Abstract

The synthesized Nd fluoride nanocrystals exhibited different upconversion behaviors as dispersed and aggregated samples due to the different energy transfer mechanisms. When they were dispersed in water, the NaNdF4 nanocrystals exhibited ~400 times stronger upconversion fluorescence than the NdF3 nanocrystals. Remarkable upconversion behaviors were found when the nanocrystals were aggregated in the films. For the NdF3 nanocrystals, the energy transfer processes 4 I 13/24 F 3/24 G 7/2 in the films generated avalanche upconversion emissions with a high slope of ~12.0, which could be due to the large avalanche cross relaxation rates and spectral broadening effect. In contrast, the spectral broadening effect in the NaNdF4 NCs films increased the energy transfer 4 I 15/24 F 3/24 G 5/2 of the Nd3+ ions, and induced a new upconversion emission at ~680 nm with the slope increased from 1.0 to 3.2.

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2009 (4)

M. Y. Xie, X. N. Peng, X. F. Fu, J. J. Zhang, G. L. Li, and X. F. Yu, “Synthesis of Yb3+/Er3+ co-doped MnF2 nanocrystals with bright red up-converted fluorescence,” Scr. Mater. 60(3), 190–193 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Wang and X. Liu, “Recent advances in the chemistry of lanthanide-doped upconversion nanocrystals,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 38(4), 976–989 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-Y. Xie, L. Yu, H. He, and X.-F. Yu, “Synthesis of highly fluorescent LaF3:Ln3+/LaF3 core/shell nanocrystals by a surfactant-free aqueous solution route,” J. Solid State Chem. 182(3), 597–601 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Ahrens, P. T. Miclea, and S. Schweizer, “Upconverted fluorescence in Nd3+-doped barium chloride single crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(12), 125501 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

D. K. Chatterjee, A. J. Rufaihah, and Y. Zhang, “Upconversion fluorescence imaging of cells and small animals using lanthanide doped nanocrystals,” Biomaterials 29(7), 937–943 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Deng, S. H. Yang, S. Xiao, H. M. Gong, and Q. Q. Wang, “Controlled synthesis and upconverted avalanche luminescence of cerium(III) and neodymium(III) orthovanadate nanocrystals with high uniformity of size and shape,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(6), 2032–2040 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. F. Yu, L. D. Chen, M. Li, M. Y. Xie, L. Zhou, Y. Li, and Q. Q. Wang, “Highly efficient fluorescence of NdF3/SiO2 Core/Shell nanoparticles and the applications for in vivo NIR detection,” Adv. Mater. 20(21), 4118–4123 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Yang, H. Wang, H. M. Luo, D. M. Feldmann, P. C. Dowden, R. F. DePaula, and Q. X. Jia, “Structural and dielectric properties of epitaxial Sm2O3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 062905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (7)

R. B. Yu, K. H. Yu, W. Wei, X. Xu, X. Qiu, S. Liu, W. Huang, G. Tang, H. Ford, and B. Peng, “Nd2O3 nanoparticles modified with a silane coupling agent as a liquid laser medium,” Adv. Mater. 19(6), 838–842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. A. Kumar, C. W. Chen, J. Ballato, and R. E. Riman, “Optical characterization of infrared emitting rare-earth-doped fluoride nanocrystals and their transparent nanocomposites,” Chem. Mater. 19(6), 1523–1528 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. O. Nuñez and M. Ocaña, “An ionic liquid based synthesis method for uniform luminescent lanthanide fluoride nanoparticles,” Nanotechnology 18(45), 455606 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhu, Q. Li, X. Liu, J. Li, Y. Zhang, J. Meng, and X. Cao, “Morphological Control and Luminescent Properties of CeF3 Nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(16), 5898–5903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Sivakumar, F. C. J. M. van Veggel, and P. S. May, “Near-infrared (NIR) to red and green up-conversion emission from silica sol-gel thin films made with La0.45Yb0.50Er0.05F3 nanoparticles, hetero-looping-enhanced energy transfer (Hetero-LEET): a new up-conversion process,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(3), 620–625 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Sun, Z. Xu, B. Hu, G. S. Yi, G. M. Chow, and J. Shen, “Application of NaYF4:Yb, Er upconversion fluorescence nanocrystals for solution-processed near infrared photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(19), 191113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, J. Song, H. Sun, Z. Xu, and J. Qiu, “Multiphoton-excited upconversion luminescence of Nd:YVO(4).,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1384–1389 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

S. F. Lim, R. Riehn, W. S. Ryu, N. Khanarian, C. K. Tung, D. Tank, and R. H. Austin, “In vivo and scanning electron microscopy imaging of up-converting nanophosphors in Caenorhabditis elegans,” Nano Lett. 6(2), 169–174 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

A. Mendioroz, R. Balda, M. Voda, M. Al-Saleh, and J. Fernández, “Infrared to visible and ultraviolet upconversion processes in Nd3+-doped potassium lead chloride crystal,” Opt. Mater. 26(4), 351–357 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

