Abstract

We demonstrate reduction of the free-carrier lifetime in a silicon nanowaveguide from 3 ns to 12.2 ps by applying a reverse bias across an integrated p-i-n diode. This observation represents the shortest free-carrier lifetime demonstrated to date in silicon waveguides. Importantly, the presence of the p-i-n structure does not measurably increase the propagation loss of the waveguide. We derive a figure of merit demonstrating equal dependency of the nonlinear phase shift on free-carrier lifetime and linear propagation loss.

© 2010 OSA

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2009 (1)

2008 (6)

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Nonlinear optics in photonic nanowires,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1300–1320 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Turner, M. A. Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Ultra-low power parametric frequency conversion in a silicon microring resonator,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4881–4887 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-7-4881 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Waldow, T. Plötzing, M. Gottheil, M. Först, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, and H. Kurz, “25ps all-optical switching in oxygen implanted silicon-on-insulator microring resonator,” Opt. Express 16(11), 7693–7702 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-11-7693 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. M. Wright, D. J. Thomson, K. L. Litvinenko, W. R. Headley, A. J. Smith, A. P. Knights, J. H. B. Deane, F. Y. Gardes, G. Z. Mashanovich, R. Gwilliam, and G. T. Reed, “Free carrier lifetime modification for silicon waveguide based devices,” Opt. Express 16(24), 19779–19784 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-24-19779 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Signal regeneration using low power four-wave mixing on silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 2(1), 35–38 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Preston, P. Dong, B. Schmidt, and M. Lipson, “High-speed all-optical modulation using polycrystalline silicon microring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(15), 151104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

2006 (9)

H. Rong, Y.-H. Kuo, A. Liu, M. Paniccia, and O. Cohen, “High efficiency wavelength conversion of 10 Gb/s data in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 14(3), 1182–1188 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-3-1182 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liu and H. K. Tsang, “Nonlinear absorption and Raman gain in helium-ion-implanted silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 31(11), 1714–1716 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-31-11-1714 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Lin, J. Zhang, P. M. Fauchet, and G. P. Agrawal, “Ultrabroadband parametric generation and wavelength conversion in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 14(11), 4786–4799 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-11-4786 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Dulkeith, Y. A. Vlasov, X. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood., “Self-phase-modulation in submicron silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5524–5534 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-12-5524 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rong, Y.-H. Kuo, S. Xu, A. Liu, R. Jones, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and O. Raday, “Monolithic integrated Raman silicon laser,” Opt. Express 14(15), 6705–6712 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-15-6705 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-H. Kuo, H. Rong, V. Sih, S. Xu, M. Paniccia, and O. Cohen, “Demonstration of wavelength conversion at 40 Gb/s data rate in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11721–11726 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-24-11721 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. W. Hsieh, X. Chen, J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, R. M. Osgood, S. J. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultrafast-pulse self-phase modulation and third-order dispersion in Si photonic wire-waveguides,” Opt. Express 14(25), 12380–12387 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-25-12380 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature 441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, T. Shoji, and S. Itabashi, “All-optical efficient wavelength conversion using silicon photonic wire waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(9), 1046–1048 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (12)

D. Dimitropoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo, and B. Jalali, “Lifetime of photogenerated carriers in silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “An all-silicon Raman laser,” Nature 433(7023), 292–294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature 433(7027), 725–728 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Dimitropoulos, S. Fathpour, and B. Jalali, “Limitations of active carrier removal in silicon Raman amplifiers and lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(26), 261108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Xu, V. R. Almeida, and M. Lipson, “Demonstration of high Raman gain in a submicrometer-size silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 30(1), 35–37 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Jones, H. Rong, A. Liu, A. Fang, M. Paniccia, D. Hak, and O. Cohen, “Net continuous wave optical gain in a low loss silicon-on-insulator waveguide by stimulated Raman scattering,” Opt. Express 13(2), 519–525 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-2-519 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Jones, A. Liu, H. Rong, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, “Lossless optical modulation in a silicon waveguide using stimulated Raman scattering,” Opt. Express 13(5), 1716–1723 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-5-1716 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Espinola, J. I. Dadap, R. M. Osgood, S. J. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, “C-band wavelength conversion in silicon photonic wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 13(11), 4341–4349 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-11-4341 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Fukuda, K. Yamada, T. Shoji, M. Takahashi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, and S. Itabashi, “Four-wave mixing in silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4629–4637 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-12-4629 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Raghunathan, R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali, “Parametric Raman wavelength conversion in scaled Silicon waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(6), 2094–2102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Preble, Q. Xu, B. S. Schmidt, and M. Lipson, “Ultrafast all-optical modulation on a silicon chip,” Opt. Lett. 30(21), 2891–2893 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-30-21-2891 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (10)

