Abstract

We have investigated the nonlinear refractive index of ex-vivo pig cornea by a combined approach using the standard z-scan technique on extracted corneas or corneal slices, as well as studying the deviations caused by self-focusing during femtosecond laser processing of the pig eyes. The experiments yield consistently an upper limit of 1.2 MW for the critical power of self-focusing in porcine cornea, and a value of 2·10−19 m2/W for its nonlinear refractive index. We also demonstrate that due to this nonlinear refraction the cutting depth of typical fs-laser surgery processing in cornea may depend considerably, albeit in a well controllable way, on the laser parameters.

© 2010 OSA

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References

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  1. H. Lubatschowski, “Overview of Commercially Available Femtosecond Lasers in Refractive Surgery,” J. Refract. Surg. 24(1), 102–107 (2008).
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    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Juhasz, F. H. Loesel, R. M. Kurtz, C. Horvath, J. F. Bille, and G. Mourou, ““Corneal Refractive Surgery with Femtosecond Lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 902–910 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Lubatschowski, G. Maatz, A. Heisterkamp, U. Hetzel, W. Drommer, H. Welling, and W. Ertmer, “Application of ultrashort laser pulses for intrastromal refractive surgery,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 238(1), 33–39 (2000).
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    [CrossRef]
  7. C. L. Arnold, A. Heisterkamp, W. Ertmer, and H. Lubatschowski, “Streak formation as side effect of optical breakdown during processing the bulk of transparent Kerr media with ultra-short laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80(2), 247–253 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. L. Arnold, A. Heisterkamp, W. Ertmer, and H. Lubatschowski, “Computational model for nonlinear plasma formation in high NA micromachining of transparent materials and biological cells,” Opt. Express 15(16), 10303–10317 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  10. K. Plamann, V. Nuzzo, D. Peyrot, F. Deloison, M. Savoldelli, and J. M. Legeais, “Laser parameters, focusing optics and side effects in femtosecond laser corneal surgery”, Proc. SPIE 6844, W0–W10 (2008)
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  14. J. Kampmeier, B. Radt, R. Birngruber, and R. Brinkmann, “Thermal and biomechanical parameters of porcine cornea,” Cornea 19(3), 355–363 (2000).
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  15. S. Venkatesh, S. Guthrie, F. R. Cruickshank, R. T. Bailey, W. S. Foulds, and W. R. Lee, “Thermal lens measurements in the cornea,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 69(2), 92–95 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. M. Yin, H. P. Li, S. H. Tang, and W. Ji, “Determination of nonlinear absorption and refraction by single Z-scan method,” Appl. Phys. B 70(4), 587–591 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  17. W. Liu and S. L. Chin, “Direct measurement of the critical power of femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser pulse in air,” Opt. Express 13(15), 5750–5755 (2005).
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  18. E. T. J. Nibbering, M. A. Franco, B. S. Prade, G. Grillon, C. Le Blanc, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Measurement of the nonlinear refractive index of transparent materials by spectral analysis after nonlinear propagation,” Opt. Commun. 119(5-6), 479–484 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  19. P. P. Ho and R. R. Alfano, “Optical Kerr effects in liquids,” Phys. Rev. A 20(5), 2170–2187 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H. Sun, M. Han, M. H. Niemz, and J. F. Bille, “Femtosecond laser corneal ablation threshold: dependence on tissue depth and laser pulse width,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(8), 654–658 (2007).
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  21. L. M. Liu, Photonic devices (Cambridge University Press, 2005), Chapter 9.

2009 (2)

H. K. Soong and J. B. Malta, “Femtosecond lasers in ophthalmology,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 147(2), 189–197, e2 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Poudel, “Study of self-focusing effect induced by femtosecond photodisruption on model substances,” Opt. Lett. 34(3), 337–339 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

H. Lubatschowski, “Overview of Commercially Available Femtosecond Lasers in Refractive Surgery,” J. Refract. Surg. 24(1), 102–107 (2008).

