Abstract

We design a polarization-sensitive resonator for use in mid-infrared photodetectors, utilizing a photonic crystal cavity and a single or double-metal plasmonic waveguide to achieve enhanced detector efficiency due to superior optical confinement within the active region. As the cavity is highly frequency and polarization-sensitive, this resonator structure could be used in chip-based infrared spectrometers and cameras that can distinguish among different materials and temperatures to a high degree of precision.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. Rogalski, J. Antoszewski, and L. Faraone, "Third-generation infrared photodetector arrays," J. Appl. Phys. 105, 091101 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Phillips, "Evaluation of the fundamental properties of quantum dot infrared detectors," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 4590-4594 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Sidorov, "Peculiarities of the MBE growth physics and technology of narrow-gap IIVI compounds," Thin Solid Films 306, 253-265 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Krishna, "Quantum dots-in-a-well infrared photodetectors," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38, 2142-2150 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. V. Shenoi, R. S. Attaluri, A. Siroya, J. Shao, Y. D. Sharma, A. Stintz, T. E. Vandervelde, and S. Krishna, "Low-strain InAs/InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots-in-a-well infrared photodetector," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26, 1136-1139 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. O. Painter and K. Srinivasan, "Polarization properties of dipole like defect modes in photonic crystal nanocavities," Opt. Lett. 27, 339-341 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Lončar, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, P. Gogna, and Y. Qiu, "Low-threshold photonic crystal laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2680-2682 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. O. Painter, J. Vučković, and A. Scherer, "Defect modes of a two-dimensional photonic crystal in an optically thin dielectric slab," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 275-285 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings, (Springer, 1988).
  10. B. Prade, J. Y. Vinet, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Guided optical waves in planar heterostructures with negative dielectric constant," Phys. Rev. B 44, 13556-13572 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Bahriz, V. Moreau, R. Colombelli, O. Crisafulli, and O. Painter, "Design of mid-IR and THz quantum cascade laser cavities with complete TM photonic bandgap," Opt. Express 15, 5948-5965 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. Rosenberg, R. V. Shenoi, T. E. Vandervelde, S. Krishna, and O. Painter, "A multispectral and polarization selective surface-plasmon resonant midinfrared detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 161101 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. E. Homeyer, J. Houel, X. Checoury, F. Delgehier, S. Sauvage, P. Boucaud, R. Braive, L. Le Gratiet, L. Leroy, A. Miard, A. Lemaître, and I. Sagnes, "Resonant coupling of quantum dot intersublevel transitions with midinfrared photonic crystal modes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 041108 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. E. Laux, C. Genet, T. Skauli, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Plasmonic photon sorters for spectral and polarimetric imaging," Nat. Photon. 2, 161-164 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. K. Yang, M. K. Seo, I. K. Hwang, S. B. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, "Polarization-selective resonant photonic crystal photodetector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 211103 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  16. X. Hu, M. Li, Z. Ye, W. Y. Leung, K. M. Ho, and S. Y. Lin, "Design of midinfrared photodetectors enhanced by resonant cavities with subwavelength metallic gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 241108 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. S. White, G. Veronis, Z. Yu, E. S. Barnard, A. Chandran, S. Fan, and M. L. Brongersma, "Extraordinary optical absorption through subwavelength slits," Opt. Lett. 34, 686-688 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. R. V. Shenoi, D. A. Ramirez, Y. Sharma, R. S. Attaluri, J. Rosenberg, O. J. Painter, and S. Krishna, "Plasmon assisted photonic crystal quantum dot sensors," vol. 6713, 67130P (SPIE, 2007).
  19. M. Tinkham, Group Theory and Quantum Mechanics, (Dover Publications, 2003).
  20. O. Painter, K. Srinivasan, and P. E. Barclay, "Wannier-like equation for the resonant cavity modes of locally perturbed photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter 68, 035214 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals, (Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 1995).
  22. P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  23. W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424, 824-830 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. J. B. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces," Science 305, 847-848 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. G. Mur, "Absorbing boundary conditions for the finite-difference approximation of the time-domain electromagnetic-field equations," IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat. 23, 377-382 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  26. M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, "Observation of critical coupling in a fiber taper to a silica-microsphere whispering-gallery mode system," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74-77 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. T. E. Vandervelde, M. C. Lenz, E. Varley, A. Barve, J. Shao, R. V. Shenoi, D. A. Ramirez, W. Jan, Y. D. Sharma, and S. Krishna, "Quantum dots-in-a-well focal plane arrays," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1150-1161 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (4)