J. Fernández, R. Balda, A. Mendioroz, M. Sanz, and J. L. Adam, “Upconversion processes in Nd3+-doped fluorochloride glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 287(1-3), 437–443 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Russell and K. Holliday, “Upconversion and energy transfer dynamics in Nd3+: KLiYF5,” Opt. Commun. 191(3-6), 277–294 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Balda, M. Sanz, A. Mendioroz, J. Fernández, L. S. Griscom, and J. L. Adam, “Infrared-to-visible upconversion in Nd3+-doped chalcohalide glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 64(14), 144101 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

H. X. Zhang, C. H. Kam, Y. Zhou, X. Q. Han, S. Buddhudu, Q. Xiang, Y. L. Lam, and Y. C. Chan, “Green upconversion luminescence in Er3+:BaTiO3 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(5), 609–611 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O. S. Wenger, D. R. Gamelin, H. U. Güdel, A. V. Butashin, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Site-selective yellow to violet and near-infrared to green upconversion in BaLu2F8:Nd3+,” Phys. Rev. B 61(24), 16530–16537 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

L. de S. Menezes, C. B. de Araújo, G. S. Maciel, Y. Messaddeq, and M. A. Aegerter, “Continuous wave ultraviolet frequency upconversion due to triads of Nd3+ ions in fluoroindate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(6), 683–685 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

T. Chuang and H. R. Verdún, “Energy-transfer up-conversion and excited-state absorption of laser-radiation in Nd:YLF laser crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(1), 79–91 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

Y. Guyot, H. Manaa, J. Y. Rivoire, R. Moncorgé, N. Garnier, E. Descroix, M. Bon, and P. Laporte, “Excited-state-absorption and upconversion studies of Nd3+-doped single crystals Y3Al5O12,YLiF4, and LaMgAl11O19,” Phys. Rev. B 51(2), 784–799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

S. Guy, M. F. Joubert, B. Jacquier, and M. Bouazaoui, “Excited-state absorption in BaY2F8:Nd3+,” Phys. Rev. B 47(17), 11001–11006 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

M. J. Weber, “Science and technology of laser glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 123(1-3), 208–222 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

B. R. Reddy and P. Venkateswarlu, “Quenching, thermalisation and energy up-conversion in LaF3:Nd3+,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys. 18(20), 3873–3879 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

O. V. Kudryavtseva, L. S. Garashina, K. K. Rivkina, and B. P. Sobolev, “Solubility of LnF3 in lanthanum fluoride,” Sov. Phys. Crystallogr. 18, 531 (1974).

1973 (1)

W. F. Auzel, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Proc. IEEE 61, 758–787 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Adam, J. L.

J. Fernández, R. Balda, A. Mendioroz, M. Sanz, and J. L. Adam, “Upconversion processes in Nd3+-doped fluorochloride glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 287(1-3), 437–443 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Balda, M. Sanz, A. Mendioroz, J. Fernández, L. S. Griscom, and J. L. Adam, “Infrared-to-visible upconversion in Nd3+-doped chalcohalide glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 64(14), 144101 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Aegerter, M. A.

L. de S. Menezes, C. B. de Araújo, G. S. Maciel, Y. Messaddeq, and M. A. Aegerter, “Continuous wave ultraviolet frequency upconversion due to triads of Nd3+ ions in fluoroindate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(6), 683–685 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ahrens, B.

B. Ahrens, P. T. Miclea, and S. Schweizer, “Upconverted fluorescence in Nd3+-doped barium chloride single crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(12), 125501 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Al-Saleh, M.

A. Mendioroz, R. Balda, M. Voda, M. Al-Saleh, and J. Fernández, “Infrared to visible and ultraviolet upconversion processes in Nd3+-doped potassium lead chloride crystal,” Opt. Mater. 26(4), 351–357 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Andrade, A. A.

Austin, R. H.

S. F. Lim, R. Riehn, W. S. Ryu, N. Khanarian, C. K. Tung, D. Tank, and R. H. Austin, “In vivo and scanning electron microscopy imaging of up-converting nanophosphors in Caenorhabditis elegans,” Nano Lett. 6(2), 169–174 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Auzel, W. F.

W. F. Auzel, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Proc. IEEE 61, 758–787 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Balda, R.

A. Mendioroz, R. Balda, M. Voda, M. Al-Saleh, and J. Fernández, “Infrared to visible and ultraviolet upconversion processes in Nd3+-doped potassium lead chloride crystal,” Opt. Mater. 26(4), 351–357 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Fernández, R. Balda, A. Mendioroz, M. Sanz, and J. L. Adam, “Upconversion processes in Nd3+-doped fluorochloride glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 287(1-3), 437–443 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Balda, M. Sanz, A. Mendioroz, J. Fernández, L. S. Griscom, and J. L. Adam, “Infrared-to-visible upconversion in Nd3+-doped chalcohalide glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 64(14), 144101 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ballato, J.

G. A. Kumar, C. W. Chen, J. Ballato, and R. E. Riman, “Optical characterization of infrared emitting rare-earth-doped fluoride nanocrystals and their transparent nanocomposites,” Chem. Mater. 19(6), 1523–1528 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bon, M.