2007 (2)

C. L. Arnold, A. Heisterkamp, W. Ertmer, and H. Lubatschowski, “Computational model for nonlinear plasma formation in high NA micromachining of transparent materials and biological cells,” Opt. Express 15(16), 10303–10317 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Sun, M. Han, M. H. Niemz, and J. F. Bille, “Femtosecond laser corneal ablation threshold: dependence on tissue depth and laser pulse width,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(8), 654–658 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

W. Liu and S. L. Chin, “Direct measurement of the critical power of femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser pulse in air,” Opt. Express 13(15), 5750–5755 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Arnold, A. Heisterkamp, W. Ertmer, and H. Lubatschowski, “Streak formation as side effect of optical breakdown during processing the bulk of transparent Kerr media with ultra-short laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80(2), 247–253 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

A. Heisterkamp, T. Ripken, T. Mamom, W. Drommer, H. Welling, W. Ertmer, and H. Lubatschowski, “Nonlinear side effects of fs pulses inside corneal tissue during photodisruption,” Appl. Phys. B 74(4-5), 419–425 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

M. Yin, H. P. Li, S. H. Tang, and W. Ji, “Determination of nonlinear absorption and refraction by single Z-scan method,” Appl. Phys. B 70(4), 587–591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Kampmeier, B. Radt, R. Birngruber, and R. Brinkmann, “Thermal and biomechanical parameters of porcine cornea,” Cornea 19(3), 355–363 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Lubatschowski, G. Maatz, A. Heisterkamp, U. Hetzel, W. Drommer, H. Welling, and W. Ertmer, “Application of ultrashort laser pulses for intrastromal refractive surgery,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 238(1), 33–39 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (3)

J. Noack and A. Vogel, “Laser-induced plasma formation in water at nanosecond to femtosecond time scales: calculation of thresholds, absorption coefficients, and energy density,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(8), 1156–1167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Juhasz, F. H. Loesel, R. M. Kurtz, C. Horvath, J. F. Bille, and G. Mourou, ““Corneal Refractive Surgery with Femtosecond Lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 902–910 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Falconieri, “Thermo-optical effects in Z-scan measurements using high-repetition-rate lasers,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 1(6), 662–667 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

E. T. J. Nibbering, M. A. Franco, B. S. Prade, G. Grillon, C. Le Blanc, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Measurement of the nonlinear refractive index of transparent materials by spectral analysis after nonlinear propagation,” Opt. Commun. 119(5-6), 479–484 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

S. Venkatesh, S. Guthrie, F. R. Cruickshank, R. T. Bailey, W. S. Foulds, and W. R. Lee, “Thermal lens measurements in the cornea,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 69(2), 92–95 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979 (1)

P. P. Ho and R. R. Alfano, “Optical Kerr effects in liquids,” Phys. Rev. A 20(5), 2170–2187 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Alfano, R. R.

P. P. Ho and R. R. Alfano, “Optical Kerr effects in liquids,” Phys. Rev. A 20(5), 2170–2187 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, C. L.

C. L. Arnold, A. Heisterkamp, W. Ertmer, and H. Lubatschowski, “Computational model for nonlinear plasma formation in high NA micromachining of transparent materials and biological cells,” Opt. Express 15(16), 10303–10317 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Arnold, A. Heisterkamp, W. Ertmer, and H. Lubatschowski, “Streak formation as side effect of optical breakdown during processing the bulk of transparent Kerr media with ultra-short laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80(2), 247–253 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, R. T.

S. Venkatesh, S. Guthrie, F. R. Cruickshank, R. T. Bailey, W. S. Foulds, and W. R. Lee, “Thermal lens measurements in the cornea,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 69(2), 92–95 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bille, J. F.

H. Sun, M. Han, M. H. Niemz, and J. F. Bille, “Femtosecond laser corneal ablation threshold: dependence on tissue depth and laser pulse width,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(8), 654–658 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Juhasz, F. H. Loesel, R. M. Kurtz, C. Horvath, J. F. Bille, and G. Mourou, ““Corneal Refractive Surgery with Femtosecond Lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 902–910 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Birngruber, R.

J. Kampmeier, B. Radt, R. Birngruber, and R. Brinkmann, “Thermal and biomechanical parameters of porcine cornea,” Cornea 19(3), 355–363 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brinkmann, R.

J. Kampmeier, B. Radt, R. Birngruber, and R. Brinkmann, “Thermal and biomechanical parameters of porcine cornea,” Cornea 19(3), 355–363 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chin, S. L.

Cruickshank, F. R.

S. Venkatesh, S. Guthrie, F. R. Cruickshank, R. T. Bailey, W. S. Foulds, and W. R. Lee, “Thermal lens measurements in the cornea,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 69(2), 92–95 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drommer, W.

