Abstract

A complete characterization of pulse shape and phase of a 1.3 µm, monolithic-two-section, quantum-dot mode-locked laser (QD-MLL) at a repetition rate of 40 GHz is presented, based on frequency resolved optical gating. We show that the pulse broadening of the QD-MLL is caused by linear chirp for all values of current and voltage investigated here. The chirp increases with the current at the gain section, whereas larger bias at the absorber section leads to less chirp and therefore to shorter pulses. Pulse broadening is observed at very high bias, likely due to the quantum confined stark effect. Passive- and hybrid-QD-MLL pulses are directly compared. Improved pulse intensity profiles are found for hybrid mode locking. Via linear chirp compensation pulse widths down to 700 fs can be achieved independent of current and bias, resulting in a significantly increased overall mode-locking range of 101 MHz. The suitability of QD-MLL chirp compensated pulse combs for optical communication up to 160 Gbit/s using optical-time-division multiplexing are demonstrated by eye diagrams and autocorrelation measurements.

© 2010 OSA

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2009

M. G. Thompson, A. R. Rae, M. Xia, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “InGaAs Quantum-Dot Mode-Locked Laser Diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 661–672 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Carpintero, M. G. Thompson, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Low Noise Performance of Passively Mode-Locked 10-GHz Quantum-Dot Laser Diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(6), 389–391 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Fiol, C. Meuer, H. Schmeckebier, D. Arsenijevic, S. Liebich, M. Laemmlin, M. Kuntz, and D. Bimberg, “Quantum-Dot Semiconductor Mode-Locked Lasers and Amplifiers at 40 GHz,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 1429–1435 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. G. Usechak, Y. C. Xin, C. Y. Lin, L. F. Lester, D. J. Kane, and V. Kovanis, “Modeling and Direct Electric-Field Measurements of Passively Mode-Locked Quantum-Dot Lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 653–660 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Piwonski, J. Pulka, G. Madden, G. Huyet, J. Houlihan, E. A. Viktorov, T. Erneux, and P. Mandel, “Intradot dynamics of InAs quantum dot based electroabsorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(12), 123504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

Y. C. Xin, D. J. Kane, and L. F. Lester, “Frequency-resolved optical gating characterisation of passively modelocked quantum-dot laser,” Electron. Lett. 44(21), 1255–1256 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Bimberg, “Quantum dot based nanophotonics and nanoelectronics,” Electron. Lett. 44(5), 390 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

M. Kuntz, G. Fiol, M. Laemmlin, C. Meuer, and D. Bimberg, “High-speed mode-locked quantum-dot lasers and optical amplifiers,” Proc. IEEE 95(9), 1767–1778 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. U. Rafailov, M. A. Cataluna, and W. Sibbett, “Mode-locked quantum-dot lasers,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 395–401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

E. A. Viktorov, P. Mandel, A. G. Vladimirov, and U. Bandelow, “Model for mode locking in quantum dot lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Laemmlin, G. Fiol, C. Meuer, M. Kuntz, F. Hopfer, A. R. Kovsh, N. N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “Distortion-free optical amplification of 20-80 GHz modelocked laser pulses at 1.3 μu m using quantum dots,” Electron. Lett. 42(12), 697–699 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

S. Schneider, P. Borri, W. Langbein, U. Woggon, R. L. Sellin, D. Ouyang, and D. Bimberg, “Excited-state gain dynamics in InGaAs quantum-dot amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(10), 2014–2016 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

A. R. Kovsh, N. A. Maleev, A. E. Zhukov, S. S. Mikhrin, A. P. Vasil'ev, E. A. Semenova, Y. M. Shernyakov, M. V. Maximov, D. A. Livshits, V. M. Ustinov, N. N. Ledentsov, D. Bimberg, and Z. I. Alferov, “InAs/InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot lasers of 1.3 µm range with enhanced optical gain,” J. Cryst. Growth 251(1-4), 729–736 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Ouyang, N. N. Ledentsov, D. Bimberg, A. R. Kovsh, A. E. Zhukov, S. S. Mikhrin, and V. M. Ustinov, “High performance narrow stripe quantum-dot lasers with etched waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18(12), L53–L54 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

D. G. Deppe, H. Huang, and O. B. Shchekin, “Modulation characteristics of quantum-dot lasers: The influence of P-type doping and the electronic density of states on obtaining high speed,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(12), 1587–1593 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

X. D. Huang, A. Stintz, H. Li, A. Rice, G. T. Liu, L. F. Lester, J. Cheng, and K. J. Malloy, “Bistable operation of a two-section 1.3-mu m InAs quantum dot laser - Absorption saturation and the quantum confined Stark effect,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37(3), 414–417 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

P. Borri, W. Langbein, J. M. Hvam, F. Heinrichsdorff, M. H. Mao, and D. Bimberg, “Spectral hole-burning and carrier-heating dynamics in InGaAs quantum-dot amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(3), 544–551 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1991

P. J. Delfyett, D. H. Hartman, and S. Z. Ahmad, “Optical Clock Distribution Using a Mode-Locked Semiconductor-Laser Diode System,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(12), 1646–1649 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1984

Ahmad, S. Z.