A. Rogalski, J. Antoszewski, and L. Faraone, "Third-generation infrared photodetector arrays," J. Appl. Phys. 105, 091101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Rosenberg, R. V. Shenoi, T. E. Vandervelde, S. Krishna, and O. Painter, "A multispectral and polarization selective surface-plasmon resonant midinfrared detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 161101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Homeyer, J. Houel, X. Checoury, F. Delgehier, S. Sauvage, P. Boucaud, R. Braive, L. Le Gratiet, L. Leroy, A. Miard, A. Lemaître, and I. Sagnes, "Resonant coupling of quantum dot intersublevel transitions with midinfrared photonic crystal modes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 041108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. S. White, G. Veronis, Z. Yu, E. S. Barnard, A. Chandran, S. Fan, and M. L. Brongersma, "Extraordinary optical absorption through subwavelength slits," Opt. Lett. 34, 686-688 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (5)

E. Laux, C. Genet, T. Skauli, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Plasmonic photon sorters for spectral and polarimetric imaging," Nat. Photon. 2, 161-164 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Yang, M. K. Seo, I. K. Hwang, S. B. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, "Polarization-selective resonant photonic crystal photodetector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 211103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Hu, M. Li, Z. Ye, W. Y. Leung, K. M. Ho, and S. Y. Lin, "Design of midinfrared photodetectors enhanced by resonant cavities with subwavelength metallic gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 241108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Shenoi, R. S. Attaluri, A. Siroya, J. Shao, Y. D. Sharma, A. Stintz, T. E. Vandervelde, and S. Krishna, "Low-strain InAs/InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots-in-a-well infrared photodetector," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26, 1136-1139 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. E. Vandervelde, M. C. Lenz, E. Varley, A. Barve, J. Shao, R. V. Shenoi, D. A. Ramirez, W. Jan, Y. D. Sharma, and S. Krishna, "Quantum dots-in-a-well focal plane arrays," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1150-1161 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

S. Krishna, "Quantum dots-in-a-well infrared photodetectors," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38, 2142-2150 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

J. B. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces," Science 305, 847-848 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

O. Painter, K. Srinivasan, and P. E. Barclay, "Wannier-like equation for the resonant cavity modes of locally perturbed photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter 68, 035214 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424, 824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

J. Phillips, "Evaluation of the fundamental properties of quantum dot infrared detectors," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 4590-4594 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. Painter and K. Srinivasan, "Polarization properties of dipole like defect modes in photonic crystal nanocavities," Opt. Lett. 27, 339-341 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Lončar, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, P. Gogna, and Y. Qiu, "Low-threshold photonic crystal laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2680-2682 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, "Observation of critical coupling in a fiber taper to a silica-microsphere whispering-gallery mode system," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74-77 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

Y. Sidorov, "Peculiarities of the MBE growth physics and technology of narrow-gap IIVI compounds," Thin Solid Films 306, 253-265 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

B. Prade, J. Y. Vinet, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Guided optical waves in planar heterostructures with negative dielectric constant," Phys. Rev. B 44, 13556-13572 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

G. Mur, "Absorbing boundary conditions for the finite-difference approximation of the time-domain electromagnetic-field equations," IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat. 23, 377-382 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Antoszewski, J.

A. Rogalski, J. Antoszewski, and L. Faraone, "Third-generation infrared photodetector arrays," J. Appl. Phys. 105, 091101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Attaluri, R. S.

R. V. Shenoi, R. S. Attaluri, A. Siroya, J. Shao, Y. D. Sharma, A. Stintz, T. E. Vandervelde, and S. Krishna, "Low-strain InAs/InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots-in-a-well infrared photodetector," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26, 1136-1139 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bahriz, M.

Barclay, P. E.

O. Painter, K. Srinivasan, and P. E. Barclay, "Wannier-like equation for the resonant cavity modes of locally perturbed photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter 68, 035214 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Barnard, E. S.

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424, 824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barve, A.

