Abstract

Reducing the waist of an optical fiber taper to diameters below 1 µm can be interpreted as creating an optical nanofiber with propagation properties different from conventional optical fibers. Although there is theoretically no cutoff of the fundamental mode expected, a steep decline in transmission can be observed when the fiber diameter is reduced below a specific threshold diameter. A simple estimation of this threshold diameter applicable to arbitrary taper profiles and based on the diameter variation allowing adiabatic transmission behavior is introduced and experimentally verified. In addition, this threshold behavior is supported by investigating the variation of the power distribution of the nanofiber fundamental mode as a function of the fiber diameter.

© 2010 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. Sumetsky, Y. Dulashko, J. M. Fini, and A. Hale, “Optical microfiber loop resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 161108 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. Polynkin, A. Polynkin, N. Peyghambarian, and M. Mansuripur, “Evanescent field-based optical fiber sensing device for measuring the refractive index of liquids in microfluidic channels,” Opt. Lett. 30(11), 1273–1275 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. G. Leon-Saval, T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and M. W. Mason, “Supercontinuum generation in submicron fibre waveguides,” Opt. Express 12(13), 2864–2869 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. V. I. Balykin, K. Hakuta, F. Le Kien, J. Liang, and M. Morinaga, “Atom trapping and guiding with a subwavelength-diameter optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. A 70(1), 011401 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. A. Birks and Y. W. Li, “The Shape of Fiber Tapers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(4), 432–438 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Bures and R. Ghosh, “Power density of the evanescent field in the vicinity of a tapered fiber,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16(8), 1992–1996 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Brambilla, V. Finazzi, and D. J. Richardson, “Ultra-low-loss optical fiber nanotapers,” Opt. Express 12(10), 2258–2263 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. L. Shi, X. Chen, H. Liu, Y. Chen, Z. Ye, W. Liao, and Y. Xia, “Fabrication of submicron-diameter silica fibers using electric strip heater,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5055–5060 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. K. P. Nayak, P. N. Melentiev, M. Morinaga, F. L. Kien, V. I. Balykin, and K. Hakuta, “Optical nanofiber as an efficient tool for manipulating and probing atomic Fluorescence,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5431–5438 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. M. Sumetsky, Y. Dulashko, and A. Hale, “Fabrication and study of bent and coiled free silica nanowires: Self-coupling microloop optical interferometer,” Opt. Express 12(15), 3521–3531 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. Sumetsky, Y. Dulashko, P. Domachuk, and B. J. Eggleton, “Thinnest optical waveguide: experimental test,” Opt. Lett. 32(7), 754–756 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. Sumetsky, “How thin can a microfiber be and still guide light?” Opt. Lett. 31(7), 870–872 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. Sumetsky, “Optics of tunneling from adiabatic nanotapers,” Opt. Lett. 31(23), 3420–3422 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices Part 1: Adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc. 138, 343–354 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  16. F. Gonthier, J. Lapierre, C. Veilleux, S. Lacroix, and J. Bures, “Investigation of power oscillations along tapered monomode fibers,” Appl. Opt. 26(3), 444–449 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. Y. Jung, G. Brambilla, and D. J. Richardson, “Broadband single-mode operation of standard optical fibers by using a sub-wavelength optical wire filter,” Opt. Express 16(19), 14661–14667 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. L. Tong, J. Lou, and E. Mazur, “Single-mode guiding properties of subwavelength-diameter silica and silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 12(6), 1025–1035 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. M. A. Foster, K. D. Moll, and A. L. Gaeta, “Optimal waveguide dimensions for nonlinear interactions,” Opt. Express 12(13), 2880–2887 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

2007

2006

2005

2004

2003

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

1992

T. A. Birks and Y. W. Li, “The Shape of Fiber Tapers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(4), 432–438 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices Part 1: Adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc. 138, 343–354 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987

Ashcom, J. B.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balykin, V. I.

K. P. Nayak, P. N. Melentiev, M. Morinaga, F. L. Kien, V. I. Balykin, and K. Hakuta, “Optical nanofiber as an efficient tool for manipulating and probing atomic Fluorescence,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5431–5438 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. I. Balykin, K. Hakuta, F. Le Kien, J. Liang, and M. Morinaga, “Atom trapping and guiding with a subwavelength-diameter optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. A 70(1), 011401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A.

Black, R. J.

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices Part 1: Adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc. 138, 343–354 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Brambilla, G.

Bures, J.

Chen, X.

Chen, Y.

Domachuk, P.

Dulashko, Y.

Eggleton, B. J.

Finazzi, V.

Fini, J. M.

M. Sumetsky, Y. Dulashko, J. M. Fini, and A. Hale, “Optical microfiber loop resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 161108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Foster, M. A.

Gaeta, A. L.

Gattass, R. R.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghosh, R.

Gonthier, F.

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices Part 1: Adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc. 138, 343–354 (1991).
[CrossRef]

F. Gonthier, J. Lapierre, C. Veilleux, S. Lacroix, and J. Bures, “Investigation of power oscillations along tapered monomode fibers,” Appl. Opt. 26(3), 444–449 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hakuta, K.

K. P. Nayak, P. N. Melentiev, M. Morinaga, F. L. Kien, V. I. Balykin, and K. Hakuta, “Optical nanofiber as an efficient tool for manipulating and probing atomic Fluorescence,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5431–5438 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. I. Balykin, K. Hakuta, F. Le Kien, J. Liang, and M. Morinaga, “Atom trapping and guiding with a subwavelength-diameter optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. A 70(1), 011401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hale, A.

He, S.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henry, W. M.

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices Part 1: Adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc. 138, 343–354 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jung, Y.

Kien, F. L.

Lacroix, S.

