Abstract

We present a model which allows us to accurately simulate the fabrication process of complex-shaped tapered fibers. The range of possible profiles is only limited by the properties of the heat source used to shape the fiber. The model takes into account the motion of the heat source relative to the fiber as well as its temperature distribution. Our measurements and corresponding finite element method (FEM) simulations have shown a strong dependency of the temperature distribution along the fiber axis on the actual diameter of the fiber. The inclusion of this relation in the model proved to be crucial for the accuracy of the results. Our model has been verified experimentally by fabricating tapered fibers with a sinusoidally modulated waist. A comparison to the profile predicted by our model reveals an excellent agreement.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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2009 (1)

2008 (1)

G. Sague, A. Baade, and A. Rauschenbeutel, "Blue-detuned evanescent field surface traps for neutral atoms based on mode interference in ultrathin optical fibres," New J. Phys. 10, 113008 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

A. Konyukhov, L. Melnikov, and Y. Mazhirina, "Dispersive wave generation in microstructured fiber with periodically modulated diameter," Proc. SPIE 6165, 616508 (2006).

2005 (4)

G. Brambilla, F. Koizumi, X. Feng, and D. J. Richardson, "Compound-glass optical nanowires," Electron. Lett. 41, 400-402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, Z. Z. Ye, T. S. Geoff, and E. Mazur, "Self-modulated taper drawing of silica nanowires," Nanotechnology 16, 1445-1448 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Wadsworth, A. Witkowska, S. G. Leon-Saval, and T. A. Birks, "Hole inflation and tapering of stock photonic crystal fibres," Opt. Express 13, 6541-6549 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Nguyen, B. T. Kuhlmey, E. C. Magi, M. J. Steel, P. Domachuk, C. L. Smith, and B. J. Eggleton, "Tapered photonic crystal fibres: properties,characterisation and applications," Appl. Phys. B 81, 377-387 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (5)

2003 (2)

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, "Subwavelengthdiameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding," Nature 426, 816-819 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Teipel, K. Franke, D. T¨urke, F. Warken, D. Meiser, M. Leuschner, and H. Giessen, "Characteristics of supercontinuum generation in tapered fibers using femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 77, 245-251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

A. Husakou and J. Herrmann, "Supercontinuum Generation of Higher-Order Solitons by Fission in Photonic Crystal Fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 203901 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Stratmann, M. Bohm, and F. Mitschke, "Stable propagation of dark solitons in dispersion maps of either sign of path-average dispersion," Electron. Lett. 37, 1182-1183 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (2)

C. E. Chryssou, "Theoretical analysis of tapering fused silica optical fibers using a carbon dioxide laser," Opt. Eng. 38, 1645-1649 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. E. Dimmick, G. Kakarantzas, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, "Carbon dioxide laser fabrication of fused-fiber couplers and tapers," Appl. Opt. 38, 6845-6848 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

A. J. C. Grellier, N. K. Zayer, and C. N. Pannell, "Heat transfer modelling in CO laser processing of optical fibres," Opt. Commun. 152, 324-328 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1992 (1)

T. A. Birks and Y. W. Li, "The Shape of Fiber Tapers," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 432-438 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

F. Bilodeau, K. O. Hill, S. Faucher, and D. C. Johnson, "Low-loss highly overcoupled fused couplers: fabrication and sensitivity to external pressure," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1476-1482 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

L. F. Mollenauer, R. H. Stolen, and J. P. Gordon, "Experimental Observation of Picosecond Pulse Narrowing and Solitons in Optical Fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 45,1095-1098 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Ashcom, J. B.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, "Subwavelengthdiameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding," Nature 426, 816-819 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bilodeau, F.

F. Bilodeau, K. O. Hill, S. Faucher, and D. C. Johnson, "Low-loss highly overcoupled fused couplers: fabrication and sensitivity to external pressure," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1476-1482 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A.

Bohm, M.

M. Stratmann, M. Bohm, and F. Mitschke, "Stable propagation of dark solitons in dispersion maps of either sign of path-average dispersion," Electron. Lett. 37, 1182-1183 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brambilla, G.

G. Brambilla, F. Koizumi, X. Feng, and D. J. Richardson, "Compound-glass optical nanowires," Electron. Lett. 41, 400-402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chryssou, C. E.

C. E. Chryssou, "Theoretical analysis of tapering fused silica optical fibers using a carbon dioxide laser," Opt. Eng. 38, 1645-1649 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dimmick, T. E.

Domachuk, P.

H. C. Nguyen, B. T. Kuhlmey, E. C. Magi, M. J. Steel, P. Domachuk, C. L. Smith, and B. J. Eggleton, "Tapered photonic crystal fibres: properties,characterisation and applications," Appl. Phys. B 81, 377-387 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dulashko, Y.

Eggleton, B. J.