A. Heisterkamp, T. Ripken, T. Mamom, W. Drommer, H. Welling, W. Ertmer, and H. Lubatschowski, “Nonlinear side effects of fs pulses inside corneal tissue during photodisruption,” Appl. Phys. B 74(4-5), 419–425 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Lubatschowski, G. Maatz, A. Heisterkamp, U. Hetzel, W. Drommer, H. Welling, and W. Ertmer, “Application of ultrashort laser pulses for intrastromal refractive surgery,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 238(1), 33–39 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ertmer, W.

C. L. Arnold, A. Heisterkamp, W. Ertmer, and H. Lubatschowski, “Computational model for nonlinear plasma formation in high NA micromachining of transparent materials and biological cells,” Opt. Express 15(16), 10303–10317 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Arnold, A. Heisterkamp, W. Ertmer, and H. Lubatschowski, “Streak formation as side effect of optical breakdown during processing the bulk of transparent Kerr media with ultra-short laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80(2), 247–253 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Heisterkamp, T. Ripken, T. Mamom, W. Drommer, H. Welling, W. Ertmer, and H. Lubatschowski, “Nonlinear side effects of fs pulses inside corneal tissue during photodisruption,” Appl. Phys. B 74(4-5), 419–425 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Lubatschowski, G. Maatz, A. Heisterkamp, U. Hetzel, W. Drommer, H. Welling, and W. Ertmer, “Application of ultrashort laser pulses for intrastromal refractive surgery,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 238(1), 33–39 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Falconieri, M.

M. Falconieri, “Thermo-optical effects in Z-scan measurements using high-repetition-rate lasers,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 1(6), 662–667 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Foulds, W. S.

S. Venkatesh, S. Guthrie, F. R. Cruickshank, R. T. Bailey, W. S. Foulds, and W. R. Lee, “Thermal lens measurements in the cornea,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 69(2), 92–95 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Franco, M. A.

E. T. J. Nibbering, M. A. Franco, B. S. Prade, G. Grillon, C. Le Blanc, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Measurement of the nonlinear refractive index of transparent materials by spectral analysis after nonlinear propagation,” Opt. Commun. 119(5-6), 479–484 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Grillon, G.

E. T. J. Nibbering, M. A. Franco, B. S. Prade, G. Grillon, C. Le Blanc, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Measurement of the nonlinear refractive index of transparent materials by spectral analysis after nonlinear propagation,” Opt. Commun. 119(5-6), 479–484 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Guthrie, S.

S. Venkatesh, S. Guthrie, F. R. Cruickshank, R. T. Bailey, W. S. Foulds, and W. R. Lee, “Thermal lens measurements in the cornea,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 69(2), 92–95 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, M.

H. Sun, M. Han, M. H. Niemz, and J. F. Bille, “Femtosecond laser corneal ablation threshold: dependence on tissue depth and laser pulse width,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(8), 654–658 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heisterkamp, A.

C. L. Arnold, A. Heisterkamp, W. Ertmer, and H. Lubatschowski, “Computational model for nonlinear plasma formation in high NA micromachining of transparent materials and biological cells,” Opt. Express 15(16), 10303–10317 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Arnold, A. Heisterkamp, W. Ertmer, and H. Lubatschowski, “Streak formation as side effect of optical breakdown during processing the bulk of transparent Kerr media with ultra-short laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80(2), 247–253 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Heisterkamp, T. Ripken, T. Mamom, W. Drommer, H. Welling, W. Ertmer, and H. Lubatschowski, “Nonlinear side effects of fs pulses inside corneal tissue during photodisruption,” Appl. Phys. B 74(4-5), 419–425 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Lubatschowski, G. Maatz, A. Heisterkamp, U. Hetzel, W. Drommer, H. Welling, and W. Ertmer, “Application of ultrashort laser pulses for intrastromal refractive surgery,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 238(1), 33–39 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hetzel, U.

H. Lubatschowski, G. Maatz, A. Heisterkamp, U. Hetzel, W. Drommer, H. Welling, and W. Ertmer, “Application of ultrashort laser pulses for intrastromal refractive surgery,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 238(1), 33–39 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ho, P. P.

P. P. Ho and R. R. Alfano, “Optical Kerr effects in liquids,” Phys. Rev. A 20(5), 2170–2187 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Horvath, C.

T. Juhasz, F. H. Loesel, R. M. Kurtz, C. Horvath, J. F. Bille, and G. Mourou, ““Corneal Refractive Surgery with Femtosecond Lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 902–910 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ji, W.