Y. Guyot, H. Manaa, J. Y. Rivoire, R. Moncorgé, N. Garnier, E. Descroix, M. Bon, and P. Laporte, “Excited-state-absorption and upconversion studies of Nd3+-doped single crystals Y3Al5O12,YLiF4, and LaMgAl11O19,” Phys. Rev. B 51(2), 784–799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bouazaoui, M.

S. Guy, M. F. Joubert, B. Jacquier, and M. Bouazaoui, “Excited-state absorption in BaY2F8:Nd3+,” Phys. Rev. B 47(17), 11001–11006 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Buddhudu, S.

H. X. Zhang, C. H. Kam, Y. Zhou, X. Q. Han, S. Buddhudu, Q. Xiang, Y. L. Lam, and Y. C. Chan, “Green upconversion luminescence in Er3+:BaTiO3 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(5), 609–611 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Butashin, A. V.

O. S. Wenger, D. R. Gamelin, H. U. Güdel, A. V. Butashin, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Site-selective yellow to violet and near-infrared to green upconversion in BaLu2F8:Nd3+,” Phys. Rev. B 61(24), 16530–16537 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cao, X.

L. Zhu, Q. Li, X. Liu, J. Li, Y. Zhang, J. Meng, and X. Cao, “Morphological Control and Luminescent Properties of CeF3 Nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(16), 5898–5903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Catundab, T.

Chan, Y. C.

H. X. Zhang, C. H. Kam, Y. Zhou, X. Q. Han, S. Buddhudu, Q. Xiang, Y. L. Lam, and Y. C. Chan, “Green upconversion luminescence in Er3+:BaTiO3 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(5), 609–611 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chatterjee, D. K.

D. K. Chatterjee, A. J. Rufaihah, and Y. Zhang, “Upconversion fluorescence imaging of cells and small animals using lanthanide doped nanocrystals,” Biomaterials 29(7), 937–943 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. W.

G. A. Kumar, C. W. Chen, J. Ballato, and R. E. Riman, “Optical characterization of infrared emitting rare-earth-doped fluoride nanocrystals and their transparent nanocomposites,” Chem. Mater. 19(6), 1523–1528 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. D.

X. F. Yu, L. D. Chen, M. Li, M. Y. Xie, L. Zhou, Y. Li, and Q. Q. Wang, “Highly efficient fluorescence of NdF3/SiO2 Core/Shell nanoparticles and the applications for in vivo NIR detection,” Adv. Mater. 20(21), 4118–4123 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chow, G. M.

C. J. Sun, Z. Xu, B. Hu, G. S. Yi, G. M. Chow, and J. Shen, “Application of NaYF4:Yb, Er upconversion fluorescence nanocrystals for solution-processed near infrared photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(19), 191113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chuang, T.

T. Chuang and H. R. Verdún, “Energy-transfer up-conversion and excited-state absorption of laser-radiation in Nd:YLF laser crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(1), 79–91 (1996).
[CrossRef]

de Araújo, C. B.

L. de S. Menezes, C. B. de Araújo, G. S. Maciel, Y. Messaddeq, and M. A. Aegerter, “Continuous wave ultraviolet frequency upconversion due to triads of Nd3+ ions in fluoroindate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(6), 683–685 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Deng, H.

H. Deng, S. H. Yang, S. Xiao, H. M. Gong, and Q. Q. Wang, “Controlled synthesis and upconverted avalanche luminescence of cerium(III) and neodymium(III) orthovanadate nanocrystals with high uniformity of size and shape,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(6), 2032–2040 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DePaula, R. F.

H. Yang, H. Wang, H. M. Luo, D. M. Feldmann, P. C. Dowden, R. F. DePaula, and Q. X. Jia, “Structural and dielectric properties of epitaxial Sm2O3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 062905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Descroix, E.

Y. Guyot, H. Manaa, J. Y. Rivoire, R. Moncorgé, N. Garnier, E. Descroix, M. Bon, and P. Laporte, “Excited-state-absorption and upconversion studies of Nd3+-doped single crystals Y3Al5O12,YLiF4, and LaMgAl11O19,” Phys. Rev. B 51(2), 784–799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dowden, P. C.

H. Yang, H. Wang, H. M. Luo, D. M. Feldmann, P. C. Dowden, R. F. DePaula, and Q. X. Jia, “Structural and dielectric properties of epitaxial Sm2O3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 062905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Feldmann, D. M.

H. Yang, H. Wang, H. M. Luo, D. M. Feldmann, P. C. Dowden, R. F. DePaula, and Q. X. Jia, “Structural and dielectric properties of epitaxial Sm2O3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 062905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fernández, J.

A. Mendioroz, R. Balda, M. Voda, M. Al-Saleh, and J. Fernández, “Infrared to visible and ultraviolet upconversion processes in Nd3+-doped potassium lead chloride crystal,” Opt. Mater. 26(4), 351–357 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Fernández, R. Balda, A. Mendioroz, M. Sanz, and J. L. Adam, “Upconversion processes in Nd3+-doped fluorochloride glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 287(1-3), 437–443 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Balda, M. Sanz, A. Mendioroz, J. Fernández, L. S. Griscom, and J. L. Adam, “Infrared-to-visible upconversion in Nd3+-doped chalcohalide glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 64(14), 144101 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ford, H.