E. C. Magi, L. B. Fu, H. C. Nguyen, M. R. E. Lamont, D. I. Yeom, and B. J. Eggleton, "Enhanced Kerr nonlinearity in sub-wavelength diameter As2Se3 chalcogenide fiber tapers," Opt. Express 15, 10324-10329 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Nguyen, B. T. Kuhlmey, E. C. Magi, M. J. Steel, P. Domachuk, C. L. Smith, and B. J. Eggleton, "Tapered photonic crystal fibres: properties,characterisation and applications," Appl. Phys. B 81, 377-387 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Faucher, S.

F. Bilodeau, K. O. Hill, S. Faucher, and D. C. Johnson, "Low-loss highly overcoupled fused couplers: fabrication and sensitivity to external pressure," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1476-1482 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Feng, X.

G. Brambilla, F. Koizumi, X. Feng, and D. J. Richardson, "Compound-glass optical nanowires," Electron. Lett. 41, 400-402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Franke, K.

J. Teipel, K. Franke, D. T¨urke, F. Warken, D. Meiser, M. Leuschner, and H. Giessen, "Characteristics of supercontinuum generation in tapered fibers using femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 77, 245-251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fu, L. B.

Gattass, R. R.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, "Subwavelengthdiameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding," Nature 426, 816-819 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Geoff, T. S.

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, Z. Z. Ye, T. S. Geoff, and E. Mazur, "Self-modulated taper drawing of silica nanowires," Nanotechnology 16, 1445-1448 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Giessen, H.

Gordon, J. P.

L. F. Mollenauer, R. H. Stolen, and J. P. Gordon, "Experimental Observation of Picosecond Pulse Narrowing and Solitons in Optical Fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 45,1095-1098 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Grellier, A. J. C.

A. J. C. Grellier, N. K. Zayer, and C. N. Pannell, "Heat transfer modelling in CO laser processing of optical fibres," Opt. Commun. 152, 324-328 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hale, A.

He, S. L.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, "Subwavelengthdiameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding," Nature 426, 816-819 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Herrmann, J.

A. Husakou and J. Herrmann, "Supercontinuum Generation of Higher-Order Solitons by Fission in Photonic Crystal Fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 203901 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hill, K. O.

F. Bilodeau, K. O. Hill, S. Faucher, and D. C. Johnson, "Low-loss highly overcoupled fused couplers: fabrication and sensitivity to external pressure," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1476-1482 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Husakou, A.

A. Husakou and J. Herrmann, "Supercontinuum Generation of Higher-Order Solitons by Fission in Photonic Crystal Fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 203901 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, D. C.

F. Bilodeau, K. O. Hill, S. Faucher, and D. C. Johnson, "Low-loss highly overcoupled fused couplers: fabrication and sensitivity to external pressure," J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1476-1482 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kakarantzas, G.

Knight, J. C.

Koizumi, F.

G. Brambilla, F. Koizumi, X. Feng, and D. J. Richardson, "Compound-glass optical nanowires," Electron. Lett. 41, 400-402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Konyukhov, A.

A. Konyukhov, L. Melnikov, and Y. Mazhirina, "Dispersive wave generation in microstructured fiber with periodically modulated diameter," Proc. SPIE 6165, 616508 (2006).

Kuhlmey, B. T.

H. C. Nguyen, B. T. Kuhlmey, E. C. Magi, M. J. Steel, P. Domachuk, C. L. Smith, and B. J. Eggleton, "Tapered photonic crystal fibres: properties,characterisation and applications," Appl. Phys. B 81, 377-387 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lamont, M. R. E.

Leon-Saval, S. G.

Leuschner, M.

J. Teipel, K. Franke, D. T¨urke, F. Warken, D. Meiser, M. Leuschner, and H. Giessen, "Characteristics of supercontinuum generation in tapered fibers using femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 77, 245-251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y. W.

T. A. Birks and Y. W. Li, "The Shape of Fiber Tapers," J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 432-438 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lou, J. Y.

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, Z. Z. Ye, T. S. Geoff, and E. Mazur, "Self-modulated taper drawing of silica nanowires," Nanotechnology 16, 1445-1448 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, "Subwavelengthdiameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding," Nature 426, 816-819 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M¨agi, E. C.

H. C. Nguyen, B. T. Kuhlmey, E. C. Magi, M. J. Steel, P. Domachuk, C. L. Smith, and B. J. Eggleton, "Tapered photonic crystal fibres: properties,characterisation and applications," Appl. Phys. B 81, 377-387 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Magi, E. C.

Maxwell, I.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, "Subwavelengthdiameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding," Nature 426, 816-819 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mazhirina, Y.

A. Konyukhov, L. Melnikov, and Y. Mazhirina, "Dispersive wave generation in microstructured fiber with periodically modulated diameter," Proc. SPIE 6165, 616508 (2006).

Mazur, E.

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, Z. Z. Ye, T. S. Geoff, and E. Mazur, "Self-modulated taper drawing of silica nanowires," Nanotechnology 16, 1445-1448 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, "Subwavelengthdiameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding," Nature 426, 816-819 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Meiser, D.