P. J. Delfyett, D. H. Hartman, and S. Z. Ahmad, “Optical Clock Distribution Using a Mode-Locked Semiconductor-Laser Diode System,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(12), 1646–1649 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Alferov, Z. I.

A. R. Kovsh, N. A. Maleev, A. E. Zhukov, S. S. Mikhrin, A. P. Vasil'ev, E. A. Semenova, Y. M. Shernyakov, M. V. Maximov, D. A. Livshits, V. M. Ustinov, N. N. Ledentsov, D. Bimberg, and Z. I. Alferov, “InAs/InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot lasers of 1.3 µm range with enhanced optical gain,” J. Cryst. Growth 251(1-4), 729–736 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Arsenijevic, D.

G. Fiol, C. Meuer, H. Schmeckebier, D. Arsenijevic, S. Liebich, M. Laemmlin, M. Kuntz, and D. Bimberg, “Quantum-Dot Semiconductor Mode-Locked Lasers and Amplifiers at 40 GHz,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 1429–1435 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bandelow, U.

E. A. Viktorov, P. Mandel, A. G. Vladimirov, and U. Bandelow, “Model for mode locking in quantum dot lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bimberg, D.

G. Fiol, C. Meuer, H. Schmeckebier, D. Arsenijevic, S. Liebich, M. Laemmlin, M. Kuntz, and D. Bimberg, “Quantum-Dot Semiconductor Mode-Locked Lasers and Amplifiers at 40 GHz,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 1429–1435 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Bimberg, “Quantum dot based nanophotonics and nanoelectronics,” Electron. Lett. 44(5), 390 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuntz, G. Fiol, M. Laemmlin, C. Meuer, and D. Bimberg, “High-speed mode-locked quantum-dot lasers and optical amplifiers,” Proc. IEEE 95(9), 1767–1778 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Laemmlin, G. Fiol, C. Meuer, M. Kuntz, F. Hopfer, A. R. Kovsh, N. N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “Distortion-free optical amplification of 20-80 GHz modelocked laser pulses at 1.3 μu m using quantum dots,” Electron. Lett. 42(12), 697–699 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Schneider, P. Borri, W. Langbein, U. Woggon, R. L. Sellin, D. Ouyang, and D. Bimberg, “Excited-state gain dynamics in InGaAs quantum-dot amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(10), 2014–2016 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Kovsh, N. A. Maleev, A. E. Zhukov, S. S. Mikhrin, A. P. Vasil'ev, E. A. Semenova, Y. M. Shernyakov, M. V. Maximov, D. A. Livshits, V. M. Ustinov, N. N. Ledentsov, D. Bimberg, and Z. I. Alferov, “InAs/InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot lasers of 1.3 µm range with enhanced optical gain,” J. Cryst. Growth 251(1-4), 729–736 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Ouyang, N. N. Ledentsov, D. Bimberg, A. R. Kovsh, A. E. Zhukov, S. S. Mikhrin, and V. M. Ustinov, “High performance narrow stripe quantum-dot lasers with etched waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18(12), L53–L54 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Borri, W. Langbein, J. M. Hvam, F. Heinrichsdorff, M. H. Mao, and D. Bimberg, “Spectral hole-burning and carrier-heating dynamics in InGaAs quantum-dot amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(3), 544–551 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Borri, P.

S. Schneider, P. Borri, W. Langbein, U. Woggon, R. L. Sellin, D. Ouyang, and D. Bimberg, “Excited-state gain dynamics in InGaAs quantum-dot amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(10), 2014–2016 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Borri, W. Langbein, J. M. Hvam, F. Heinrichsdorff, M. H. Mao, and D. Bimberg, “Spectral hole-burning and carrier-heating dynamics in InGaAs quantum-dot amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(3), 544–551 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Carpintero, G.

G. Carpintero, M. G. Thompson, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Low Noise Performance of Passively Mode-Locked 10-GHz Quantum-Dot Laser Diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(6), 389–391 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cataluna, M. A.

E. U. Rafailov, M. A. Cataluna, and W. Sibbett, “Mode-locked quantum-dot lasers,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 395–401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, J.

X. D. Huang, A. Stintz, H. Li, A. Rice, G. T. Liu, L. F. Lester, J. Cheng, and K. J. Malloy, “Bistable operation of a two-section 1.3-mu m InAs quantum dot laser - Absorption saturation and the quantum confined Stark effect,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37(3), 414–417 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Delfyett, P. J.

P. J. Delfyett, D. H. Hartman, and S. Z. Ahmad, “Optical Clock Distribution Using a Mode-Locked Semiconductor-Laser Diode System,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(12), 1646–1649 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Deppe, D. G.

D. G. Deppe, H. Huang, and O. B. Shchekin, “Modulation characteristics of quantum-dot lasers: The influence of P-type doping and the electronic density of states on obtaining high speed,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(12), 1587–1593 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Erneux, T.

