Abstract

The use of solid frustrated total internal reflection (FTIR) layers to control the polarization effects in optical coatings usually results in large substrate sizes and complicated designs. To overcome this problem, it is proposed to incorporate an air FTIR layer into the multilayer thin film coatings. The low refractive index of air not only helps to reduce the substrate sizes, but also simplifies coating designs or improves the performance. The principle and layer structures of the proposed multilayers are described. Examples of polarizing- and non-polarizing beam-splitters for the infrared spectral region are given. Some practical manufacturing issues are also discussed.

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References

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  1. H. A. Macleod, Thin Film Optical Filters, 3rd edition, (Institute of Physics, Bristol, 2001).
  2. L. Li and J. A. Dobrowolski, “High-performance thin-film polarizing beam splitter operating at angles greater than the critical angle,” Appl. Opt. 39(16), 2754–2771 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. Li, “The design of optical thin film coatings with total and frustrated total internal reflection,” Opt. Photonics News 14(9), 24–30 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Zukic and K. H. Guenther, “Design of nonpolarizing achromatic beamsplitters with dielectric multilayers,” Opt. Eng. 28, 165–171 (1989).
  5. H. A. Macleod and Z. Milanovic, “Immersed beamsplitter-an old problem,” Optical Interference Coatings (OIC), 28–30 (1992).
  6. L. Li, P. Ma and P. Verly, “Non-polarizing thin film interference filters with FTIR,” Optical Interference Coatings (OIC), ThD3 (2004).
  7. J. A. Dobrowolski, “Optical properties of films and coatings,” Handbook of Optics, 2nd edition, M. Bass, ed., Optical Society of America, (McGraw-Hill, New York, 42.1–42.130, 1995).
  8. L. Li, D. Poitras and X. Tong, “Broadband tunable Fabry-Perot filters,” Optical Interference Coatings (OIC), ThB3 (2004).
  9. E. E. Hall, “The penetration of totally reflected light into rarer medium,” Phys. Rev. 15, 73–106 (1902).
  10. L. Li and J. A. Dobrowolski, “Visible broadband, wide-angle, thin-film multilayer polarizing beam splitter,” Appl. Opt. 35(13), 2221–2225 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids I Academic Press Inc., Orlando, (1985)
  12. J. A. Dobrowolski, “Coatings and Filters,” in Handbook of Optics W.G. Driscoll and W. Vaughan, eds., (McGraw-Hill, New York, 8.1–8.124, 1978).

2003 (1)

L. Li, “The design of optical thin film coatings with total and frustrated total internal reflection,” Opt. Photonics News 14(9), 24–30 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1996 (1)

1989 (1)

M. Zukic and K. H. Guenther, “Design of nonpolarizing achromatic beamsplitters with dielectric multilayers,” Opt. Eng. 28, 165–171 (1989).

1902 (1)

E. E. Hall, “The penetration of totally reflected light into rarer medium,” Phys. Rev. 15, 73–106 (1902).

Dobrowolski, J. A.

Guenther, K. H.

M. Zukic and K. H. Guenther, “Design of nonpolarizing achromatic beamsplitters with dielectric multilayers,” Opt. Eng. 28, 165–171 (1989).

Hall, E. E.

E. E. Hall, “The penetration of totally reflected light into rarer medium,” Phys. Rev. 15, 73–106 (1902).

Li, L.

Zukic, M.

M. Zukic and K. H. Guenther, “Design of nonpolarizing achromatic beamsplitters with dielectric multilayers,” Opt. Eng. 28, 165–171 (1989).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Opt. Eng. (1)

M. Zukic and K. H. Guenther, “Design of nonpolarizing achromatic beamsplitters with dielectric multilayers,” Opt. Eng. 28, 165–171 (1989).

Opt. Photonics News (1)

L. Li, “The design of optical thin film coatings with total and frustrated total internal reflection,” Opt. Photonics News 14(9), 24–30 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

E. E. Hall, “The penetration of totally reflected light into rarer medium,” Phys. Rev. 15, 73–106 (1902).

Other (7)

H. A. Macleod, Thin Film Optical Filters, 3rd edition, (Institute of Physics, Bristol, 2001).

H. A. Macleod and Z. Milanovic, “Immersed beamsplitter-an old problem,” Optical Interference Coatings (OIC), 28–30 (1992).

L. Li, P. Ma and P. Verly, “Non-polarizing thin film interference filters with FTIR,” Optical Interference Coatings (OIC), ThD3 (2004).

J. A. Dobrowolski, “Optical properties of films and coatings,” Handbook of Optics, 2nd edition, M. Bass, ed., Optical Society of America, (McGraw-Hill, New York, 42.1–42.130, 1995).

L. Li, D. Poitras and X. Tong, “Broadband tunable Fabry-Perot filters,” Optical Interference Coatings (OIC), ThB3 (2004).

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids I Academic Press Inc., Orlando, (1985)

J. A. Dobrowolski, “Coatings and Filters,” in Handbook of Optics W.G. Driscoll and W. Vaughan, eds., (McGraw-Hill, New York, 8.1–8.124, 1978).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Variation of the phase change on reflection with angle of incidence θ 0 and refractive index ratio n 0/n 1: a. s-polarization, b. p-polarization (reproduced from reference [3])

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reflectance of a single layer n 0 / n 1 / n 0 at 10μm, substrate ZnSe n 0 = 2.40. A. a high index layer Ge n 1 = 4.0; B: low index layers air n 1 = 1.0 and ZnS n 1 = 2.2

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical thin film coatings with an integral air layer: A – a typical structure, B – an exploded view of the structure, C – a structure with side panels.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Polarizing beam-splitters: column A, PBS1 with solid FTIR layers; column B, PBS2 with air FTIR layer; row 1: refractive index profiles of systems PBS1 and PBS2; row 2: calculated transmittances Ts and Tp ; row 3 calculated reflectances Rs and Rp. N, Σdi and MF are the number of layers, total thicknesses and merit function values of the layer systems, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Non-polarizing beam-splitters, column A: NPBS1 with solid FTIR layers; column B: NPBS2 with air FTIR layer; row 1: layer systems; rows 2 and 3: calculated transmittances Ts and Tp

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Effect of random thickness and refractive index errors on non-polarizing beam-splitters. Column A: NPBS1 with solid FTIR layers; column B: NPBS2 with an air FTIR layer; column C: NPBS2 with same errors as in column B except for the air layer; Rows 1, 2: calculated transmittances Ts and Tp

Equations (1)

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{ θ B = arctan ( n 1 / n 0 ) θ C = arcsin ( n 1 / n 0 ) θ N = arcsin ( 2 n 1 2 / ( n 1 2 + n 0 2 ) )   , and  θ B < θ C < θ N

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