R. B. Yu, K. H. Yu, W. Wei, X. Xu, X. Qiu, S. Liu, W. Huang, G. Tang, H. Ford, and B. Peng, “Nd2O3 nanoparticles modified with a silane coupling agent as a liquid laser medium,” Adv. Mater. 19(6), 838–842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fu, X. F.

M. Y. Xie, X. N. Peng, X. F. Fu, J. J. Zhang, G. L. Li, and X. F. Yu, “Synthesis of Yb3+/Er3+ co-doped MnF2 nanocrystals with bright red up-converted fluorescence,” Scr. Mater. 60(3), 190–193 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gamelin, D. R.

O. S. Wenger, D. R. Gamelin, H. U. Güdel, A. V. Butashin, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Site-selective yellow to violet and near-infrared to green upconversion in BaLu2F8:Nd3+,” Phys. Rev. B 61(24), 16530–16537 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Garashina, L. S.

O. V. Kudryavtseva, L. S. Garashina, K. K. Rivkina, and B. P. Sobolev, “Solubility of LnF3 in lanthanum fluoride,” Sov. Phys. Crystallogr. 18, 531 (1974).

Garnier, N.

Y. Guyot, H. Manaa, J. Y. Rivoire, R. Moncorgé, N. Garnier, E. Descroix, M. Bon, and P. Laporte, “Excited-state-absorption and upconversion studies of Nd3+-doped single crystals Y3Al5O12,YLiF4, and LaMgAl11O19,” Phys. Rev. B 51(2), 784–799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gong, H. M.

H. Deng, S. H. Yang, S. Xiao, H. M. Gong, and Q. Q. Wang, “Controlled synthesis and upconverted avalanche luminescence of cerium(III) and neodymium(III) orthovanadate nanocrystals with high uniformity of size and shape,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(6), 2032–2040 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Griscom, L. S.

R. Balda, M. Sanz, A. Mendioroz, J. Fernández, L. S. Griscom, and J. L. Adam, “Infrared-to-visible upconversion in Nd3+-doped chalcohalide glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 64(14), 144101 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Güdel, H. U.

O. S. Wenger, D. R. Gamelin, H. U. Güdel, A. V. Butashin, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Site-selective yellow to violet and near-infrared to green upconversion in BaLu2F8:Nd3+,” Phys. Rev. B 61(24), 16530–16537 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Guy, S.

S. Guy, M. F. Joubert, B. Jacquier, and M. Bouazaoui, “Excited-state absorption in BaY2F8:Nd3+,” Phys. Rev. B 47(17), 11001–11006 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Guyot, Y.

Y. Guyot, H. Manaa, J. Y. Rivoire, R. Moncorgé, N. Garnier, E. Descroix, M. Bon, and P. Laporte, “Excited-state-absorption and upconversion studies of Nd3+-doped single crystals Y3Al5O12,YLiF4, and LaMgAl11O19,” Phys. Rev. B 51(2), 784–799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Han, X. Q.

H. X. Zhang, C. H. Kam, Y. Zhou, X. Q. Han, S. Buddhudu, Q. Xiang, Y. L. Lam, and Y. C. Chan, “Green upconversion luminescence in Er3+:BaTiO3 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(5), 609–611 (2000).
[CrossRef]

He, H.

M.-Y. Xie, L. Yu, H. He, and X.-F. Yu, “Synthesis of highly fluorescent LaF3:Ln3+/LaF3 core/shell nanocrystals by a surfactant-free aqueous solution route,” J. Solid State Chem. 182(3), 597–601 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Holliday, K.

D. L. Russell and K. Holliday, “Upconversion and energy transfer dynamics in Nd3+: KLiYF5,” Opt. Commun. 191(3-6), 277–294 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hu, B.

C. J. Sun, Z. Xu, B. Hu, G. S. Yi, G. M. Chow, and J. Shen, “Application of NaYF4:Yb, Er upconversion fluorescence nanocrystals for solution-processed near infrared photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(19), 191113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, W.

R. B. Yu, K. H. Yu, W. Wei, X. Xu, X. Qiu, S. Liu, W. Huang, G. Tang, H. Ford, and B. Peng, “Nd2O3 nanoparticles modified with a silane coupling agent as a liquid laser medium,” Adv. Mater. 19(6), 838–842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jacinto, C.

Jacquier, B.

S. Guy, M. F. Joubert, B. Jacquier, and M. Bouazaoui, “Excited-state absorption in BaY2F8:Nd3+,” Phys. Rev. B 47(17), 11001–11006 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jia, Q. X.

H. Yang, H. Wang, H. M. Luo, D. M. Feldmann, P. C. Dowden, R. F. DePaula, and Q. X. Jia, “Structural and dielectric properties of epitaxial Sm2O3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 062905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Joubert, M. F.

S. Guy, M. F. Joubert, B. Jacquier, and M. Bouazaoui, “Excited-state absorption in BaY2F8:Nd3+,” Phys. Rev. B 47(17), 11001–11006 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kam, C. H.