T. Piwonski, J. Pulka, G. Madden, G. Huyet, J. Houlihan, E. A. Viktorov, T. Erneux, and P. Mandel, “Intradot dynamics of InAs quantum dot based electroabsorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(12), 123504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fiol, G.

G. Fiol, C. Meuer, H. Schmeckebier, D. Arsenijevic, S. Liebich, M. Laemmlin, M. Kuntz, and D. Bimberg, “Quantum-Dot Semiconductor Mode-Locked Lasers and Amplifiers at 40 GHz,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 1429–1435 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuntz, G. Fiol, M. Laemmlin, C. Meuer, and D. Bimberg, “High-speed mode-locked quantum-dot lasers and optical amplifiers,” Proc. IEEE 95(9), 1767–1778 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Laemmlin, G. Fiol, C. Meuer, M. Kuntz, F. Hopfer, A. R. Kovsh, N. N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “Distortion-free optical amplification of 20-80 GHz modelocked laser pulses at 1.3 μu m using quantum dots,” Electron. Lett. 42(12), 697–699 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fork, R. L.

Gordon, J. P.

Hartman, D. H.

P. J. Delfyett, D. H. Hartman, and S. Z. Ahmad, “Optical Clock Distribution Using a Mode-Locked Semiconductor-Laser Diode System,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(12), 1646–1649 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Heinrichsdorff, F.

P. Borri, W. Langbein, J. M. Hvam, F. Heinrichsdorff, M. H. Mao, and D. Bimberg, “Spectral hole-burning and carrier-heating dynamics in InGaAs quantum-dot amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(3), 544–551 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hopfer, F.

M. Laemmlin, G. Fiol, C. Meuer, M. Kuntz, F. Hopfer, A. R. Kovsh, N. N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “Distortion-free optical amplification of 20-80 GHz modelocked laser pulses at 1.3 μu m using quantum dots,” Electron. Lett. 42(12), 697–699 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Houlihan, J.

T. Piwonski, J. Pulka, G. Madden, G. Huyet, J. Houlihan, E. A. Viktorov, T. Erneux, and P. Mandel, “Intradot dynamics of InAs quantum dot based electroabsorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(12), 123504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H.

D. G. Deppe, H. Huang, and O. B. Shchekin, “Modulation characteristics of quantum-dot lasers: The influence of P-type doping and the electronic density of states on obtaining high speed,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(12), 1587–1593 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Huang, X. D.

X. D. Huang, A. Stintz, H. Li, A. Rice, G. T. Liu, L. F. Lester, J. Cheng, and K. J. Malloy, “Bistable operation of a two-section 1.3-mu m InAs quantum dot laser - Absorption saturation and the quantum confined Stark effect,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37(3), 414–417 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Huyet, G.

T. Piwonski, J. Pulka, G. Madden, G. Huyet, J. Houlihan, E. A. Viktorov, T. Erneux, and P. Mandel, “Intradot dynamics of InAs quantum dot based electroabsorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(12), 123504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hvam, J. M.

P. Borri, W. Langbein, J. M. Hvam, F. Heinrichsdorff, M. H. Mao, and D. Bimberg, “Spectral hole-burning and carrier-heating dynamics in InGaAs quantum-dot amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(3), 544–551 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kane, D. J.

N. G. Usechak, Y. C. Xin, C. Y. Lin, L. F. Lester, D. J. Kane, and V. Kovanis, “Modeling and Direct Electric-Field Measurements of Passively Mode-Locked Quantum-Dot Lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 653–660 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Xin, D. J. Kane, and L. F. Lester, “Frequency-resolved optical gating characterisation of passively modelocked quantum-dot laser,” Electron. Lett. 44(21), 1255–1256 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kovanis, V.

N. G. Usechak, Y. C. Xin, C. Y. Lin, L. F. Lester, D. J. Kane, and V. Kovanis, “Modeling and Direct Electric-Field Measurements of Passively Mode-Locked Quantum-Dot Lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 653–660 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kovsh, A. R.

M. Laemmlin, G. Fiol, C. Meuer, M. Kuntz, F. Hopfer, A. R. Kovsh, N. N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “Distortion-free optical amplification of 20-80 GHz modelocked laser pulses at 1.3 μu m using quantum dots,” Electron. Lett. 42(12), 697–699 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Kovsh, N. A. Maleev, A. E. Zhukov, S. S. Mikhrin, A. P. Vasil'ev, E. A. Semenova, Y. M. Shernyakov, M. V. Maximov, D. A. Livshits, V. M. Ustinov, N. N. Ledentsov, D. Bimberg, and Z. I. Alferov, “InAs/InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot lasers of 1.3 µm range with enhanced optical gain,” J. Cryst. Growth 251(1-4), 729–736 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Ouyang, N. N. Ledentsov, D. Bimberg, A. R. Kovsh, A. E. Zhukov, S. S. Mikhrin, and V. M. Ustinov, “High performance narrow stripe quantum-dot lasers with etched waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18(12), L53–L54 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kuntz, M.