M. Yin, H. P. Li, S. H. Tang, and W. Ji, “Determination of nonlinear absorption and refraction by single Z-scan method,” Appl. Phys. B 70(4), 587–591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Juhasz, T.

T. Juhasz, F. H. Loesel, R. M. Kurtz, C. Horvath, J. F. Bille, and G. Mourou, ““Corneal Refractive Surgery with Femtosecond Lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 902–910 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kampmeier, J.

J. Kampmeier, B. Radt, R. Birngruber, and R. Brinkmann, “Thermal and biomechanical parameters of porcine cornea,” Cornea 19(3), 355–363 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kurtz, R. M.

T. Juhasz, F. H. Loesel, R. M. Kurtz, C. Horvath, J. F. Bille, and G. Mourou, ““Corneal Refractive Surgery with Femtosecond Lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 902–910 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Le Blanc, C.

E. T. J. Nibbering, M. A. Franco, B. S. Prade, G. Grillon, C. Le Blanc, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Measurement of the nonlinear refractive index of transparent materials by spectral analysis after nonlinear propagation,” Opt. Commun. 119(5-6), 479–484 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W. R.

S. Venkatesh, S. Guthrie, F. R. Cruickshank, R. T. Bailey, W. S. Foulds, and W. R. Lee, “Thermal lens measurements in the cornea,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 69(2), 92–95 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, H. P.

M. Yin, H. P. Li, S. H. Tang, and W. Ji, “Determination of nonlinear absorption and refraction by single Z-scan method,” Appl. Phys. B 70(4), 587–591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W.

Loesel, F. H.

T. Juhasz, F. H. Loesel, R. M. Kurtz, C. Horvath, J. F. Bille, and G. Mourou, ““Corneal Refractive Surgery with Femtosecond Lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 902–910 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lubatschowski, H.

H. Lubatschowski, “Overview of Commercially Available Femtosecond Lasers in Refractive Surgery,” J. Refract. Surg. 24(1), 102–107 (2008).

C. L. Arnold, A. Heisterkamp, W. Ertmer, and H. Lubatschowski, “Computational model for nonlinear plasma formation in high NA micromachining of transparent materials and biological cells,” Opt. Express 15(16), 10303–10317 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Arnold, A. Heisterkamp, W. Ertmer, and H. Lubatschowski, “Streak formation as side effect of optical breakdown during processing the bulk of transparent Kerr media with ultra-short laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80(2), 247–253 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Heisterkamp, T. Ripken, T. Mamom, W. Drommer, H. Welling, W. Ertmer, and H. Lubatschowski, “Nonlinear side effects of fs pulses inside corneal tissue during photodisruption,” Appl. Phys. B 74(4-5), 419–425 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Lubatschowski, G. Maatz, A. Heisterkamp, U. Hetzel, W. Drommer, H. Welling, and W. Ertmer, “Application of ultrashort laser pulses for intrastromal refractive surgery,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 238(1), 33–39 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maatz, G.

H. Lubatschowski, G. Maatz, A. Heisterkamp, U. Hetzel, W. Drommer, H. Welling, and W. Ertmer, “Application of ultrashort laser pulses for intrastromal refractive surgery,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 238(1), 33–39 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malta, J. B.

H. K. Soong and J. B. Malta, “Femtosecond lasers in ophthalmology,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 147(2), 189–197, e2 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mamom, T.

A. Heisterkamp, T. Ripken, T. Mamom, W. Drommer, H. Welling, W. Ertmer, and H. Lubatschowski, “Nonlinear side effects of fs pulses inside corneal tissue during photodisruption,” Appl. Phys. B 74(4-5), 419–425 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, G.

T. Juhasz, F. H. Loesel, R. M. Kurtz, C. Horvath, J. F. Bille, and G. Mourou, ““Corneal Refractive Surgery with Femtosecond Lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(4), 902–910 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mysyrowicz, A.

E. T. J. Nibbering, M. A. Franco, B. S. Prade, G. Grillon, C. Le Blanc, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Measurement of the nonlinear refractive index of transparent materials by spectral analysis after nonlinear propagation,” Opt. Commun. 119(5-6), 479–484 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nibbering, E. T. J.

E. T. J. Nibbering, M. A. Franco, B. S. Prade, G. Grillon, C. Le Blanc, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Measurement of the nonlinear refractive index of transparent materials by spectral analysis after nonlinear propagation,” Opt. Commun. 119(5-6), 479–484 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Niemz, M. H.