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices Part 1: Adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc. 138, 343–354 (1991).
[CrossRef]

F. Gonthier, J. Lapierre, C. Veilleux, S. Lacroix, and J. Bures, “Investigation of power oscillations along tapered monomode fibers,” Appl. Opt. 26(3), 444–449 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lapierre, J.

Le Kien, F.

V. I. Balykin, K. Hakuta, F. Le Kien, J. Liang, and M. Morinaga, “Atom trapping and guiding with a subwavelength-diameter optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. A 70(1), 011401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Leon-Saval, S. G.

Li, Y. W.

T. A. Birks and Y. W. Li, “The Shape of Fiber Tapers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(4), 432–438 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Liang, J.

V. I. Balykin, K. Hakuta, F. Le Kien, J. Liang, and M. Morinaga, “Atom trapping and guiding with a subwavelength-diameter optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. A 70(1), 011401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liao, W.

Liu, H.

Lou, J.

L. Tong, J. Lou, and E. Mazur, “Single-mode guiding properties of subwavelength-diameter silica and silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 12(6), 1025–1035 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Love, J. D.

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices Part 1: Adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc. 138, 343–354 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Mansuripur, M.

Mason, M. W.

Maxwell, I.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mazur, E.

L. Tong, J. Lou, and E. Mazur, “Single-mode guiding properties of subwavelength-diameter silica and silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 12(6), 1025–1035 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Melentiev, P. N.

Moll, K. D.

Morinaga, M.

K. P. Nayak, P. N. Melentiev, M. Morinaga, F. L. Kien, V. I. Balykin, and K. Hakuta, “Optical nanofiber as an efficient tool for manipulating and probing atomic Fluorescence,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5431–5438 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. I. Balykin, K. Hakuta, F. Le Kien, J. Liang, and M. Morinaga, “Atom trapping and guiding with a subwavelength-diameter optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. A 70(1), 011401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nayak, K. P.

Peyghambarian, N.

Polynkin, A.

Polynkin, P.

Richardson, D. J.

Russell, P. St. J.

Shen, M.

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shi, L.

Stewart, W. J.

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices Part 1: Adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc. 138, 343–354 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sumetsky, M.

Tong, L.

L. Tong, J. Lou, and E. Mazur, “Single-mode guiding properties of subwavelength-diameter silica and silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 12(6), 1025–1035 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Veilleux, C.

Wadsworth, W. J.

Xia, Y.

Ye, Z.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. Sumetsky, Y. Dulashko, J. M. Fini, and A. Hale, “Optical microfiber loop resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 161108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEE Proc.

J. D. Love, W. M. Henry, W. J. Stewart, R. J. Black, S. Lacroix, and F. Gonthier, “Tapered single-mode fibres and devices Part 1: Adiabaticity criteria,” IEE Proc. 138, 343–354 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

T. A. Birks and Y. W. Li, “The Shape of Fiber Tapers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(4), 432–438 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Nature

L. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. He, J. Lou, M. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

L. Shi, X. Chen, H. Liu, Y. Chen, Z. Ye, W. Liao, and Y. Xia, “Fabrication of submicron-diameter silica fibers using electric strip heater,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5055–5060 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. P. Nayak, P. N. Melentiev, M. Morinaga, F. L. Kien, V. I. Balykin, and K. Hakuta, “Optical nanofiber as an efficient tool for manipulating and probing atomic Fluorescence,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5431–5438 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Jung, G. Brambilla, and D. J. Richardson, “Broadband single-mode operation of standard optical fibers by using a sub-wavelength optical wire filter,” Opt. Express 16(19), 14661–14667 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Tong, J. Lou, and E. Mazur, “Single-mode guiding properties of subwavelength-diameter silica and silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 12(6), 1025–1035 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Brambilla, V. Finazzi, and D. J. Richardson, “Ultra-low-loss optical fiber nanotapers,” Opt. Express 12(10), 2258–2263 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. G. Leon-Saval, T. A. Birks, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and M. W. Mason, “Supercontinuum generation in submicron fibre waveguides,” Opt. Express 12(13), 2864–2869 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Foster, K. D. Moll, and A. L. Gaeta, “Optimal waveguide dimensions for nonlinear interactions,” Opt. Express 12(13), 2880–2887 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sumetsky, Y. Dulashko, and A. Hale, “Fabrication and study of bent and coiled free silica nanowires: Self-coupling microloop optical interferometer,” Opt. Express 12(15), 3521–3531 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

V. I. Balykin, K. Hakuta, F. Le Kien, J. Liang, and M. Morinaga, “Atom trapping and guiding with a subwavelength-diameter optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. A 70(1), 011401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Sketch of the nanofiber fabrication setup using a bidirectional indirect laser heating method.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Examples of submicron tapers.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Typical variation of transmission during the tapering process of a standard single-mode fiber. The initial fiber diameter of 125 µm is reduced by a factor of 2 nearly every 250 s.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Sketch for the definition of the local taper length scale l based on the local taper angle Ω and the local taper radius r.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Delineation curve between lossy and adiabatic local taper length scale l depending on the nanofiber diameter d. The diameter d is normalized to the wavelength.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Variation of transmission for two identical fiber tapers with a waist length of 6 mm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Axial component of the Poynting vector of nanofibers for different fiber diameters of a) 0.75λ, b) 0.3λ, and c) 0.2λ, respectively. The displayed area size is 2λ x 2λ. Only one of two polarization modes is shown. Red signifies high power density and blue low power density.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Variation of power density as a function of the fiber diameter to wavelength ratio in the center and at the surface of the fiber. Due to an asymmetric power distribution of the polarized fundamental mode, the direction of polarization has to be considered. The overall guided power is normalized to 1 W.

Metrics