H. X. Zhang, C. H. Kam, Y. Zhou, X. Q. Han, S. Buddhudu, Q. Xiang, Y. L. Lam, and Y. C. Chan, “Green upconversion luminescence in Er3+:BaTiO3 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(5), 609–611 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kaminskii, A. A.

O. S. Wenger, D. R. Gamelin, H. U. Güdel, A. V. Butashin, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Site-selective yellow to violet and near-infrared to green upconversion in BaLu2F8:Nd3+,” Phys. Rev. B 61(24), 16530–16537 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Khanarian, N.

S. F. Lim, R. Riehn, W. S. Ryu, N. Khanarian, C. K. Tung, D. Tank, and R. H. Austin, “In vivo and scanning electron microscopy imaging of up-converting nanophosphors in Caenorhabditis elegans,” Nano Lett. 6(2), 169–174 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kudryavtseva, O. V.

O. V. Kudryavtseva, L. S. Garashina, K. K. Rivkina, and B. P. Sobolev, “Solubility of LnF3 in lanthanum fluoride,” Sov. Phys. Crystallogr. 18, 531 (1974).

Kumar, G. A.

G. A. Kumar, C. W. Chen, J. Ballato, and R. E. Riman, “Optical characterization of infrared emitting rare-earth-doped fluoride nanocrystals and their transparent nanocomposites,” Chem. Mater. 19(6), 1523–1528 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lam, Y. L.

H. X. Zhang, C. H. Kam, Y. Zhou, X. Q. Han, S. Buddhudu, Q. Xiang, Y. L. Lam, and Y. C. Chan, “Green upconversion luminescence in Er3+:BaTiO3 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(5), 609–611 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Laporte, P.

Y. Guyot, H. Manaa, J. Y. Rivoire, R. Moncorgé, N. Garnier, E. Descroix, M. Bon, and P. Laporte, “Excited-state-absorption and upconversion studies of Nd3+-doped single crystals Y3Al5O12,YLiF4, and LaMgAl11O19,” Phys. Rev. B 51(2), 784–799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Li, G. L.

M. Y. Xie, X. N. Peng, X. F. Fu, J. J. Zhang, G. L. Li, and X. F. Yu, “Synthesis of Yb3+/Er3+ co-doped MnF2 nanocrystals with bright red up-converted fluorescence,” Scr. Mater. 60(3), 190–193 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

L. Zhu, Q. Li, X. Liu, J. Li, Y. Zhang, J. Meng, and X. Cao, “Morphological Control and Luminescent Properties of CeF3 Nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(16), 5898–5903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, M.

X. F. Yu, L. D. Chen, M. Li, M. Y. Xie, L. Zhou, Y. Li, and Q. Q. Wang, “Highly efficient fluorescence of NdF3/SiO2 Core/Shell nanoparticles and the applications for in vivo NIR detection,” Adv. Mater. 20(21), 4118–4123 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, Q.

L. Zhu, Q. Li, X. Liu, J. Li, Y. Zhang, J. Meng, and X. Cao, “Morphological Control and Luminescent Properties of CeF3 Nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(16), 5898–5903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

X. F. Yu, L. D. Chen, M. Li, M. Y. Xie, L. Zhou, Y. Li, and Q. Q. Wang, “Highly efficient fluorescence of NdF3/SiO2 Core/Shell nanoparticles and the applications for in vivo NIR detection,” Adv. Mater. 20(21), 4118–4123 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lim, S. F.

S. F. Lim, R. Riehn, W. S. Ryu, N. Khanarian, C. K. Tung, D. Tank, and R. H. Austin, “In vivo and scanning electron microscopy imaging of up-converting nanophosphors in Caenorhabditis elegans,” Nano Lett. 6(2), 169–174 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, S.

R. B. Yu, K. H. Yu, W. Wei, X. Xu, X. Qiu, S. Liu, W. Huang, G. Tang, H. Ford, and B. Peng, “Nd2O3 nanoparticles modified with a silane coupling agent as a liquid laser medium,” Adv. Mater. 19(6), 838–842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

F. Wang and X. Liu, “Recent advances in the chemistry of lanthanide-doped upconversion nanocrystals,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 38(4), 976–989 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Zhu, Q. Li, X. Liu, J. Li, Y. Zhang, J. Meng, and X. Cao, “Morphological Control and Luminescent Properties of CeF3 Nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(16), 5898–5903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Luo, H. M.

H. Yang, H. Wang, H. M. Luo, D. M. Feldmann, P. C. Dowden, R. F. DePaula, and Q. X. Jia, “Structural and dielectric properties of epitaxial Sm2O3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 062905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Maciel, G. S.

L. de S. Menezes, C. B. de Araújo, G. S. Maciel, Y. Messaddeq, and M. A. Aegerter, “Continuous wave ultraviolet frequency upconversion due to triads of Nd3+ ions in fluoroindate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(6), 683–685 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Manaa, H.

Y. Guyot, H. Manaa, J. Y. Rivoire, R. Moncorgé, N. Garnier, E. Descroix, M. Bon, and P. Laporte, “Excited-state-absorption and upconversion studies of Nd3+-doped single crystals Y3Al5O12,YLiF4, and LaMgAl11O19,” Phys. Rev. B 51(2), 784–799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

May, P. S.