O. Boyraz, T. Indukuri, and B. Jalali, “Self-phase-modulation induced spectral broadening in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 12(5), 829–834 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-5-829 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Claps, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali, “Influence of nonlinear absorption on Raman amplification in Silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 12(12), 2774–2780 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-12-2774 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Espinola, J. I. Dadap, R. M. Osgood, S. J. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Raman amplification in ultrasmall silicon-on-insulator wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 12(16), 3713–3718 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-16-3713 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, H. Rong, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, “Net optical gain in a low loss silicon-on-insulator waveguide by stimulated Raman scattering,” Opt. Express 12(18), 4261–4268 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-18-4261 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, V. Almeida, and M. Lipson, “Time-resolved study of Raman gain in highly confined silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 12(19), 4437–4442 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-19-4437 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, “Demonstration of a silicon Raman laser,” Opt. Express 12(21), 5269–5273 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-21-5269 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. I. Dadap, R. L. Espinola, R. M. Osgood, S. J. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Spontaneous Raman scattering in ultrasmall silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 29(23), 2755–2757 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431(7012), 1081–1084 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. K. Liang and H. K. Tsang, “Role of free carriers from two-photon absorption in Raman amplification in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(15), 2745–2747 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Nicolaescu, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, “Raman gain and nonlinear optical absorption measurements in a low-loss silicon waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(12), 2196–2198 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Nicolaescu, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, “Raman gain and nonlinear optical absorption measurements in a low-loss silicon waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(12), 2196–2198 (2004).
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A. Liu, H. Rong, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, “Net optical gain in a low loss silicon-on-insulator waveguide by stimulated Raman scattering,” Opt. Express 12(18), 4261–4268 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-18-4261 .
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K. Preston, P. Dong, B. Schmidt, and M. Lipson, “High-speed all-optical modulation using polycrystalline silicon microring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(15), 151104 (2008).
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H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, “Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 µm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(3), 416–418 (2002).
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V. Sih, S. Xu, Y. H. Kuo, H. Rong, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and O. Raday, “Raman amplification of 40 Gb/s data in low-loss silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(2), 357–362 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-2-357 .
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H. Rong, Y.-H. Kuo, A. Liu, M. Paniccia, and O. Cohen, “High efficiency wavelength conversion of 10 Gb/s data in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 14(3), 1182–1188 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-3-1182 .
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H. Rong, Y.-H. Kuo, S. Xu, A. Liu, R. Jones, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and O. Raday, “Monolithic integrated Raman silicon laser,” Opt. Express 14(15), 6705–6712 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-15-6705 .
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Y.-H. Kuo, H. Rong, V. Sih, S. Xu, M. Paniccia, and O. Cohen, “Demonstration of wavelength conversion at 40 Gb/s data rate in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11721–11726 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-24-11721 .
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R. Jones, H. Rong, A. Liu, A. Fang, M. Paniccia, D. Hak, and O. Cohen, “Net continuous wave optical gain in a low loss silicon-on-insulator waveguide by stimulated Raman scattering,” Opt. Express 13(2), 519–525 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-2-519 .
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H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “An all-silicon Raman laser,” Nature 433(7023), 292–294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature 433(7027), 725–728 (2005).
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R. Jones, A. Liu, H. Rong, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, “Lossless optical modulation in a silicon waveguide using stimulated Raman scattering,” Opt. Express 13(5), 1716–1723 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-5-1716 .
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H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Nicolaescu, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, “Raman gain and nonlinear optical absorption measurements in a low-loss silicon waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(12), 2196–2198 (2004).
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A. Liu, H. Rong, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, “Net optical gain in a low loss silicon-on-insulator waveguide by stimulated Raman scattering,” Opt. Express 12(18), 4261–4268 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-18-4261 .
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Salem, R.

Schmidt, B.

K. Preston, P. Dong, B. Schmidt, and M. Lipson, “High-speed all-optical modulation using polycrystalline silicon microring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(15), 151104 (2008).
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Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
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M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature 441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
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S. F. Preble, Q. Xu, B. S. Schmidt, and M. Lipson, “Ultrafast all-optical modulation on a silicon chip,” Opt. Lett. 30(21), 2891–2893 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-30-21-2891 .
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M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature 441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
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K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, T. Shoji, and S. Itabashi, “All-optical efficient wavelength conversion using silicon photonic wire waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(9), 1046–1048 (2006).
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H. Fukuda, K. Yamada, T. Shoji, M. Takahashi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, and S. Itabashi, “Four-wave mixing in silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4629–4637 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-12-4629 .
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Sih, V.