T. E. Vandervelde, M. C. Lenz, E. Varley, A. Barve, J. Shao, R. V. Shenoi, D. A. Ramirez, W. Jan, Y. D. Sharma, and S. Krishna, "Quantum dots-in-a-well focal plane arrays," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1150-1161 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Boucaud, P.

E. Homeyer, J. Houel, X. Checoury, F. Delgehier, S. Sauvage, P. Boucaud, R. Braive, L. Le Gratiet, L. Leroy, A. Miard, A. Lemaître, and I. Sagnes, "Resonant coupling of quantum dot intersublevel transitions with midinfrared photonic crystal modes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 041108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Braive, R.

E. Homeyer, J. Houel, X. Checoury, F. Delgehier, S. Sauvage, P. Boucaud, R. Braive, L. Le Gratiet, L. Leroy, A. Miard, A. Lemaître, and I. Sagnes, "Resonant coupling of quantum dot intersublevel transitions with midinfrared photonic crystal modes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 041108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brongersma, M. L.

Cai, M.

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, "Observation of critical coupling in a fiber taper to a silica-microsphere whispering-gallery mode system," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74-77 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chandran, A.

Checoury, X.

E. Homeyer, J. Houel, X. Checoury, F. Delgehier, S. Sauvage, P. Boucaud, R. Braive, L. Le Gratiet, L. Leroy, A. Miard, A. Lemaître, and I. Sagnes, "Resonant coupling of quantum dot intersublevel transitions with midinfrared photonic crystal modes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 041108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Colombelli, R.

Crisafulli, O.

Delgehier, F.

E. Homeyer, J. Houel, X. Checoury, F. Delgehier, S. Sauvage, P. Boucaud, R. Braive, L. Le Gratiet, L. Leroy, A. Miard, A. Lemaître, and I. Sagnes, "Resonant coupling of quantum dot intersublevel transitions with midinfrared photonic crystal modes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 041108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424, 824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ebbesen, T. W.

E. Laux, C. Genet, T. Skauli, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Plasmonic photon sorters for spectral and polarimetric imaging," Nat. Photon. 2, 161-164 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424, 824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, S.

Faraone, L.

A. Rogalski, J. Antoszewski, and L. Faraone, "Third-generation infrared photodetector arrays," J. Appl. Phys. 105, 091101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Vidal, F. J.

J. B. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces," Science 305, 847-848 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Genet, C.

E. Laux, C. Genet, T. Skauli, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Plasmonic photon sorters for spectral and polarimetric imaging," Nat. Photon. 2, 161-164 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gogna, P.

M. Lončar, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, P. Gogna, and Y. Qiu, "Low-threshold photonic crystal laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2680-2682 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ho, K. M.

X. Hu, M. Li, Z. Ye, W. Y. Leung, K. M. Ho, and S. Y. Lin, "Design of midinfrared photodetectors enhanced by resonant cavities with subwavelength metallic gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 241108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Homeyer, E.

E. Homeyer, J. Houel, X. Checoury, F. Delgehier, S. Sauvage, P. Boucaud, R. Braive, L. Le Gratiet, L. Leroy, A. Miard, A. Lemaître, and I. Sagnes, "Resonant coupling of quantum dot intersublevel transitions with midinfrared photonic crystal modes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 041108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Houel, J.

E. Homeyer, J. Houel, X. Checoury, F. Delgehier, S. Sauvage, P. Boucaud, R. Braive, L. Le Gratiet, L. Leroy, A. Miard, A. Lemaître, and I. Sagnes, "Resonant coupling of quantum dot intersublevel transitions with midinfrared photonic crystal modes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 041108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hu, X.

X. Hu, M. Li, Z. Ye, W. Y. Leung, K. M. Ho, and S. Y. Lin, "Design of midinfrared photodetectors enhanced by resonant cavities with subwavelength metallic gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 241108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, I. K.

J. K. Yang, M. K. Seo, I. K. Hwang, S. B. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, "Polarization-selective resonant photonic crystal photodetector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 211103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jan, W.

T. E. Vandervelde, M. C. Lenz, E. Varley, A. Barve, J. Shao, R. V. Shenoi, D. A. Ramirez, W. Jan, Y. D. Sharma, and S. Krishna, "Quantum dots-in-a-well focal plane arrays," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1150-1161 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. B.