S. Sivakumar, F. C. J. M. van Veggel, and P. S. May, “Near-infrared (NIR) to red and green up-conversion emission from silica sol-gel thin films made with La0.45Yb0.50Er0.05F3 nanoparticles, hetero-looping-enhanced energy transfer (Hetero-LEET): a new up-conversion process,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(3), 620–625 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mendioroz, A.

A. Mendioroz, R. Balda, M. Voda, M. Al-Saleh, and J. Fernández, “Infrared to visible and ultraviolet upconversion processes in Nd3+-doped potassium lead chloride crystal,” Opt. Mater. 26(4), 351–357 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Fernández, R. Balda, A. Mendioroz, M. Sanz, and J. L. Adam, “Upconversion processes in Nd3+-doped fluorochloride glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 287(1-3), 437–443 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Balda, M. Sanz, A. Mendioroz, J. Fernández, L. S. Griscom, and J. L. Adam, “Infrared-to-visible upconversion in Nd3+-doped chalcohalide glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 64(14), 144101 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Menezes, L. de S.

L. de S. Menezes, C. B. de Araújo, G. S. Maciel, Y. Messaddeq, and M. A. Aegerter, “Continuous wave ultraviolet frequency upconversion due to triads of Nd3+ ions in fluoroindate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(6), 683–685 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Meng, J.

L. Zhu, Q. Li, X. Liu, J. Li, Y. Zhang, J. Meng, and X. Cao, “Morphological Control and Luminescent Properties of CeF3 Nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(16), 5898–5903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Messaddeq, Y.

L. de S. Menezes, C. B. de Araújo, G. S. Maciel, Y. Messaddeq, and M. A. Aegerter, “Continuous wave ultraviolet frequency upconversion due to triads of Nd3+ ions in fluoroindate glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(6), 683–685 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Miclea, P. T.

B. Ahrens, P. T. Miclea, and S. Schweizer, “Upconverted fluorescence in Nd3+-doped barium chloride single crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(12), 125501 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moncorgé, R.

Y. Guyot, H. Manaa, J. Y. Rivoire, R. Moncorgé, N. Garnier, E. Descroix, M. Bon, and P. Laporte, “Excited-state-absorption and upconversion studies of Nd3+-doped single crystals Y3Al5O12,YLiF4, and LaMgAl11O19,” Phys. Rev. B 51(2), 784–799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Myers, J. D.

Myers, M. J.

Nuñez, N. O.

N. O. Nuñez and M. Ocaña, “An ionic liquid based synthesis method for uniform luminescent lanthanide fluoride nanoparticles,” Nanotechnology 18(45), 455606 (2007).
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Ocaña, M.

N. O. Nuñez and M. Ocaña, “An ionic liquid based synthesis method for uniform luminescent lanthanide fluoride nanoparticles,” Nanotechnology 18(45), 455606 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Oliveira, S. L.

Peng, B.

R. B. Yu, K. H. Yu, W. Wei, X. Xu, X. Qiu, S. Liu, W. Huang, G. Tang, H. Ford, and B. Peng, “Nd2O3 nanoparticles modified with a silane coupling agent as a liquid laser medium,” Adv. Mater. 19(6), 838–842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Peng, X. N.

M. Y. Xie, X. N. Peng, X. F. Fu, J. J. Zhang, G. L. Li, and X. F. Yu, “Synthesis of Yb3+/Er3+ co-doped MnF2 nanocrystals with bright red up-converted fluorescence,” Scr. Mater. 60(3), 190–193 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J.

Qiu, X.

R. B. Yu, K. H. Yu, W. Wei, X. Xu, X. Qiu, S. Liu, W. Huang, G. Tang, H. Ford, and B. Peng, “Nd2O3 nanoparticles modified with a silane coupling agent as a liquid laser medium,” Adv. Mater. 19(6), 838–842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Reddy, B. R.

B. R. Reddy and P. Venkateswarlu, “Quenching, thermalisation and energy up-conversion in LaF3:Nd3+,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys. 18(20), 3873–3879 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Riehn, R.

S. F. Lim, R. Riehn, W. S. Ryu, N. Khanarian, C. K. Tung, D. Tank, and R. H. Austin, “In vivo and scanning electron microscopy imaging of up-converting nanophosphors in Caenorhabditis elegans,” Nano Lett. 6(2), 169–174 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Riman, R. E.

G. A. Kumar, C. W. Chen, J. Ballato, and R. E. Riman, “Optical characterization of infrared emitting rare-earth-doped fluoride nanocrystals and their transparent nanocomposites,” Chem. Mater. 19(6), 1523–1528 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rivkina, K. K.

O. V. Kudryavtseva, L. S. Garashina, K. K. Rivkina, and B. P. Sobolev, “Solubility of LnF3 in lanthanum fluoride,” Sov. Phys. Crystallogr. 18, 531 (1974).

Rivoire, J. Y.

Y. Guyot, H. Manaa, J. Y. Rivoire, R. Moncorgé, N. Garnier, E. Descroix, M. Bon, and P. Laporte, “Excited-state-absorption and upconversion studies of Nd3+-doped single crystals Y3Al5O12,YLiF4, and LaMgAl11O19,” Phys. Rev. B 51(2), 784–799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rufaihah, A. J.