Smith, A. J.

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Z. Vardeny and J. Tauc, “Hot-carrier thermalization in amorphous silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 46(18), 1223–1226 (1981).
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Y. Liu and H. K. Tsang, “Nonlinear absorption and Raman gain in helium-ion-implanted silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 31(11), 1714–1716 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-31-11-1714 .
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T. K. Liang and H. K. Tsang, “Role of free carriers from two-photon absorption in Raman amplification in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(15), 2745–2747 (2004).
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H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, “Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 µm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(3), 416–418 (2002).
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Tsuchizawa, T.

K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, T. Shoji, and S. Itabashi, “All-optical efficient wavelength conversion using silicon photonic wire waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(9), 1046–1048 (2006).
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H. Fukuda, K. Yamada, T. Shoji, M. Takahashi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, and S. Itabashi, “Four-wave mixing in silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4629–4637 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-12-4629 .
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Turner, A. C.

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Z. Vardeny and J. Tauc, “Hot-carrier thermalization in amorphous silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 46(18), 1223–1226 (1981).
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Vlasov, Y. A.

I. W. Hsieh, X. Chen, J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, R. M. Osgood, S. J. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Cross-phase modulation-induced spectral and temporal effects on co-propagating femtosecond pulses in silicon photonic wires,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1135–1146 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-3-1135 .
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E. Dulkeith, Y. A. Vlasov, X. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood., “Self-phase-modulation in submicron silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5524–5534 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-12-5524 .
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I. W. Hsieh, X. Chen, J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, R. M. Osgood, S. J. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultrafast-pulse self-phase modulation and third-order dispersion in Si photonic wire-waveguides,” Opt. Express 14(25), 12380–12387 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-25-12380 .
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R. L. Espinola, J. I. Dadap, R. M. Osgood, S. J. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, “C-band wavelength conversion in silicon photonic wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 13(11), 4341–4349 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-11-4341 .
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R. L. Espinola, J. I. Dadap, R. M. Osgood, S. J. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Raman amplification in ultrasmall silicon-on-insulator wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 12(16), 3713–3718 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-16-3713 .
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J. I. Dadap, R. L. Espinola, R. M. Osgood, S. J. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Spontaneous Raman scattering in ultrasmall silicon waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 29(23), 2755–2757 (2004).
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Wahlbrink, T.

Waldow, M.

Watanabe, T.

K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, T. Shoji, and S. Itabashi, “All-optical efficient wavelength conversion using silicon photonic wire waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(9), 1046–1048 (2006).
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H. Fukuda, K. Yamada, T. Shoji, M. Takahashi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, and S. Itabashi, “Four-wave mixing in silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4629–4637 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-12-4629 .
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Wong, C. S.

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, “Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 µm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(3), 416–418 (2002).
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D. Dimitropoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo, and B. Jalali, “Lifetime of photogenerated carriers in silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071115 (2005).
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Xu, S.

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K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, T. Shoji, and S. Itabashi, “All-optical efficient wavelength conversion using silicon photonic wire waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(9), 1046–1048 (2006).
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H. Fukuda, K. Yamada, T. Shoji, M. Takahashi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, and S. Itabashi, “Four-wave mixing in silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4629–4637 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-12-4629 .
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Zhang, J.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

T. K. Liang and H. K. Tsang, “Role of free carriers from two-photon absorption in Raman amplification in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(15), 2745–2747 (2004).
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H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Nicolaescu, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, “Raman gain and nonlinear optical absorption measurements in a low-loss silicon waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(12), 2196–2198 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Tsang, C. S. Wong, T. K. Liang, I. E. Day, S. W. Roberts, A. Harpin, J. Drake, and M. Asghari, “Optical dispersion, two-photon absorption and self-phase modulation in silicon waveguides at 1.5 µm wavelength,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(3), 416–418 (2002).
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D. Dimitropoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo, and B. Jalali, “Lifetime of photogenerated carriers in silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071115 (2005).
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K. Preston, P. Dong, B. Schmidt, and M. Lipson, “High-speed all-optical modulation using polycrystalline silicon microring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(15), 151104 (2008).
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D. Dimitropoulos, S. Fathpour, and B. Jalali, “Limitations of active carrier removal in silicon Raman amplifiers and lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(26), 261108 (2005).
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R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali, “Stimulated Raman scattering in silicon waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 38(22), 1352–1354 (2002).
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IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, T. Shoji, and S. Itabashi, “All-optical efficient wavelength conversion using silicon photonic wire waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(9), 1046–1048 (2006).
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J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Nat. Photonics (1)

