isokawa, M. Ogata, Y. Aoki, M. Imai, O. Fujimori, M. Katashiro, and K. Matsumoto, “A MEMS Electromagnetic Optical Scanner for a Commercial Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 12(3), 243–251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Isokawa, T.

H. Miyajima, N. Asaoka, T. Isokawa, M. Ogata, Y. Aoki, M. Imai, O. Fujimori, M. Katashiro, and K. Matsumoto, “A MEMS Electromagnetic Optical Scanner for a Commercial Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 12(3), 243–251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Katashiro, M.

H. Miyajima, N. Asaoka, T. Isokawa, M. Ogata, Y. Aoki, M. Imai, O. Fujimori, M. Katashiro, and K. Matsumoto, “A MEMS Electromagnetic Optical Scanner for a Commercial Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 12(3), 243–251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kester, R. T.

Kino, G. S.

Kumar, K.

K. Kumar, K. Hoshino, and X. Zhang, “Handheld subcellular-resolution single-fiber confocal microscope using high-reflectivity two-axis vertical combdrive silicon microscanner,” Biomed. Microdevices 10(5), 653–660 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, D.

Lévêque, J. L.

P. Corcuff and J. L. Lévêque, “In vivo vision of the human skin with the tandem scanning microscope,” Dermatology 186(1), 50–54 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mandella, M. J.

Marghoob, A. A.

C.-S. J. Chen, M. Elias, K. Busam, M. Rajadhyaksha, and A. A. Marghoob, “Multimodal in vivo optical imaging, including confocal microscopy, facilitates presurgical margin mapping for clinically complex lentigo maligna melanoma,” Br. J. Dermatol. 153(5), 1031–1036 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsumoto, K.

H. Miyajima, N. Asaoka, T. Isokawa, M. Ogata, Y. Aoki, M. Imai, O. Fujimori, M. Katashiro, and K. Matsumoto, “A MEMS Electromagnetic Optical Scanner for a Commercial Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 12(3), 243–251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Menaker, G.

M. Rajadhyaksha, G. Menaker, T. Flotte, P. J. Dwyer, and S. Gonzalez, “Confocal examination of nonmelanoma cancers in thick skin excisions to potentially guide mohs micrographic surgery without frozen histopathology,” The Society for Investigative Dermatology. 117(5), 1137–1143 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Miyajima, H.

H. Miyajima, N. Asaoka, T. Isokawa, M. Ogata, Y. Aoki, M. Imai, O. Fujimori, M. Katashiro, and K. Matsumoto, “A MEMS Electromagnetic Optical Scanner for a Commercial Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 12(3), 243–251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nehal, K. S.

K. S. Nehal, D. Gareau, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Skin imaging with reflectance confocal microscopy,” Semin. Cutan. Med. Surg. 27(1), 37–43 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ogata, M.

H. Miyajima, N. Asaoka, T. Isokawa, M. Ogata, Y. Aoki, M. Imai, O. Fujimori, M. Katashiro, and K. Matsumoto, “A MEMS Electromagnetic Optical Scanner for a Commercial Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 12(3), 243–251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pellacani, G.

G. Pellacani, A. M. Cesinaro, and S. Seidenari, “In vivo confocal reflectance microscopy for the characterization of melanocytic nests and correlation with dermoscopy and histology,” Br. J. Dermatol. 152(2), 384–386 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pierce, M. C.

Piyawattanametha, W.

Ra, H.

Rajadhyaksha, M.