G. Fiol, C. Meuer, H. Schmeckebier, D. Arsenijevic, S. Liebich, M. Laemmlin, M. Kuntz, and D. Bimberg, “Quantum-Dot Semiconductor Mode-Locked Lasers and Amplifiers at 40 GHz,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 1429–1435 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuntz, G. Fiol, M. Laemmlin, C. Meuer, and D. Bimberg, “High-speed mode-locked quantum-dot lasers and optical amplifiers,” Proc. IEEE 95(9), 1767–1778 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Laemmlin, G. Fiol, C. Meuer, M. Kuntz, F. Hopfer, A. R. Kovsh, N. N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “Distortion-free optical amplification of 20-80 GHz modelocked laser pulses at 1.3 μu m using quantum dots,” Electron. Lett. 42(12), 697–699 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Laemmlin, M.

G. Fiol, C. Meuer, H. Schmeckebier, D. Arsenijevic, S. Liebich, M. Laemmlin, M. Kuntz, and D. Bimberg, “Quantum-Dot Semiconductor Mode-Locked Lasers and Amplifiers at 40 GHz,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 1429–1435 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuntz, G. Fiol, M. Laemmlin, C. Meuer, and D. Bimberg, “High-speed mode-locked quantum-dot lasers and optical amplifiers,” Proc. IEEE 95(9), 1767–1778 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Laemmlin, G. Fiol, C. Meuer, M. Kuntz, F. Hopfer, A. R. Kovsh, N. N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “Distortion-free optical amplification of 20-80 GHz modelocked laser pulses at 1.3 μu m using quantum dots,” Electron. Lett. 42(12), 697–699 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Langbein, W.

S. Schneider, P. Borri, W. Langbein, U. Woggon, R. L. Sellin, D. Ouyang, and D. Bimberg, “Excited-state gain dynamics in InGaAs quantum-dot amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(10), 2014–2016 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Borri, W. Langbein, J. M. Hvam, F. Heinrichsdorff, M. H. Mao, and D. Bimberg, “Spectral hole-burning and carrier-heating dynamics in InGaAs quantum-dot amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(3), 544–551 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ledentsov, N. N.

M. Laemmlin, G. Fiol, C. Meuer, M. Kuntz, F. Hopfer, A. R. Kovsh, N. N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “Distortion-free optical amplification of 20-80 GHz modelocked laser pulses at 1.3 μu m using quantum dots,” Electron. Lett. 42(12), 697–699 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Ouyang, N. N. Ledentsov, D. Bimberg, A. R. Kovsh, A. E. Zhukov, S. S. Mikhrin, and V. M. Ustinov, “High performance narrow stripe quantum-dot lasers with etched waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18(12), L53–L54 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Kovsh, N. A. Maleev, A. E. Zhukov, S. S. Mikhrin, A. P. Vasil'ev, E. A. Semenova, Y. M. Shernyakov, M. V. Maximov, D. A. Livshits, V. M. Ustinov, N. N. Ledentsov, D. Bimberg, and Z. I. Alferov, “InAs/InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot lasers of 1.3 µm range with enhanced optical gain,” J. Cryst. Growth 251(1-4), 729–736 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lester, L. F.

N. G. Usechak, Y. C. Xin, C. Y. Lin, L. F. Lester, D. J. Kane, and V. Kovanis, “Modeling and Direct Electric-Field Measurements of Passively Mode-Locked Quantum-Dot Lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 653–660 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Xin, D. J. Kane, and L. F. Lester, “Frequency-resolved optical gating characterisation of passively modelocked quantum-dot laser,” Electron. Lett. 44(21), 1255–1256 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. D. Huang, A. Stintz, H. Li, A. Rice, G. T. Liu, L. F. Lester, J. Cheng, and K. J. Malloy, “Bistable operation of a two-section 1.3-mu m InAs quantum dot laser - Absorption saturation and the quantum confined Stark effect,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37(3), 414–417 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

X. D. Huang, A. Stintz, H. Li, A. Rice, G. T. Liu, L. F. Lester, J. Cheng, and K. J. Malloy, “Bistable operation of a two-section 1.3-mu m InAs quantum dot laser - Absorption saturation and the quantum confined Stark effect,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37(3), 414–417 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liebich, S.

G. Fiol, C. Meuer, H. Schmeckebier, D. Arsenijevic, S. Liebich, M. Laemmlin, M. Kuntz, and D. Bimberg, “Quantum-Dot Semiconductor Mode-Locked Lasers and Amplifiers at 40 GHz,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 1429–1435 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. Y.

N. G. Usechak, Y. C. Xin, C. Y. Lin, L. F. Lester, D. J. Kane, and V. Kovanis, “Modeling and Direct Electric-Field Measurements of Passively Mode-Locked Quantum-Dot Lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 653–660 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, G. T.

X. D. Huang, A. Stintz, H. Li, A. Rice, G. T. Liu, L. F. Lester, J. Cheng, and K. J. Malloy, “Bistable operation of a two-section 1.3-mu m InAs quantum dot laser - Absorption saturation and the quantum confined Stark effect,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37(3), 414–417 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Livshits, D. A.