J. K. Yang, M. K. Seo, I. K. Hwang, S. B. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, "Polarization-selective resonant photonic crystal photodetector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 211103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Krishna, S.

J. Rosenberg, R. V. Shenoi, T. E. Vandervelde, S. Krishna, and O. Painter, "A multispectral and polarization selective surface-plasmon resonant midinfrared detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 161101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Shenoi, R. S. Attaluri, A. Siroya, J. Shao, Y. D. Sharma, A. Stintz, T. E. Vandervelde, and S. Krishna, "Low-strain InAs/InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots-in-a-well infrared photodetector," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26, 1136-1139 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. E. Vandervelde, M. C. Lenz, E. Varley, A. Barve, J. Shao, R. V. Shenoi, D. A. Ramirez, W. Jan, Y. D. Sharma, and S. Krishna, "Quantum dots-in-a-well focal plane arrays," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1150-1161 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Krishna, "Quantum dots-in-a-well infrared photodetectors," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38, 2142-2150 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Laux, E.

E. Laux, C. Genet, T. Skauli, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Plasmonic photon sorters for spectral and polarimetric imaging," Nat. Photon. 2, 161-164 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Le Gratiet, L.

E. Homeyer, J. Houel, X. Checoury, F. Delgehier, S. Sauvage, P. Boucaud, R. Braive, L. Le Gratiet, L. Leroy, A. Miard, A. Lemaître, and I. Sagnes, "Resonant coupling of quantum dot intersublevel transitions with midinfrared photonic crystal modes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 041108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. H.

J. K. Yang, M. K. Seo, I. K. Hwang, S. B. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, "Polarization-selective resonant photonic crystal photodetector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 211103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lemaître, A.

E. Homeyer, J. Houel, X. Checoury, F. Delgehier, S. Sauvage, P. Boucaud, R. Braive, L. Le Gratiet, L. Leroy, A. Miard, A. Lemaître, and I. Sagnes, "Resonant coupling of quantum dot intersublevel transitions with midinfrared photonic crystal modes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 041108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lenz, M. C.

T. E. Vandervelde, M. C. Lenz, E. Varley, A. Barve, J. Shao, R. V. Shenoi, D. A. Ramirez, W. Jan, Y. D. Sharma, and S. Krishna, "Quantum dots-in-a-well focal plane arrays," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1150-1161 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Leroy, L.

E. Homeyer, J. Houel, X. Checoury, F. Delgehier, S. Sauvage, P. Boucaud, R. Braive, L. Le Gratiet, L. Leroy, A. Miard, A. Lemaître, and I. Sagnes, "Resonant coupling of quantum dot intersublevel transitions with midinfrared photonic crystal modes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 041108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Leung, W. Y.

X. Hu, M. Li, Z. Ye, W. Y. Leung, K. M. Ho, and S. Y. Lin, "Design of midinfrared photodetectors enhanced by resonant cavities with subwavelength metallic gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 241108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, M.

X. Hu, M. Li, Z. Ye, W. Y. Leung, K. M. Ho, and S. Y. Lin, "Design of midinfrared photodetectors enhanced by resonant cavities with subwavelength metallic gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 241108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S. Y.

X. Hu, M. Li, Z. Ye, W. Y. Leung, K. M. Ho, and S. Y. Lin, "Design of midinfrared photodetectors enhanced by resonant cavities with subwavelength metallic gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 241108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Loncar, M.

M. Lončar, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, P. Gogna, and Y. Qiu, "Low-threshold photonic crystal laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2680-2682 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Martin-Moreno, L.

J. B. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces," Science 305, 847-848 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miard, A.

E. Homeyer, J. Houel, X. Checoury, F. Delgehier, S. Sauvage, P. Boucaud, R. Braive, L. Le Gratiet, L. Leroy, A. Miard, A. Lemaître, and I. Sagnes, "Resonant coupling of quantum dot intersublevel transitions with midinfrared photonic crystal modes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 041108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Moreau, V.

Mur, G.

G. Mur, "Absorbing boundary conditions for the finite-difference approximation of the time-domain electromagnetic-field equations," IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat. 23, 377-382 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Mysyrowicz, A.

B. Prade, J. Y. Vinet, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Guided optical waves in planar heterostructures with negative dielectric constant," Phys. Rev. B 44, 13556-13572 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Painter, O.

