Abstract

Finding exact analytical soliton profile solutions is only possible for certain types of non-linear media. In most cases one must resort to numerical techniques to find the soliton profile. In this work we present numerical calculations of spatial soliton profiles in nematic liquid crystals. The nonlinearity is governed by the optical-field-induced liquid crystal director reorientation, which is described by a system of coupled nonlinear partial differential equations. The soliton profile is found using an iterative scheme whereby the induced waveguide and mode profiles are calculated alternatively until convergence is achieved. In this way it is also possible to find higher order solitons. The results in this work can be used to accurately design all-optical interconnections with soliton beams.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  32. M. Peccianti and G. Assanto, "Incoherent Spatial Solitary Waves in Nematic Liquid Crystals," Opt. Lett. 15, 1791-1793 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  33. X. Hutsebaut, C. Cambournac, M. Haelterman, A. Adamski, and K. Neyts, "Single-component higher-order mode solitons in liquid crystals," Opt. Commun. 233, 211217 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  34. I. Kaminer, C. Rotschild, O. Manela, and M. Segev, "Periodic solitons in nonlocal nonlinear media," Opt. Lett. 32, 3209-3211 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. D. Buccoliero, A. Desyatnikov, W. Krolikowski, and Y. Kivshar, "Laguerre and Hermite Soliton Clusters in Nonlocal Nonlinear Media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 053901 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (5)

J. Beeckman, R. James, F. Fernandez,W. De Cort, P. Vanbrabant, and K. Neyts, "Calculation of Fully Anisotropic Liquid Crystal Waveguide Modes," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3812-3819 (2009).
[CrossRef]

U. Laudyn, M. Kwasny, and M. Karpierz, "Nematicons in chiral nematic liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 091110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Xu, and L. Li, "An approximate solution for describing a fundamental soliton in nonlocal nonlinear media," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 11, 125203 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Strinic, M. Petrovic, D. V. Timotijevic, N. B. Aleksic, and M. R. Belic, "Breathing solitons in nematic liquid crystals," Opt. Express 17(14), 11698-11709 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Ye, Y. Kartashov, B. Hu, and L. Torner, "Power-dependent soliton steering in thermal nonlinear media," Opt. Lett. 34, 2658-2660 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

H. Ren, S. Ouyang, Q. Guo,W. Hu, and C. Longgui, "A perturbed (1+2)-dimensional soliton solution in nematic liquid crystals," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 025102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

D. Buccoliero, A. Desyatnikov, W. Krolikowski, and Y. Kivshar, "Laguerre and Hermite Soliton Clusters in Nonlocal Nonlinear Media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 053901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Minzoni, N. Smyth, and A. Worthy, "Modulation solutions for nematicon propagation in nonlocal liquid crystals," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 1549-1556 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Kaminer, C. Rotschild, O. Manela, and M. Segev, "Periodic solitons in nonlocal nonlinear media," Opt. Lett. 32, 3209-3211 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Henninot, J. Blach, and M. Warenghem, "Experimental study of the nonlocality of spatial optical solitons excited in nematic liquid crystal," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 9, 20-25 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

K. Jaworowicz, K. A. Brzdakiewicz, M. A. Karpierz, and M. Sierakowski, "Spatial solitons in twisted nematic layer," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 453, 301-307 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. James, E. Willman, F. A. Fern’andez, and S. E. Day, "Finite-Element Modeling of Liquid-Crystal Hydrodynamics With a Variable Degree of Order," IEEE T. Electron Dev. 53, 1575-1582 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Rotschild, M. Segev, Z. Xu, V. Kartashov, L. Torner, and O. Cohen, "Two-dimensional multipole solitons in nonlocal nonlinear media," Opt. Lett. 31, 3312-3314 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (5)