A. R. Kovsh, N. A. Maleev, A. E. Zhukov, S. S. Mikhrin, A. P. Vasil'ev, E. A. Semenova, Y. M. Shernyakov, M. V. Maximov, D. A. Livshits, V. M. Ustinov, N. N. Ledentsov, D. Bimberg, and Z. I. Alferov, “InAs/InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot lasers of 1.3 µm range with enhanced optical gain,” J. Cryst. Growth 251(1-4), 729–736 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Madden, G.

T. Piwonski, J. Pulka, G. Madden, G. Huyet, J. Houlihan, E. A. Viktorov, T. Erneux, and P. Mandel, “Intradot dynamics of InAs quantum dot based electroabsorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(12), 123504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Maleev, N. A.

A. R. Kovsh, N. A. Maleev, A. E. Zhukov, S. S. Mikhrin, A. P. Vasil'ev, E. A. Semenova, Y. M. Shernyakov, M. V. Maximov, D. A. Livshits, V. M. Ustinov, N. N. Ledentsov, D. Bimberg, and Z. I. Alferov, “InAs/InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot lasers of 1.3 µm range with enhanced optical gain,” J. Cryst. Growth 251(1-4), 729–736 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Malloy, K. J.

X. D. Huang, A. Stintz, H. Li, A. Rice, G. T. Liu, L. F. Lester, J. Cheng, and K. J. Malloy, “Bistable operation of a two-section 1.3-mu m InAs quantum dot laser - Absorption saturation and the quantum confined Stark effect,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37(3), 414–417 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mandel, P.

T. Piwonski, J. Pulka, G. Madden, G. Huyet, J. Houlihan, E. A. Viktorov, T. Erneux, and P. Mandel, “Intradot dynamics of InAs quantum dot based electroabsorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(12), 123504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Viktorov, P. Mandel, A. G. Vladimirov, and U. Bandelow, “Model for mode locking in quantum dot lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mao, M. H.

P. Borri, W. Langbein, J. M. Hvam, F. Heinrichsdorff, M. H. Mao, and D. Bimberg, “Spectral hole-burning and carrier-heating dynamics in InGaAs quantum-dot amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(3), 544–551 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Martinez, O. E.

Maximov, M. V.

A. R. Kovsh, N. A. Maleev, A. E. Zhukov, S. S. Mikhrin, A. P. Vasil'ev, E. A. Semenova, Y. M. Shernyakov, M. V. Maximov, D. A. Livshits, V. M. Ustinov, N. N. Ledentsov, D. Bimberg, and Z. I. Alferov, “InAs/InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot lasers of 1.3 µm range with enhanced optical gain,” J. Cryst. Growth 251(1-4), 729–736 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Meuer, C.

G. Fiol, C. Meuer, H. Schmeckebier, D. Arsenijevic, S. Liebich, M. Laemmlin, M. Kuntz, and D. Bimberg, “Quantum-Dot Semiconductor Mode-Locked Lasers and Amplifiers at 40 GHz,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 1429–1435 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Kuntz, G. Fiol, M. Laemmlin, C. Meuer, and D. Bimberg, “High-speed mode-locked quantum-dot lasers and optical amplifiers,” Proc. IEEE 95(9), 1767–1778 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Laemmlin, G. Fiol, C. Meuer, M. Kuntz, F. Hopfer, A. R. Kovsh, N. N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “Distortion-free optical amplification of 20-80 GHz modelocked laser pulses at 1.3 μu m using quantum dots,” Electron. Lett. 42(12), 697–699 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mikhrin, S. S.

A. R. Kovsh, N. A. Maleev, A. E. Zhukov, S. S. Mikhrin, A. P. Vasil'ev, E. A. Semenova, Y. M. Shernyakov, M. V. Maximov, D. A. Livshits, V. M. Ustinov, N. N. Ledentsov, D. Bimberg, and Z. I. Alferov, “InAs/InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot lasers of 1.3 µm range with enhanced optical gain,” J. Cryst. Growth 251(1-4), 729–736 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Ouyang, N. N. Ledentsov, D. Bimberg, A. R. Kovsh, A. E. Zhukov, S. S. Mikhrin, and V. M. Ustinov, “High performance narrow stripe quantum-dot lasers with etched waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18(12), L53–L54 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ouyang, D.

S. Schneider, P. Borri, W. Langbein, U. Woggon, R. L. Sellin, D. Ouyang, and D. Bimberg, “Excited-state gain dynamics in InGaAs quantum-dot amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(10), 2014–2016 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Ouyang, N. N. Ledentsov, D. Bimberg, A. R. Kovsh, A. E. Zhukov, S. S. Mikhrin, and V. M. Ustinov, “High performance narrow stripe quantum-dot lasers with etched waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18(12), L53–L54 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Penty, R. V.

G. Carpintero, M. G. Thompson, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Low Noise Performance of Passively Mode-Locked 10-GHz Quantum-Dot Laser Diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(6), 389–391 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Thompson, A. R. Rae, M. Xia, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “InGaAs Quantum-Dot Mode-Locked Laser Diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 661–672 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Piwonski, T.