J. Rosenberg, R. V. Shenoi, T. E. Vandervelde, S. Krishna, and O. Painter, "A multispectral and polarization selective surface-plasmon resonant midinfrared detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 161101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Bahriz, V. Moreau, R. Colombelli, O. Crisafulli, and O. Painter, "Design of mid-IR and THz quantum cascade laser cavities with complete TM photonic bandgap," Opt. Express 15, 5948-5965 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Painter, K. Srinivasan, and P. E. Barclay, "Wannier-like equation for the resonant cavity modes of locally perturbed photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter 68, 035214 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O. Painter and K. Srinivasan, "Polarization properties of dipole like defect modes in photonic crystal nanocavities," Opt. Lett. 27, 339-341 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, "Observation of critical coupling in a fiber taper to a silica-microsphere whispering-gallery mode system," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74-77 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Painter, J. Vučković, and A. Scherer, "Defect modes of a two-dimensional photonic crystal in an optically thin dielectric slab," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 275-285 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pendry, J. B.

J. B. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces," Science 305, 847-848 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phillips, J.

J. Phillips, "Evaluation of the fundamental properties of quantum dot infrared detectors," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 4590-4594 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Prade, B.

B. Prade, J. Y. Vinet, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Guided optical waves in planar heterostructures with negative dielectric constant," Phys. Rev. B 44, 13556-13572 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, Y.

M. Lončar, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, P. Gogna, and Y. Qiu, "Low-threshold photonic crystal laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2680-2682 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ramirez, D. A.

T. E. Vandervelde, M. C. Lenz, E. Varley, A. Barve, J. Shao, R. V. Shenoi, D. A. Ramirez, W. Jan, Y. D. Sharma, and S. Krishna, "Quantum dots-in-a-well focal plane arrays," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1150-1161 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rogalski, A.

A. Rogalski, J. Antoszewski, and L. Faraone, "Third-generation infrared photodetector arrays," J. Appl. Phys. 105, 091101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rosenberg, J.

J. Rosenberg, R. V. Shenoi, T. E. Vandervelde, S. Krishna, and O. Painter, "A multispectral and polarization selective surface-plasmon resonant midinfrared detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 161101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sagnes, I.

E. Homeyer, J. Houel, X. Checoury, F. Delgehier, S. Sauvage, P. Boucaud, R. Braive, L. Le Gratiet, L. Leroy, A. Miard, A. Lemaître, and I. Sagnes, "Resonant coupling of quantum dot intersublevel transitions with midinfrared photonic crystal modes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 041108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sauvage, S.

E. Homeyer, J. Houel, X. Checoury, F. Delgehier, S. Sauvage, P. Boucaud, R. Braive, L. Le Gratiet, L. Leroy, A. Miard, A. Lemaître, and I. Sagnes, "Resonant coupling of quantum dot intersublevel transitions with midinfrared photonic crystal modes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 041108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

M. Lončar, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, P. Gogna, and Y. Qiu, "Low-threshold photonic crystal laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2680-2682 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. Painter, J. Vučković, and A. Scherer, "Defect modes of a two-dimensional photonic crystal in an optically thin dielectric slab," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 275-285 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Seo, M. K.

J. K. Yang, M. K. Seo, I. K. Hwang, S. B. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, "Polarization-selective resonant photonic crystal photodetector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 211103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shao, J.

R. V. Shenoi, R. S. Attaluri, A. Siroya, J. Shao, Y. D. Sharma, A. Stintz, T. E. Vandervelde, and S. Krishna, "Low-strain InAs/InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots-in-a-well infrared photodetector," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26, 1136-1139 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. E. Vandervelde, M. C. Lenz, E. Varley, A. Barve, J. Shao, R. V. Shenoi, D. A. Ramirez, W. Jan, Y. D. Sharma, and S. Krishna, "Quantum dots-in-a-well focal plane arrays," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1150-1161 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, Y. D.

T. E. Vandervelde, M. C. Lenz, E. Varley, A. Barve, J. Shao, R. V. Shenoi, D. A. Ramirez, W. Jan, Y. D. Sharma, and S. Krishna, "Quantum dots-in-a-well focal plane arrays," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1150-1161 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Shenoi, R. S. Attaluri, A. Siroya, J. Shao, Y. D. Sharma, A. Stintz, T. E. Vandervelde, and S. Krishna, "Low-strain InAs/InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots-in-a-well infrared photodetector," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26, 1136-1139 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shenoi, R. V.