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Signal regeneration using low power four-wave mixing on silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 2(1), 35–38 (2008).
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Nature (5)

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature 441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
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H. Rong, A. Liu, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, R. Nicolaescu, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “An all-silicon Raman laser,” Nature 433(7023), 292–294 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rong, R. Jones, A. Liu, O. Cohen, D. Hak, A. Fang, and M. Paniccia, “A continuous-wave Raman silicon laser,” Nature 433(7027), 725–728 (2005).
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Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
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Opt. Express (27)

R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, Y. Han, and B. Jalali, “Observation of Raman emission in silicon waveguides at 1.54 micron,” Opt. Express 10(22), 1305–1313 (2002), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-10-22-1305 .
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R. Claps, D. Dimitropoulos, V. Raghunathan, Y. Han, and B. Jalali, “Observation of stimulated Raman amplification in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 11(15), 1731–1739 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-15-1731 .
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H. Rong, Y.-H. Kuo, A. Liu, M. Paniccia, and O. Cohen, “High efficiency wavelength conversion of 10 Gb/s data in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 14(3), 1182–1188 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-3-1182 .
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R. Jones, H. Rong, A. Liu, A. Fang, M. Paniccia, D. Hak, and O. Cohen, “Net continuous wave optical gain in a low loss silicon-on-insulator waveguide by stimulated Raman scattering,” Opt. Express 13(2), 519–525 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-2-519 .
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R. Jones, A. Liu, H. Rong, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, “Lossless optical modulation in a silicon waveguide using stimulated Raman scattering,” Opt. Express 13(5), 1716–1723 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-5-1716 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Espinola, J. I. Dadap, R. M. Osgood, S. J. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, “C-band wavelength conversion in silicon photonic wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 13(11), 4341–4349 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-11-4341 .
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H. Fukuda, K. Yamada, T. Shoji, M. Takahashi, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, and S. Itabashi, “Four-wave mixing in silicon wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 13(12), 4629–4637 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-12-4629 .
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O. Boyraz, T. Indukuri, and B. Jalali, “Self-phase-modulation induced spectral broadening in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 12(5), 829–834 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-5-829 .
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R. Claps, V. Raghunathan, D. Dimitropoulos, and B. Jalali, “Influence of nonlinear absorption on Raman amplification in Silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 12(12), 2774–2780 (2004), http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-12-2774 .
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R. L. Espinola, J. I. Dadap, R. M. Osgood, S. J. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Raman amplification in ultrasmall silicon-on-insulator wire waveguides,” Opt. Express 12(16), 3713–3718 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-16-3713 .
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A. Liu, H. Rong, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and D. Hak, “Net optical gain in a low loss silicon-on-insulator waveguide by stimulated Raman scattering,” Opt. Express 12(18), 4261–4268 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-18-4261 .
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Q. Xu, V. Almeida, and M. Lipson, “Time-resolved study of Raman gain in highly confined silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 12(19), 4437–4442 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-19-4437 .
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O. Boyraz and B. Jalali, “Demonstration of a silicon Raman laser,” Opt. Express 12(21), 5269–5273 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-21-5269 .
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Q. Lin, J. Zhang, P. M. Fauchet, and G. P. Agrawal, “Ultrabroadband parametric generation and wavelength conversion in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 14(11), 4786–4799 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-11-4786 .
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E. Dulkeith, Y. A. Vlasov, X. Chen, N. C. Panoiu, and R. M. Osgood., “Self-phase-modulation in submicron silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5524–5534 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-12-5524 .
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H. Rong, Y.-H. Kuo, S. Xu, A. Liu, R. Jones, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and O. Raday, “Monolithic integrated Raman silicon laser,” Opt. Express 14(15), 6705–6712 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-15-6705 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-H. Kuo, H. Rong, V. Sih, S. Xu, M. Paniccia, and O. Cohen, “Demonstration of wavelength conversion at 40 Gb/s data rate in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11721–11726 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-24-11721 .
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I. W. Hsieh, X. Chen, J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, R. M. Osgood, S. J. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultrafast-pulse self-phase modulation and third-order dispersion in Si photonic wire-waveguides,” Opt. Express 14(25), 12380–12387 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-25-12380 .
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V. Sih, S. Xu, Y. H. Kuo, H. Rong, M. Paniccia, O. Cohen, and O. Raday, “Raman amplification of 40 Gb/s data in low-loss silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(2), 357–362 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-2-357 .
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I. W. Hsieh, X. Chen, J. I. Dadap, N. C. Panoiu, R. M. Osgood, S. J. McNab, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Cross-phase modulation-induced spectral and temporal effects on co-propagating femtosecond pulses in silicon photonic wires,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1135–1146 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-3-1135 .
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R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “All-optical regeneration on a silicon chip,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7802–7809 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-12-7802 .
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M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, R. Salem, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band continuous-wave parametric wavelength conversion in silicon nanowaveguides,” Opt. Express 15(20), 12949–12958 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-20-12949 .
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M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Nonlinear optics in photonic nanowires,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1300–1320 (2008).
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A. C. Turner, M. A. Foster, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Ultra-low power parametric frequency conversion in a silicon microring resonator,” Opt. Express 16(7), 4881–4887 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-7-4881 .
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M. Waldow, T. Plötzing, M. Gottheil, M. Först, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, and H. Kurz, “25ps all-optical switching in oxygen implanted silicon-on-insulator microring resonator,” Opt. Express 16(11), 7693–7702 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-11-7693 .
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N. M. Wright, D. J. Thomson, K. L. Litvinenko, W. R. Headley, A. J. Smith, A. P. Knights, J. H. B. Deane, F. Y. Gardes, G. Z. Mashanovich, R. Gwilliam, and G. T. Reed, “Free carrier lifetime modification for silicon waveguide based devices,” Opt. Express 16(24), 19779–19784 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-24-19779 .
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P. Apiratikul, A. M. Rossi, and T. E. Murphy, “Nonlinearities in porous silicon optical waveguides at 1550 nm,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3396–3406 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-5-3396 .
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