T. Piwonski, J. Pulka, G. Madden, G. Huyet, J. Houlihan, E. A. Viktorov, T. Erneux, and P. Mandel, “Intradot dynamics of InAs quantum dot based electroabsorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(12), 123504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pulka, J.

T. Piwonski, J. Pulka, G. Madden, G. Huyet, J. Houlihan, E. A. Viktorov, T. Erneux, and P. Mandel, “Intradot dynamics of InAs quantum dot based electroabsorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(12), 123504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rae, A. R.

M. G. Thompson, A. R. Rae, M. Xia, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “InGaAs Quantum-Dot Mode-Locked Laser Diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 661–672 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rafailov, E. U.

E. U. Rafailov, M. A. Cataluna, and W. Sibbett, “Mode-locked quantum-dot lasers,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 395–401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rice, A.

X. D. Huang, A. Stintz, H. Li, A. Rice, G. T. Liu, L. F. Lester, J. Cheng, and K. J. Malloy, “Bistable operation of a two-section 1.3-mu m InAs quantum dot laser - Absorption saturation and the quantum confined Stark effect,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37(3), 414–417 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schmeckebier, H.

G. Fiol, C. Meuer, H. Schmeckebier, D. Arsenijevic, S. Liebich, M. Laemmlin, M. Kuntz, and D. Bimberg, “Quantum-Dot Semiconductor Mode-Locked Lasers and Amplifiers at 40 GHz,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 1429–1435 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, S.

S. Schneider, P. Borri, W. Langbein, U. Woggon, R. L. Sellin, D. Ouyang, and D. Bimberg, “Excited-state gain dynamics in InGaAs quantum-dot amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(10), 2014–2016 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sellin, R. L.

S. Schneider, P. Borri, W. Langbein, U. Woggon, R. L. Sellin, D. Ouyang, and D. Bimberg, “Excited-state gain dynamics in InGaAs quantum-dot amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(10), 2014–2016 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Semenova, E. A.

A. R. Kovsh, N. A. Maleev, A. E. Zhukov, S. S. Mikhrin, A. P. Vasil'ev, E. A. Semenova, Y. M. Shernyakov, M. V. Maximov, D. A. Livshits, V. M. Ustinov, N. N. Ledentsov, D. Bimberg, and Z. I. Alferov, “InAs/InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot lasers of 1.3 µm range with enhanced optical gain,” J. Cryst. Growth 251(1-4), 729–736 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shchekin, O. B.

D. G. Deppe, H. Huang, and O. B. Shchekin, “Modulation characteristics of quantum-dot lasers: The influence of P-type doping and the electronic density of states on obtaining high speed,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(12), 1587–1593 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shernyakov, Y. M.

A. R. Kovsh, N. A. Maleev, A. E. Zhukov, S. S. Mikhrin, A. P. Vasil'ev, E. A. Semenova, Y. M. Shernyakov, M. V. Maximov, D. A. Livshits, V. M. Ustinov, N. N. Ledentsov, D. Bimberg, and Z. I. Alferov, “InAs/InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot lasers of 1.3 µm range with enhanced optical gain,” J. Cryst. Growth 251(1-4), 729–736 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sibbett, W.

E. U. Rafailov, M. A. Cataluna, and W. Sibbett, “Mode-locked quantum-dot lasers,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 395–401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stintz, A.

X. D. Huang, A. Stintz, H. Li, A. Rice, G. T. Liu, L. F. Lester, J. Cheng, and K. J. Malloy, “Bistable operation of a two-section 1.3-mu m InAs quantum dot laser - Absorption saturation and the quantum confined Stark effect,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37(3), 414–417 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, M. G.

M. G. Thompson, A. R. Rae, M. Xia, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “InGaAs Quantum-Dot Mode-Locked Laser Diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 661–672 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Carpintero, M. G. Thompson, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Low Noise Performance of Passively Mode-Locked 10-GHz Quantum-Dot Laser Diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(6), 389–391 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Usechak, N. G.

N. G. Usechak, Y. C. Xin, C. Y. Lin, L. F. Lester, D. J. Kane, and V. Kovanis, “Modeling and Direct Electric-Field Measurements of Passively Mode-Locked Quantum-Dot Lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 653–660 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ustinov, V. M.

D. Ouyang, N. N. Ledentsov, D. Bimberg, A. R. Kovsh, A. E. Zhukov, S. S. Mikhrin, and V. M. Ustinov, “High performance narrow stripe quantum-dot lasers with etched waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18(12), L53–L54 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Kovsh, N. A. Maleev, A. E. Zhukov, S. S. Mikhrin, A. P. Vasil'ev, E. A. Semenova, Y. M. Shernyakov, M. V. Maximov, D. A. Livshits, V. M. Ustinov, N. N. Ledentsov, D. Bimberg, and Z. I. Alferov, “InAs/InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot lasers of 1.3 µm range with enhanced optical gain,” J. Cryst. Growth 251(1-4), 729–736 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vasil'ev, A. P.