K. S. Nehal, D. Gareau, and M. Rajadhyaksha, “Skin imaging with reflectance confocal microscopy,” Semin. Cutan. Med. Surg. 27(1), 37–43 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-S. J. Chen, M. Elias, K. Busam, M. Rajadhyaksha, and A. A. Marghoob, “Multimodal in vivo optical imaging, including confocal microscopy, facilitates presurgical margin mapping for clinically complex lentigo maligna melanoma,” Br. J. Dermatol. 153(5), 1031–1036 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rajadhyaksha, G. Menaker, T. Flotte, P. J. Dwyer, and S. Gonzalez, “Confocal examination of nonmelanoma cancers in thick skin excisions to potentially guide mohs micrographic surgery without frozen histopathology,” The Society for Investigative Dermatology. 117(5), 1137–1143 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Rajadhyaksha, S. González, J. M. Zavislan, R. R. Anderson, and R. H. Webb, “In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin II: advances in instrumentation and comparison with histology,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 113(3), 293–303 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rajadhyaksha, R. R. Anderson, and R. H. Webb, “Video-rate confocal scanning laser microscope for imaging human tissues in vivo,” Appl. Opt. 38(10), 2105–2115 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. R. Anderson, “In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin: melanin provides strong contrast,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 104(6), 946–952 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R.

Seidenari, S.

G. Pellacani, A. M. Cesinaro, and S. Seidenari, “In vivo confocal reflectance microscopy for the characterization of melanocytic nests and correlation with dermoscopy and histology,” Br. J. Dermatol. 152(2), 384–386 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheppard, C. J. R.

M. Gu, C. J. R. Sheppard, and X. Gan, “Image formation in a fiber-optical confocal scanning microscope,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 8(11), 1755–1761 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Shin, H.-J.

Solgaard, O.

Sung, K. B.

Tannous, Z.

Z. Tannous, A. Torres, and S. González, “In vivo real-time confocal reflectance microscopy: a noninvasive guide for Mohs micrographic surgery facilitated by aluminum chloride, an excellent contrast enhancer,” Dermatol. Surg. 29(8), 839–846 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tkaczyk, T. S.

Torres, A.

Z. Tannous, A. Torres, and S. González, “In vivo real-time confocal reflectance microscopy: a noninvasive guide for Mohs micrographic surgery facilitated by aluminum chloride, an excellent contrast enhancer,” Dermatol. Surg. 29(8), 839–846 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, T. D.

Webb, R. H.

M. Rajadhyaksha, S. González, J. M. Zavislan, R. R. Anderson, and R. H. Webb, “In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin II: advances in instrumentation and comparison with histology,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 113(3), 293–303 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rajadhyaksha, R. R. Anderson, and R. H. Webb, “Video-rate confocal scanning laser microscope for imaging human tissues in vivo,” Appl. Opt. 38(10), 2105–2115 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Rajadhyaksha, M. Grossman, D. Esterowitz, R. H. Webb, and R. R. Anderson, “In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin: melanin provides strong contrast,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 104(6), 946–952 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. Webb, “Optics for laser rasters,” Appl. Opt. 23(20), 3680–3683 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zavislan, J. M.

M. Rajadhyaksha, S. González, J. M. Zavislan, R. R. Anderson, and R. H. Webb, “In vivo confocal scanning laser microscopy of human skin II: advances in instrumentation and comparison with histology,” J. Invest. Dermatol. 113(3), 293–303 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

K. Kumar, K. Hoshino, and X. Zhang, “Handheld subcellular-resolution single-fiber confocal microscope using high-reflectivity two-axis vertical combdrive silicon microscanner,” Biomed. Microdevices 10(5), 653–660 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Biomed. Microdevices (1)

K. Kumar, K. Hoshino, and X. Zhang, “Handheld subcellular-resolution single-fiber confocal microscope using high-reflectivity two-axis vertical combdrive silicon microscanner,” Biomed. Microdevices 10(5), 653–660 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Br. J. Dermatol. (2)

G. Pellacani, A. M. Cesinaro, and S. Seidenari, “In vivo confocal reflectance microscopy for the characterization of melanocytic nests and correlation with dermoscopy and histology,” Br. J. Dermatol. 152(2), 384–386 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-S. J. Chen, M. Elias, K. Busam, M. Rajadhyaksha, and A. A. Marghoob, “Multimodal in vivo optical imaging, including confocal microscopy, facilitates presurgical margin mapping for clinically complex lentigo maligna melanoma,” Br. J. Dermatol. 153(5), 1031–1036 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dermatol. Surg. (1)