R. Zhang, X. Zhang, D. Meiser, and H. Giessen, "Mode and group velocity dispersion evolution in the tapered region of a single-mode tapered fiber," Opt. Express 12,5840-5849 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Teipel, K. Franke, D. T¨urke, F. Warken, D. Meiser, M. Leuschner, and H. Giessen, "Characteristics of supercontinuum generation in tapered fibers using femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 77, 245-251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Melnikov, L.

A. Konyukhov, L. Melnikov, and Y. Mazhirina, "Dispersive wave generation in microstructured fiber with periodically modulated diameter," Proc. SPIE 6165, 616508 (2006).

Mitschke, F.

M. Stratmann, M. Bohm, and F. Mitschke, "Stable propagation of dark solitons in dispersion maps of either sign of path-average dispersion," Electron. Lett. 37, 1182-1183 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mollenauer, L. F.

L. F. Mollenauer, R. H. Stolen, and J. P. Gordon, "Experimental Observation of Picosecond Pulse Narrowing and Solitons in Optical Fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 45,1095-1098 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Murugan, G. S.

Nau, D.

Nguyen, H. C.

E. C. Magi, L. B. Fu, H. C. Nguyen, M. R. E. Lamont, D. I. Yeom, and B. J. Eggleton, "Enhanced Kerr nonlinearity in sub-wavelength diameter As2Se3 chalcogenide fiber tapers," Opt. Express 15, 10324-10329 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Nguyen, B. T. Kuhlmey, E. C. Magi, M. J. Steel, P. Domachuk, C. L. Smith, and B. J. Eggleton, "Tapered photonic crystal fibres: properties,characterisation and applications," Appl. Phys. B 81, 377-387 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pannell, C. N.

A. J. C. Grellier, N. K. Zayer, and C. N. Pannell, "Heat transfer modelling in CO laser processing of optical fibres," Opt. Commun. 152, 324-328 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D. J.

G. Brambilla, F. Koizumi, X. Feng, and D. J. Richardson, "Compound-glass optical nanowires," Electron. Lett. 41, 400-402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. St. J.

Shen, M. Y.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, "Subwavelengthdiameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding," Nature 426, 816-819 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Smith, C. L.

H. C. Nguyen, B. T. Kuhlmey, E. C. Magi, M. J. Steel, P. Domachuk, C. L. Smith, and B. J. Eggleton, "Tapered photonic crystal fibres: properties,characterisation and applications," Appl. Phys. B 81, 377-387 (2005).
[CrossRef]

St. J. Russell, P.

Steel, M. J.

H. C. Nguyen, B. T. Kuhlmey, E. C. Magi, M. J. Steel, P. Domachuk, C. L. Smith, and B. J. Eggleton, "Tapered photonic crystal fibres: properties,characterisation and applications," Appl. Phys. B 81, 377-387 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stolen, R. H.

L. F. Mollenauer, R. H. Stolen, and J. P. Gordon, "Experimental Observation of Picosecond Pulse Narrowing and Solitons in Optical Fibers," Phys. Rev. Lett. 45,1095-1098 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Stratmann, M.

M. Stratmann, M. Bohm, and F. Mitschke, "Stable propagation of dark solitons in dispersion maps of either sign of path-average dispersion," Electron. Lett. 37, 1182-1183 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sumetsky, M.

T¨urke, D.

J. Teipel, K. Franke, D. T¨urke, F. Warken, D. Meiser, M. Leuschner, and H. Giessen, "Characteristics of supercontinuum generation in tapered fibers using femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 77, 245-251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Teipel, J.

R. Zhang, J. Teipel, X. Zhang, D. Nau, and H. Giessen, "Group velocity dispersion of tapered fibers immersed in different liquids," Opt. Express 12, 1700-1707 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Teipel, K. Franke, D. T¨urke, F. Warken, D. Meiser, M. Leuschner, and H. Giessen, "Characteristics of supercontinuum generation in tapered fibers using femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 77, 245-251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tong, L. M.

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, Z. Z. Ye, T. S. Geoff, and E. Mazur, "Self-modulated taper drawing of silica nanowires," Nanotechnology 16, 1445-1448 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tong, L.M.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, "Subwavelengthdiameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding," Nature 426, 816-819 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wadsworth, W. J.

Warken, F.

F. Warken and H. Giessen, "Fast profile measurement of micrometer-sized tapered fibers with better than 50 nm accuracy," Opt. Lett. 29, 1727-1729 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Teipel, K. Franke, D. T¨urke, F. Warken, D. Meiser, M. Leuschner, and H. Giessen, "Characteristics of supercontinuum generation in tapered fibers using femtosecond laser pulses," Appl. Phys. B 77, 245-251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, J. S.

Witkowska, A.

Ye, Z. Z.

L. M. Tong, J. Y. Lou, Z. Z. Ye, T. S. Geoff, and E. Mazur, "Self-modulated taper drawing of silica nanowires," Nanotechnology 16, 1445-1448 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yeom, D. I.

Zayer, N. K.

A. J. C. Grellier, N. K. Zayer, and C. N. Pannell, "Heat transfer modelling in CO laser processing of optical fibres," Opt. Commun. 152, 324-328 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zervas, M. N.

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