J. Rosenberg, R. V. Shenoi, T. E. Vandervelde, S. Krishna, and O. Painter, "A multispectral and polarization selective surface-plasmon resonant midinfrared detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 161101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Shenoi, R. S. Attaluri, A. Siroya, J. Shao, Y. D. Sharma, A. Stintz, T. E. Vandervelde, and S. Krishna, "Low-strain InAs/InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots-in-a-well infrared photodetector," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26, 1136-1139 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. E. Vandervelde, M. C. Lenz, E. Varley, A. Barve, J. Shao, R. V. Shenoi, D. A. Ramirez, W. Jan, Y. D. Sharma, and S. Krishna, "Quantum dots-in-a-well focal plane arrays," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1150-1161 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sidorov, Y.

Y. Sidorov, "Peculiarities of the MBE growth physics and technology of narrow-gap IIVI compounds," Thin Solid Films 306, 253-265 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Siroya, A.

R. V. Shenoi, R. S. Attaluri, A. Siroya, J. Shao, Y. D. Sharma, A. Stintz, T. E. Vandervelde, and S. Krishna, "Low-strain InAs/InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots-in-a-well infrared photodetector," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26, 1136-1139 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Skauli, T.

E. Laux, C. Genet, T. Skauli, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Plasmonic photon sorters for spectral and polarimetric imaging," Nat. Photon. 2, 161-164 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Srinivasan, K.

O. Painter, K. Srinivasan, and P. E. Barclay, "Wannier-like equation for the resonant cavity modes of locally perturbed photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter 68, 035214 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O. Painter and K. Srinivasan, "Polarization properties of dipole like defect modes in photonic crystal nanocavities," Opt. Lett. 27, 339-341 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stintz, A.

R. V. Shenoi, R. S. Attaluri, A. Siroya, J. Shao, Y. D. Sharma, A. Stintz, T. E. Vandervelde, and S. Krishna, "Low-strain InAs/InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots-in-a-well infrared photodetector," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26, 1136-1139 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K. J.

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, "Observation of critical coupling in a fiber taper to a silica-microsphere whispering-gallery mode system," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74-77 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vandervelde, T. E.

J. Rosenberg, R. V. Shenoi, T. E. Vandervelde, S. Krishna, and O. Painter, "A multispectral and polarization selective surface-plasmon resonant midinfrared detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 161101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. V. Shenoi, R. S. Attaluri, A. Siroya, J. Shao, Y. D. Sharma, A. Stintz, T. E. Vandervelde, and S. Krishna, "Low-strain InAs/InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots-in-a-well infrared photodetector," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26, 1136-1139 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. E. Vandervelde, M. C. Lenz, E. Varley, A. Barve, J. Shao, R. V. Shenoi, D. A. Ramirez, W. Jan, Y. D. Sharma, and S. Krishna, "Quantum dots-in-a-well focal plane arrays," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1150-1161 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Varley, E.

T. E. Vandervelde, M. C. Lenz, E. Varley, A. Barve, J. Shao, R. V. Shenoi, D. A. Ramirez, W. Jan, Y. D. Sharma, and S. Krishna, "Quantum dots-in-a-well focal plane arrays," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1150-1161 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Veronis, G.

Vinet, J. Y.

B. Prade, J. Y. Vinet, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Guided optical waves in planar heterostructures with negative dielectric constant," Phys. Rev. B 44, 13556-13572 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Vuckovic, J.

White, J. S.

Yang, J. K.

J. K. Yang, M. K. Seo, I. K. Hwang, S. B. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, "Polarization-selective resonant photonic crystal photodetector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 211103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ye, Z.

X. Hu, M. Li, Z. Ye, W. Y. Leung, K. M. Ho, and S. Y. Lin, "Design of midinfrared photodetectors enhanced by resonant cavities with subwavelength metallic gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 241108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yoshie, T.