A. R. Kovsh, N. A. Maleev, A. E. Zhukov, S. S. Mikhrin, A. P. Vasil'ev, E. A. Semenova, Y. M. Shernyakov, M. V. Maximov, D. A. Livshits, V. M. Ustinov, N. N. Ledentsov, D. Bimberg, and Z. I. Alferov, “InAs/InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot lasers of 1.3 µm range with enhanced optical gain,” J. Cryst. Growth 251(1-4), 729–736 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Viktorov, E. A.

T. Piwonski, J. Pulka, G. Madden, G. Huyet, J. Houlihan, E. A. Viktorov, T. Erneux, and P. Mandel, “Intradot dynamics of InAs quantum dot based electroabsorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(12), 123504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Viktorov, P. Mandel, A. G. Vladimirov, and U. Bandelow, “Model for mode locking in quantum dot lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vladimirov, A. G.

E. A. Viktorov, P. Mandel, A. G. Vladimirov, and U. Bandelow, “Model for mode locking in quantum dot lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

White, I. H.

G. Carpintero, M. G. Thompson, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Low Noise Performance of Passively Mode-Locked 10-GHz Quantum-Dot Laser Diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(6), 389–391 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Thompson, A. R. Rae, M. Xia, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “InGaAs Quantum-Dot Mode-Locked Laser Diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 661–672 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Woggon, U.

S. Schneider, P. Borri, W. Langbein, U. Woggon, R. L. Sellin, D. Ouyang, and D. Bimberg, “Excited-state gain dynamics in InGaAs quantum-dot amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(10), 2014–2016 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xia, M.

M. G. Thompson, A. R. Rae, M. Xia, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “InGaAs Quantum-Dot Mode-Locked Laser Diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 661–672 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xin, Y. C.

N. G. Usechak, Y. C. Xin, C. Y. Lin, L. F. Lester, D. J. Kane, and V. Kovanis, “Modeling and Direct Electric-Field Measurements of Passively Mode-Locked Quantum-Dot Lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 653–660 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Xin, D. J. Kane, and L. F. Lester, “Frequency-resolved optical gating characterisation of passively modelocked quantum-dot laser,” Electron. Lett. 44(21), 1255–1256 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhukov, A. E.

A. R. Kovsh, N. A. Maleev, A. E. Zhukov, S. S. Mikhrin, A. P. Vasil'ev, E. A. Semenova, Y. M. Shernyakov, M. V. Maximov, D. A. Livshits, V. M. Ustinov, N. N. Ledentsov, D. Bimberg, and Z. I. Alferov, “InAs/InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot lasers of 1.3 µm range with enhanced optical gain,” J. Cryst. Growth 251(1-4), 729–736 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Ouyang, N. N. Ledentsov, D. Bimberg, A. R. Kovsh, A. E. Zhukov, S. S. Mikhrin, and V. M. Ustinov, “High performance narrow stripe quantum-dot lasers with etched waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18(12), L53–L54 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

T. Piwonski, J. Pulka, G. Madden, G. Huyet, J. Houlihan, E. A. Viktorov, T. Erneux, and P. Mandel, “Intradot dynamics of InAs quantum dot based electroabsorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(12), 123504 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Viktorov, P. Mandel, A. G. Vladimirov, and U. Bandelow, “Model for mode locking in quantum dot lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

D. Bimberg, “Quantum dot based nanophotonics and nanoelectronics,” Electron. Lett. 44(5), 390 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Laemmlin, G. Fiol, C. Meuer, M. Kuntz, F. Hopfer, A. R. Kovsh, N. N. Ledentsov, and D. Bimberg, “Distortion-free optical amplification of 20-80 GHz modelocked laser pulses at 1.3 μu m using quantum dots,” Electron. Lett. 42(12), 697–699 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Xin, D. J. Kane, and L. F. Lester, “Frequency-resolved optical gating characterisation of passively modelocked quantum-dot laser,” Electron. Lett. 44(21), 1255–1256 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

X. D. Huang, A. Stintz, H. Li, A. Rice, G. T. Liu, L. F. Lester, J. Cheng, and K. J. Malloy, “Bistable operation of a two-section 1.3-mu m InAs quantum dot laser - Absorption saturation and the quantum confined Stark effect,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37(3), 414–417 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. G. Deppe, H. Huang, and O. B. Shchekin, “Modulation characteristics of quantum-dot lasers: The influence of P-type doping and the electronic density of states on obtaining high speed,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(12), 1587–1593 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Fiol, C. Meuer, H. Schmeckebier, D. Arsenijevic, S. Liebich, M. Laemmlin, M. Kuntz, and D. Bimberg, “Quantum-Dot Semiconductor Mode-Locked Lasers and Amplifiers at 40 GHz,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 45, 1429–1435 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