D. K. Chatterjee, A. J. Rufaihah, and Y. Zhang, “Upconversion fluorescence imaging of cells and small animals using lanthanide doped nanocrystals,” Biomaterials 29(7), 937–943 (2008).
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Russell, D. L.

D. L. Russell and K. Holliday, “Upconversion and energy transfer dynamics in Nd3+: KLiYF5,” Opt. Commun. 191(3-6), 277–294 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ryu, W. S.

S. F. Lim, R. Riehn, W. S. Ryu, N. Khanarian, C. K. Tung, D. Tank, and R. H. Austin, “In vivo and scanning electron microscopy imaging of up-converting nanophosphors in Caenorhabditis elegans,” Nano Lett. 6(2), 169–174 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sanz, M.

R. Balda, M. Sanz, A. Mendioroz, J. Fernández, L. S. Griscom, and J. L. Adam, “Infrared-to-visible upconversion in Nd3+-doped chalcohalide glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 64(14), 144101 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Fernández, R. Balda, A. Mendioroz, M. Sanz, and J. L. Adam, “Upconversion processes in Nd3+-doped fluorochloride glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 287(1-3), 437–443 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schweizer, S.

B. Ahrens, P. T. Miclea, and S. Schweizer, “Upconverted fluorescence in Nd3+-doped barium chloride single crystals,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(12), 125501 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, J.

C. J. Sun, Z. Xu, B. Hu, G. S. Yi, G. M. Chow, and J. Shen, “Application of NaYF4:Yb, Er upconversion fluorescence nanocrystals for solution-processed near infrared photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(19), 191113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sivakumar, S.

S. Sivakumar, F. C. J. M. van Veggel, and P. S. May, “Near-infrared (NIR) to red and green up-conversion emission from silica sol-gel thin films made with La0.45Yb0.50Er0.05F3 nanoparticles, hetero-looping-enhanced energy transfer (Hetero-LEET): a new up-conversion process,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(3), 620–625 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sobolev, B. P.

O. V. Kudryavtseva, L. S. Garashina, K. K. Rivkina, and B. P. Sobolev, “Solubility of LnF3 in lanthanum fluoride,” Sov. Phys. Crystallogr. 18, 531 (1974).

Song, J.

Sun, C. J.

C. J. Sun, Z. Xu, B. Hu, G. S. Yi, G. M. Chow, and J. Shen, “Application of NaYF4:Yb, Er upconversion fluorescence nanocrystals for solution-processed near infrared photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(19), 191113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H.

Tang, G.

R. B. Yu, K. H. Yu, W. Wei, X. Xu, X. Qiu, S. Liu, W. Huang, G. Tang, H. Ford, and B. Peng, “Nd2O3 nanoparticles modified with a silane coupling agent as a liquid laser medium,” Adv. Mater. 19(6), 838–842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tank, D.

S. F. Lim, R. Riehn, W. S. Ryu, N. Khanarian, C. K. Tung, D. Tank, and R. H. Austin, “In vivo and scanning electron microscopy imaging of up-converting nanophosphors in Caenorhabditis elegans,” Nano Lett. 6(2), 169–174 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tung, C. K.

S. F. Lim, R. Riehn, W. S. Ryu, N. Khanarian, C. K. Tung, D. Tank, and R. H. Austin, “In vivo and scanning electron microscopy imaging of up-converting nanophosphors in Caenorhabditis elegans,” Nano Lett. 6(2), 169–174 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Veggel, F. C. J. M.

S. Sivakumar, F. C. J. M. van Veggel, and P. S. May, “Near-infrared (NIR) to red and green up-conversion emission from silica sol-gel thin films made with La0.45Yb0.50Er0.05F3 nanoparticles, hetero-looping-enhanced energy transfer (Hetero-LEET): a new up-conversion process,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129(3), 620–625 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Venkateswarlu, P.

B. R. Reddy and P. Venkateswarlu, “Quenching, thermalisation and energy up-conversion in LaF3:Nd3+,” J. Phys. C Solid State Phys. 18(20), 3873–3879 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Verdún, H. R.

T. Chuang and H. R. Verdún, “Energy-transfer up-conversion and excited-state absorption of laser-radiation in Nd:YLF laser crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32(1), 79–91 (1996).
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Voda, M.

A. Mendioroz, R. Balda, M. Voda, M. Al-Saleh, and J. Fernández, “Infrared to visible and ultraviolet upconversion processes in Nd3+-doped potassium lead chloride crystal,” Opt. Mater. 26(4), 351–357 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, F.

F. Wang and X. Liu, “Recent advances in the chemistry of lanthanide-doped upconversion nanocrystals,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 38(4), 976–989 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

H. Yang, H. Wang, H. M. Luo, D. M. Feldmann, P. C. Dowden, R. F. DePaula, and Q. X. Jia, “Structural and dielectric properties of epitaxial Sm2O3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 062905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q. Q.