M. Lončar, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, P. Gogna, and Y. Qiu, "Low-threshold photonic crystal laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2680-2682 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Z.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

M. Lončar, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, P. Gogna, and Y. Qiu, "Low-threshold photonic crystal laser," Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2680-2682 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Yang, M. K. Seo, I. K. Hwang, S. B. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, "Polarization-selective resonant photonic crystal photodetector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 211103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Hu, M. Li, Z. Ye, W. Y. Leung, K. M. Ho, and S. Y. Lin, "Design of midinfrared photodetectors enhanced by resonant cavities with subwavelength metallic gratings," Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 241108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Rosenberg, R. V. Shenoi, T. E. Vandervelde, S. Krishna, and O. Painter, "A multispectral and polarization selective surface-plasmon resonant midinfrared detector," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 161101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Homeyer, J. Houel, X. Checoury, F. Delgehier, S. Sauvage, P. Boucaud, R. Braive, L. Le Gratiet, L. Leroy, A. Miard, A. Lemaître, and I. Sagnes, "Resonant coupling of quantum dot intersublevel transitions with midinfrared photonic crystal modes," Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 041108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. E. Vandervelde, M. C. Lenz, E. Varley, A. Barve, J. Shao, R. V. Shenoi, D. A. Ramirez, W. Jan, Y. D. Sharma, and S. Krishna, "Quantum dots-in-a-well focal plane arrays," IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 14, 1150-1161 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat. (1)

G. Mur, "Absorbing boundary conditions for the finite-difference approximation of the time-domain electromagnetic-field equations," IEEE Trans. Electromagn. Compat. 23, 377-382 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

A. Rogalski, J. Antoszewski, and L. Faraone, "Third-generation infrared photodetector arrays," J. Appl. Phys. 105, 091101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Phillips, "Evaluation of the fundamental properties of quantum dot infrared detectors," J. Appl. Phys. 91, 4590-4594 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Krishna, "Quantum dots-in-a-well infrared photodetectors," J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38, 2142-2150 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

R. V. Shenoi, R. S. Attaluri, A. Siroya, J. Shao, Y. D. Sharma, A. Stintz, T. E. Vandervelde, and S. Krishna, "Low-strain InAs/InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots-in-a-well infrared photodetector," J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26, 1136-1139 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon. (1)

E. Laux, C. Genet, T. Skauli, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Plasmonic photon sorters for spectral and polarimetric imaging," Nat. Photon. 2, 161-164 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, "Surface plasmon subwavelength optics," Nature 424, 824-830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

B. Prade, J. Y. Vinet, and A. Mysyrowicz, "Guided optical waves in planar heterostructures with negative dielectric constant," Phys. Rev. B 44, 13556-13572 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter (2)

O. Painter, K. Srinivasan, and P. E. Barclay, "Wannier-like equation for the resonant cavity modes of locally perturbed photonic crystals," Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter 68, 035214 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, "Optical constants of the noble metals," Phys. Rev. B: Condens. Matter 6, 4370-4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. Cai, O. Painter, and K. J. Vahala, "Observation of critical coupling in a fiber taper to a silica-microsphere whispering-gallery mode system," Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 74-77 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

J. B. Pendry, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. J. Garcia-Vidal, "Mimicking surface plasmons with structured surfaces," Science 305, 847-848 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thin Solid Films (1)

Y. Sidorov, "Peculiarities of the MBE growth physics and technology of narrow-gap IIVI compounds," Thin Solid Films 306, 253-265 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings, (Springer, 1988).

J. D. Joannopoulos, R. D. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals, (Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 1995).

R. V. Shenoi, D. A. Ramirez, Y. Sharma, R. S. Attaluri, J. Rosenberg, O. J. Painter, and S. Krishna, "Plasmon assisted photonic crystal quantum dot sensors," vol. 6713, 67130P (SPIE, 2007).

M. Tinkham, Group Theory and Quantum Mechanics, (Dover Publications, 2003).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (12)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

In-plane guided mode TM bandstructure plot of a square-lattice photonic crystal (n eff = 3.24) with r/a = 0.32. The light line is shown in yellow, and the modes of interest are circled.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