Z. Vardeny and J. Tauc, “Hot-carrier thermalization in amorphous silicon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 46(18), 1223–1226 (1981).
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Other (2)

T. J. Johnson, and O. J. Painter, “Passive Modification of Free Carrier Lifetime in High-Q Silicon-on-Insulator Optics,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper CFF4. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=CLEO-2009-CFF4

A. Liu, H. Rong, R. Jones, O. Cohen, D. Hak, and M. Paniccia, “Optical amplification and lasing by stimulated Raman scattering in Silicon waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 1440 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/JLT/abstract.cfm?URI=JLT-24-3-1440 .
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cross-sectional schematic of p-i-n waveguide device. The device consists of a silicon rib waveguide on the SOI platform. The waveguide has silicon dioxide cladding, p + and n + doping in the slab region on either side, and vias and contacts to the doped regions.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Top view (a) optical microscope image and (b) schematic of p-i-n waveguide. The two outer contacts are connected to the n + region with etched vias, whereas the center contact is only connected to the p + region. The n + region underneath the p + contact is electrically isolated by a 1-µm layer of silicon dioxide.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

A pump-probe experiment is performed to determine the free-carrier lifetime of a silicon waveguide as a function of applied reverse-bias.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimentally measured free-carrier lifetime as a function of reverse bias in silicon photonic waveguides optimized for phase matching with an integrated p-i-n diode for reduction of nonlinear loss. (a) The free-carrier concentration as a function of time for different reverse biases. (b) The measured free-carrier lifetime as a function of reverse bias, illustrating the ability to reduce the free-carrier lifetime to 12.2 ps. The lifetime for 9-V bias was measured as a function of pump power as shown in the inset.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Numerical solution of the maximum nonlinear phase shift for different values of linear propagation loss and free-carrier lifetime (circles). The blue line is plotted with a slope of –1/2 showing the consistency of the numerical solutions with the derived figure of merit [Eq. (8)]. The gray region depicts the range of linear propagation loss and free-carrier lifetime values where most silicon nanowaveguide nonlinear optical processes are performed. Note that the individual values of the free-carrier lifetime and linear propagation loss are varied by orders of magnitude, but provided that the product is constant, the maximum nonlinear phase shift is nearly identical as depicted by the multiple overlapping data points (circles) at each x value.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Performance comparison of silicon waveguides and resonators for nonlinear interactions

Equations (8)

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φ N L = 2 π n 2 λ 0 L I ( z ) d z ,
d I ( z ) d z = [ α l i n + β T P A I ( z ) + α F C A I 2 ( z ) ] I ( z ) ,
α F C A = 1.45 10 21 [ m 2 ] ( λ 1.55 10 6 [ m ] ) 2 β T P A τ e f f λ 2 h c ,
I ( z ) = I 0 1 + 2 I 0 2 α F C A z ,
φ N L = 2 π n 2 λ I 0 α F C A [ 1 + 2 I 0 2 α F C A L 1 ] .
φ max lim I 0 φ N L = 2 π n 2 2 L λ α F C A .
φ max 1 τ e f f α l i n .
F O M 1 τ e f f α d B .

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