H. Sun, M. Han, M. H. Niemz, and J. F. Bille, “Femtosecond laser corneal ablation threshold: dependence on tissue depth and laser pulse width,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(8), 654–658 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noack, J.

J. Noack and A. Vogel, “Laser-induced plasma formation in water at nanosecond to femtosecond time scales: calculation of thresholds, absorption coefficients, and energy density,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(8), 1156–1167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Poudel, M. P.

Prade, B. S.

E. T. J. Nibbering, M. A. Franco, B. S. Prade, G. Grillon, C. Le Blanc, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Measurement of the nonlinear refractive index of transparent materials by spectral analysis after nonlinear propagation,” Opt. Commun. 119(5-6), 479–484 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Radt, B.

J. Kampmeier, B. Radt, R. Birngruber, and R. Brinkmann, “Thermal and biomechanical parameters of porcine cornea,” Cornea 19(3), 355–363 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ripken, T.

A. Heisterkamp, T. Ripken, T. Mamom, W. Drommer, H. Welling, W. Ertmer, and H. Lubatschowski, “Nonlinear side effects of fs pulses inside corneal tissue during photodisruption,” Appl. Phys. B 74(4-5), 419–425 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Soong, H. K.

H. K. Soong and J. B. Malta, “Femtosecond lasers in ophthalmology,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 147(2), 189–197, e2 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H.

H. Sun, M. Han, M. H. Niemz, and J. F. Bille, “Femtosecond laser corneal ablation threshold: dependence on tissue depth and laser pulse width,” Lasers Surg. Med. 39(8), 654–658 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tang, S. H.

M. Yin, H. P. Li, S. H. Tang, and W. Ji, “Determination of nonlinear absorption and refraction by single Z-scan method,” Appl. Phys. B 70(4), 587–591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Venkatesh, S.

S. Venkatesh, S. Guthrie, F. R. Cruickshank, R. T. Bailey, W. S. Foulds, and W. R. Lee, “Thermal lens measurements in the cornea,” Br. J. Ophthalmol. 69(2), 92–95 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vogel, A.

J. Noack and A. Vogel, “Laser-induced plasma formation in water at nanosecond to femtosecond time scales: calculation of thresholds, absorption coefficients, and energy density,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35(8), 1156–1167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Welling, H.

A. Heisterkamp, T. Ripken, T. Mamom, W. Drommer, H. Welling, W. Ertmer, and H. Lubatschowski, “Nonlinear side effects of fs pulses inside corneal tissue during photodisruption,” Appl. Phys. B 74(4-5), 419–425 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Lubatschowski, G. Maatz, A. Heisterkamp, U. Hetzel, W. Drommer, H. Welling, and W. Ertmer, “Application of ultrashort laser pulses for intrastromal refractive surgery,” Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 238(1), 33–39 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yin, M.

M. Yin, H. P. Li, S. H. Tang, and W. Ji, “Determination of nonlinear absorption and refraction by single Z-scan method,” Appl. Phys. B 70(4), 587–591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

H. K. Soong and J. B. Malta, “Femtosecond lasers in ophthalmology,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 147(2), 189–197, e2 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (3)

C. L. Arnold, A. Heisterkamp, W. Ertmer, and H. Lubatschowski, “Streak formation as side effect of optical breakdown during processing the bulk of transparent Kerr media with ultra-short laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 80(2), 247–253 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Yin, H. P. Li, S. H. Tang, and W. Ji, “Determination of nonlinear absorption and refraction by single Z-scan method,” Appl. Phys. B 70(4), 587–591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Heisterkamp, T. Ripken, T. Mamom, W. Drommer, H. Welling, W. Ertmer, and H. Lubatschowski, “Nonlinear side effects of fs pulses inside corneal tissue during photodisruption,” Appl. Phys. B 74(4-5), 419–425 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Br. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for pig cornea processing. In the inset is shown the beam propagation in the cornea.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Z –scan results in the pig cornea with open and closed aperture, zR is the Rayleigh range of the beam, z0 the focal position.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The measured flap thickness in pig cornea depending on the programmed depth. The line graph is a fit to the data. The cut parameters were 1.3 µJ, 200 kHz.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The flap thickness dependence on the applied laser peak power in two different programmed depths 250 µm and 500 µm

Equations (3)

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P c = 3.77 λ 2 8 π n 2 n 0
z = s f 1 2 k w 2 P / P c r 1 + 2 z 0 / k w 0 2
f K e r r = π w K e r r 4 8 a n 2 l P

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