2D bandstructure plots near the gamma point of (a) a square lattice and (b) a rectangular lattice, stretched by 10%. The dipole-like modes are shown in bold.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) A crossectional image of several lattice constants of the single-metal DWELL detector design. (b) Ez intensity profile of the fundamental plasmon waveguide mode (blue) and the real part of the refractive index of the layers (red), with the detector active region highlighted. (c) FDTD bandstructure for the unstretched single-metal photonic crystal structure shown in (a) in the region between the Γ and X points. (d) FDTD bandstructure between the Γ and X 1 points for a single-metal photonic crystal structure stretched and compressed by 10% in the x and y directions, respectively.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) FDTD simulated enhancement factor and active region absorption vs. wavelength, based on a 2% single-pass absorption, using a structure with lattice constant a = 2.939 μm, W̄ = 0.567, and metal thickness tm = 150 nm. (b) Ez mode profiles in the y-z plane at the hole edge for the three longer-wavelength peaks in (a), for one lattice constant. The three shorter-wavelength peaks have similar vertical field profiles, but are higher-order in the x-y plane.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The (a) real (red) and (b) imaginary (blue) parts of the dielectric constant dispersion relation of an Ag/GaAs/Ag waveguide vs. waveguide thickness t, for a free-space wavelength of λ = 10 μm. The GaAs core index is indicated by a dotted black line.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

The field profile for Ag/GaAs/Ag plasmon waveguides with a thickness t of (a) 10 nm, (b) 500 nm, and (c) 50 μm are shown, for a free-space wavelength of λ = 10 μm. The effective index n eff for each plasmon waveguide is also given.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

A comparison of the FDTD simulated and group theory predicted Ez field profiles for the four lowest gamma-point modes of a 20% stretched lattice, in order of increasing frequency. The modes, labeled according to C2v designations, are (a)A 1,1,(b)B 2, (c)B 1, (d) A 1,2. The group theory predictions are shown on the left, while the FDTD results, including the effects of the photonic crystal air hole (overlaid white square), are shown on the right. The FDTD fields shown are 2D slices of the full simulations taken just below the top metal layer, inside the active region.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Far-field plots at z = 90 μm of the two Γ-point dipole modes in a stretched-lattice structure with W̄ = 0.5309 and ay /ax = 1.2. (a) B 2 mode power density, with dominant ŷ-polarization. (b) B 1 mode power density, with dominant x̂-polarization. For both B 1 and B 2 modes, the polarization selectivity is calculated to be greater than 109, limited entirely by error in the numerical simulation.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

The dominant loss mechanisms within a double-metal plasmonic photonic crystal resonant detector.

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

(a) Variation of external coupling and substrate loss quality factors, Qe and Q sub, with metal thickness tm , and (b) with W̄ for the fundamental (blue) and higher-order (red) modes of the unstretched single-metal photonic crystal lattice. Open circles represent Qe and filled triangles represent Q sub. A dotted line marks the value of the parameter held constant in the opposing plot.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Variation of vertical coupling quality factor Qe of the B 1 (blue square) and B 2 (green circle) modes of the double-metal photonic crystal lattice with changing (a) tm and (b) W̄.

Fig. 12.
Fig. 12.

A design schematic for a resonant double-metal plasmonic photonic crystal FPA.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Point Group character tables for the square and rectangular lattice.

Equations (14)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E A 1 = z ̂ ( cos ( k G 1 · r ) + cos ( k G 2 · r ) ) ,
E B 1 = z ̂ ( cos ( k G 1 · r ) cos ( k G 2 · r ) ) ,
E E , 1 = z ̂ ( sin ( k G 2 · r ) ) ,
E E , 2 = z ̂ ( sin ( k G 1 · r ) ) ,
E A 1 , 1 = z ̂ ( cos ( k G 1 · r ) + cos ( k G 2 · r ) ) ,
E A 1 , 2 = z ̂ ( cos ( k G 1 · r ) cos ( k G 2 · r ) ) ,
E B 1 = z ̂ ( sin ( k G 2 · r ) ) ,
E B 2 = z ̂ ( sin ( k G 1 · r ) ) .
R = Δ 2 + ( γ 0 γ e 2 ) 2 Δ 2 + ( γ t 2 ) 2 ,
P d = P in ( 1 R ) = P in γ 0 γ e Δ 2 + ( γ t 2 2 ) 2 ,
p i = γ i γ 0 P d P in = γ i γ e Δ 2 + ( γ t 2 ) 2 .
p D = 4 γ D γ e [ ( m + 1 ) γ e + γ metal + γ D ] 2 .
γ e = γ D + γ metal 1 + m .
p D , max = γ D ( 1 + m ) ( γ D + γ metal ) .

Metrics