Z. Tannous, A. Torres, and S. González, “In vivo real-time confocal reflectance microscopy: a noninvasive guide for Mohs micrographic surgery facilitated by aluminum chloride, an excellent contrast enhancer,” Dermatol. Surg. 29(8), 839–846 (2003).
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Supplementary Material (3)

» Media 1: MOV (2827 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (3945 KB)     
» Media 3: MOV (5063 KB)     

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

diagram of light launch and collection scheme using polarizations discrimination and microscope layout.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Two-dimensional MEMS scanner, provided by Microvision, Inc. This mirror is electromagnetically actuated, with a resonant fast scan and sawtooth driven slow scan. The minor diameter is 1.5 mm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Diagram of amplification and interface electronics for image formation. This scheme allows for the user to select between linear or logarithmic amplification and adjust black level and gain before the signal is digitized by the IMAQ card.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Image distortion due to sinusoidal fast scan of MEMS mirror in time (a) and the corrected image (b) accomplished by removing pixel rows on the edges of the image. This image of a sample MEMS device with a hole pattern on a 30 µm spacing; images were taken with the 50x objective and aperture front piece.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

OPD results from Zemax simulation of hemispherical front lens with 0.75 NA illumination. Results are shown for three axial focus locations: at the tissue surface (top) without any coverslip correction, at 50 µm depth (middle) and at 100 µm depth (bottom). Plots for 50 µm and 100 µm focus locations show the initial uncorrected OPD fan as well as results using coverslip correction. On axis, 60 µm lateral and 100 µm lateral fans are shown in each plot. Vertical scale is wavelengths assuming λ=830 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

axial response for the 100x objective lens as a function of depth before (a) and after (b) coverslip correction. Notice the change in optimal location from the surface of the hemisphere in (a) to a depth of 50 µm in (b). Not only does the FWHM response improve, but the measured intensity increases. Also, the side lobes visible on the right side of the axial responses without correction (a) moves to the left side with correction (b) and can be seen to disappear around the 50 µm depth, reappearing on the right side in (b) at depth greater than 50 µm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparison of measured edge to theoretical edge for 50x objective using the hemisphere front lens and coverslip correction. This response was measured at the center of the image at a depth of 50 µm. An ERF fit was used against the measured edge data to allow more precision in locating the 10% and 90% response locations.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

In vivo confocal images of fingertip using the 100x objective lens left and 50x objective lens right in conjunction with the hemisphere front piece. The increased cellular detail with the 100x objective lens shows the improvement when using high NA when imaging skin. Image FOV height is 172 µm for the 100x image and 343 µm for the 50x image. The overlay CCD image shows the relative size of the CCD and confocal image areas, with the CCD image being approximately four times the width of the confocal image.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Videos taken with handheld confocal microscope (Media 1, Media 2, Media 3). Cross sectioning capability of 100x objective is shown in (a) via stepped axial focusing, with focus increment of 7 µm. This video was taken on the fingertip of Caucasian male. Cellular detail in forearm region of Caucasian male is compared in (b) for the 50x objective and (c) for the 100x objective. In both (b) and (c) capillary blood flow is evident, confirming imaging penetration to the dermis. FOV height if 172 µm for 100x videos (a and c) and 343 µm for the 50x video (b). All videos were acquired using hemisphere front piece.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Measured axial response in [µm] using the hemisphere front piece both with and without the corrective coverslip.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Measured edge response using the hemispherical front piece (all units are μm). NA is 1.1 and 0.83 for the 100x and 50x objectives respectively. Values are given at the surface, 50 µm and 125 µm depths for the center of the image and 70% of the radial FOV. Values for 70% radial FOV were taken on both sides of the image center and averaged together. Shaded values correspond to the use of correction coverslip. For the 100x objective A=1.35 and for the 50x objective A=2.91. *Data for this location is not available.

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