H. Deng, S. H. Yang, S. Xiao, H. M. Gong, and Q. Q. Wang, “Controlled synthesis and upconverted avalanche luminescence of cerium(III) and neodymium(III) orthovanadate nanocrystals with high uniformity of size and shape,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(6), 2032–2040 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. F. Yu, L. D. Chen, M. Li, M. Y. Xie, L. Zhou, Y. Li, and Q. Q. Wang, “Highly efficient fluorescence of NdF3/SiO2 Core/Shell nanoparticles and the applications for in vivo NIR detection,” Adv. Mater. 20(21), 4118–4123 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

Weber, M. J.

M. J. Weber, “Science and technology of laser glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 123(1-3), 208–222 (1990).
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Wei, W.

R. B. Yu, K. H. Yu, W. Wei, X. Xu, X. Qiu, S. Liu, W. Huang, G. Tang, H. Ford, and B. Peng, “Nd2O3 nanoparticles modified with a silane coupling agent as a liquid laser medium,” Adv. Mater. 19(6), 838–842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wenger, O. S.

O. S. Wenger, D. R. Gamelin, H. U. Güdel, A. V. Butashin, and A. A. Kaminskii, “Site-selective yellow to violet and near-infrared to green upconversion in BaLu2F8:Nd3+,” Phys. Rev. B 61(24), 16530–16537 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Xiang, Q.

H. X. Zhang, C. H. Kam, Y. Zhou, X. Q. Han, S. Buddhudu, Q. Xiang, Y. L. Lam, and Y. C. Chan, “Green upconversion luminescence in Er3+:BaTiO3 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(5), 609–611 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, S.

H. Deng, S. H. Yang, S. Xiao, H. M. Gong, and Q. Q. Wang, “Controlled synthesis and upconverted avalanche luminescence of cerium(III) and neodymium(III) orthovanadate nanocrystals with high uniformity of size and shape,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(6), 2032–2040 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, M. Y.

M. Y. Xie, X. N. Peng, X. F. Fu, J. J. Zhang, G. L. Li, and X. F. Yu, “Synthesis of Yb3+/Er3+ co-doped MnF2 nanocrystals with bright red up-converted fluorescence,” Scr. Mater. 60(3), 190–193 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. F. Yu, L. D. Chen, M. Li, M. Y. Xie, L. Zhou, Y. Li, and Q. Q. Wang, “Highly efficient fluorescence of NdF3/SiO2 Core/Shell nanoparticles and the applications for in vivo NIR detection,” Adv. Mater. 20(21), 4118–4123 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xie, M.-Y.

M.-Y. Xie, L. Yu, H. He, and X.-F. Yu, “Synthesis of highly fluorescent LaF3:Ln3+/LaF3 core/shell nanocrystals by a surfactant-free aqueous solution route,” J. Solid State Chem. 182(3), 597–601 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, X.

R. B. Yu, K. H. Yu, W. Wei, X. Xu, X. Qiu, S. Liu, W. Huang, G. Tang, H. Ford, and B. Peng, “Nd2O3 nanoparticles modified with a silane coupling agent as a liquid laser medium,” Adv. Mater. 19(6), 838–842 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z.

X. Wang, J. Song, H. Sun, Z. Xu, and J. Qiu, “Multiphoton-excited upconversion luminescence of Nd:YVO(4).,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1384–1389 (2007).
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C. J. Sun, Z. Xu, B. Hu, G. S. Yi, G. M. Chow, and J. Shen, “Application of NaYF4:Yb, Er upconversion fluorescence nanocrystals for solution-processed near infrared photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(19), 191113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

H. Yang, H. Wang, H. M. Luo, D. M. Feldmann, P. C. Dowden, R. F. DePaula, and Q. X. Jia, “Structural and dielectric properties of epitaxial Sm2O3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(6), 062905 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S. H.

H. Deng, S. H. Yang, S. Xiao, H. M. Gong, and Q. Q. Wang, “Controlled synthesis and upconverted avalanche luminescence of cerium(III) and neodymium(III) orthovanadate nanocrystals with high uniformity of size and shape,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130(6), 2032–2040 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yi, G. S.

C. J. Sun, Z. Xu, B. Hu, G. S. Yi, G. M. Chow, and J. Shen, “Application of NaYF4:Yb, Er upconversion fluorescence nanocrystals for solution-processed near infrared photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(19), 191113 (2007).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

TEM images (a, b) and XRD spectra (c) of NdF3 and NaNdF4 NCs.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Energy level diagram and corresponding ESA and ETU processes of Nd3+ involved in our studies. (b) Absorption spectra of NdF3 and NaNdF4 NCs dispersed in water with the same molar concentration of 180 mM.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Upconversion fluorescence spectra of NdF3 and NaNdF4 NCs with λexc=800 nm and excitation power of 240 mW. (b) Excitation power dependences of upconversion emission intensities of NdF3 and NaNdF4 NCs. The above samples are all dispersed in water with the same molar concentration of 180 mM.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a, c) Upconversion emission spectra of NdF3 (a), and NaNdF4 (c) NCs films with λ exc=800 nm. (b, d) Excitation power dependences of upconversion emission intensities of NdF3 (b), and NaNdF4 (d) NCs films.

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