M. G. Thompson, A. R. Rae, M. Xia, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “InGaAs Quantum-Dot Mode-Locked Laser Diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 661–672 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Borri, W. Langbein, J. M. Hvam, F. Heinrichsdorff, M. H. Mao, and D. Bimberg, “Spectral hole-burning and carrier-heating dynamics in InGaAs quantum-dot amplifiers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6(3), 544–551 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. G. Usechak, Y. C. Xin, C. Y. Lin, L. F. Lester, D. J. Kane, and V. Kovanis, “Modeling and Direct Electric-Field Measurements of Passively Mode-Locked Quantum-Dot Lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15, 653–660 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

S. Schneider, P. Borri, W. Langbein, U. Woggon, R. L. Sellin, D. Ouyang, and D. Bimberg, “Excited-state gain dynamics in InGaAs quantum-dot amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(10), 2014–2016 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Carpintero, M. G. Thompson, R. V. Penty, and I. H. White, “Low Noise Performance of Passively Mode-Locked 10-GHz Quantum-Dot Laser Diode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(6), 389–391 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth

A. R. Kovsh, N. A. Maleev, A. E. Zhukov, S. S. Mikhrin, A. P. Vasil'ev, E. A. Semenova, Y. M. Shernyakov, M. V. Maximov, D. A. Livshits, V. M. Ustinov, N. N. Ledentsov, D. Bimberg, and Z. I. Alferov, “InAs/InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot lasers of 1.3 µm range with enhanced optical gain,” J. Cryst. Growth 251(1-4), 729–736 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

P. J. Delfyett, D. H. Hartman, and S. Z. Ahmad, “Optical Clock Distribution Using a Mode-Locked Semiconductor-Laser Diode System,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(12), 1646–1649 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Nat. Photonics

E. U. Rafailov, M. A. Cataluna, and W. Sibbett, “Mode-locked quantum-dot lasers,” Nat. Photonics 1(7), 395–401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE

M. Kuntz, G. Fiol, M. Laemmlin, C. Meuer, and D. Bimberg, “High-speed mode-locked quantum-dot lasers and optical amplifiers,” Proc. IEEE 95(9), 1767–1778 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Sci. Technol.

D. Ouyang, N. N. Ledentsov, D. Bimberg, A. R. Kovsh, A. E. Zhukov, S. S. Mikhrin, and V. M. Ustinov, “High performance narrow stripe quantum-dot lasers with etched waveguide,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18(12), L53–L54 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. Trebino, Frequency Resolved Optical Gating: The Measurement of Ultrashort Laser Pulses (Kluwer, Boston, 2002).

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3 ed., (Academic Press, San Diego, Calif, 2001).

L. N. Xu, E. Zeek, and R. Trebino, “Measuring very complex ultrashort pulses using Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating (FROG),” 2008 Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics & Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, Vols 1–9, 1043–1044 (2008).

D. Bimberg, M. Grundmann, and N. N. Ledentsov, Quantum dot heterostructures (John Wiley, Chichester; New York, 1999), p. 328

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Sketch of the SHG-FROG setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SGS current and SAS reverse bias dependent pulse FWHM, derived from autocorrelation measurements, assuming a Gaussian pulse shape. Black circles mark the values of the SGS current and the SAS reverse bias investigated by FROG.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured FROG spectrogram of the passive-mode-locked laser at 60 mA gain section current and −8 V absorber section reverse bias.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Retrieved pulse intensity profile and temporal chirp for different SGS currents (left column) and SAS reverse biases (right column) of the passive-mode-locked device including the respective retrieval error ε.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Retrieved pulse FWHM and linear spectral chirp for varying SGS current at constant SAS reverse bias of −8 V (left) and for varying SAS reverse bias at constant SGS current of 60 mA (right) for passive mode-locking.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

RF spectra (left) and retrieved pulse intensities with the respective retrieval error ε (right) of passive-(PMLL) and hybrid-(HMLL) mode-locked device with 60 mA SGS current and −8 V SAS reverse bias and an external frequency inside and outside of the mode-locking range.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Experimental measured FROG spectrogram of the chirp-compensated PMLL (left top) and HMLL (left bottom) with 60 mA SGS current and −8 V SAS reverse bias. Corresponding retrieved pulse intensity profiles and chirps with the respective retrieval error ε together with the chirped pulse intensities and chirps (right).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

PMLL retrieved pulse FWHM and linear spectral chirp for varying SGS current at constant SAS reverse bias of −8 V (left) and for varying SAS reverse bias at constant SGS current of 60 mA (right) of the pulse compressed passive mode-locked device.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Edges of the mode-locking range for varying SGS currents at constant SAS reverse bias of −8 V and for varying SAS reverse bias at constant SGS currents of 60 mA.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

RZ eye diagram for 40 Gbit/s with PRBS-31 (left) and multiplexed 80 Gbit/s with PRBS-7 (right) of the hybrid-mode-locked device with 80 mA SGS current and −8 V SAS reverse bias.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Autocorrelation measurement (left) and via FROG retrieved pulse comb (right) of the hybrid mode-locked device with 60 mA SGS current and −8 V SAS reverse bias multiplexed up to around 160 GHz.

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