X. Hutsebaut, C. Cambournac, M. Haelterman, J. Beeckman, and K. Neyts, "Measurement of the Self-induced Waveguide of a Solitonlike Optical Beam in a Nematic Liquid Crystal," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 1424-1431 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti, C. Conti, and G. Assanto, "Interplay between nonlocality and nonlinearity in nematic liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 30, 415-417 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Conti, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, "Spatial solitons and modulational instability in the precense of large birefringence: The case of highly nonlocal liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. E 72, 066614 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, X. Hutsebaut, C. Cambournac, and M. Haelterman, "Simulation of 2-D Lateral Light Propagation in Nematic-liquid-crystal Cells with Tilted Molecules and Nonlinear Reorientational Effect," Opt. Quantum Electron. 37, 95-106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Rotschild, O. Cohen, O. Manela, and M. Segev, "Solitons in nonlinear media with an infinite range of nonlocality: First observation of coherent elliptic solitons and of vortex-ring solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 213904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (6)

C. Conti, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, "Observation of Optical Spatial Solitons in a Highly Nonlocal Medium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peccianti, C. Conti, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, and C. Umeton, "Routing of Anisotropic Spatial Solitons and Modulational Instability in Liquid Crystals," Nature 432, 733-737 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Barberi, F. Ciuchi, G. Durand, M. Iovane, D. Sikharulidze, A. Sonnet, and E. Virga, "Electric Field Induced Order Reconstruction in a Nematic Cell," Eur. Phys.J. E Soft Matter 13, 61-71 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peccianti, A. Fratalocchi, and G. Assanto, "Transverse Dynamics of Nematicons," Opt. Express 12, 6524-6529 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Hutsebaut, C. Cambournac, M. Haelterman, A. Adamski, and K. Neyts, "Single-component higher-order mode solitons in liquid crystals," Opt. Commun. 233, 211217 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, X. Hutsebaut, C. Cambournac, and M. Haelterman, "Simulations and Experiments on Self-focusing Conditions in Nematic Liquid-crystal Planar Cells," Opt. Express 12, 1011-1018 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

C. Conti, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, "Route to Nonlocality and Observation of Accessible Solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 073901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

M. Peccianti and G. Assanto, "Incoherent Spatial Solitary Waves in Nematic Liquid Crystals," Opt. Lett. 15, 1791-1793 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

M. Peccianti, A. De Rossi, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, C. Umeton, and I. Khoo, "Electrically Assisted Selfconfinement and Waveguiding in Planar Nematic Liquid Crystal Cells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 7-9 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

A. Snyder and D. Mitchell, "Accessible Solitons," Science 276, 1538-1541 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Mitchell, M. Segev, T. Coskun, and D. Christodoulides, "Theory of self-trapped spatially incoherent light beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4990-4993 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

A. Snyder, D. Mitchell, and Y. Kivshar, "Unification of linear and nonlinear-wave optics," Mod. Phys. Lett. B 9, 1479-1506 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1989 (1)

Adamski, A.

X. Hutsebaut, C. Cambournac, M. Haelterman, A. Adamski, and K. Neyts, "Single-component higher-order mode solitons in liquid crystals," Opt. Commun. 233, 211217 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Aleksic, N. B.

Assanto, G.

M. Peccianti, C. Conti, and G. Assanto, "Interplay between nonlocality and nonlinearity in nematic liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 30, 415-417 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Conti, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, "Spatial solitons and modulational instability in the precense of large birefringence: The case of highly nonlocal liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. E 72, 066614 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti, A. Fratalocchi, and G. Assanto, "Transverse Dynamics of Nematicons," Opt. Express 12, 6524-6529 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Conti, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, "Observation of Optical Spatial Solitons in a Highly Nonlocal Medium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peccianti, C. Conti, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, and C. Umeton, "Routing of Anisotropic Spatial Solitons and Modulational Instability in Liquid Crystals," Nature 432, 733-737 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Conti, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, "Route to Nonlocality and Observation of Accessible Solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 073901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peccianti and G. Assanto, "Incoherent Spatial Solitary Waves in Nematic Liquid Crystals," Opt. Lett. 15, 1791-1793 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti, A. De Rossi, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, C. Umeton, and I. Khoo, "Electrically Assisted Selfconfinement and Waveguiding in Planar Nematic Liquid Crystal Cells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 7-9 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Barberi, R.

R. Barberi, F. Ciuchi, G. Durand, M. Iovane, D. Sikharulidze, A. Sonnet, and E. Virga, "Electric Field Induced Order Reconstruction in a Nematic Cell," Eur. Phys.J. E Soft Matter 13, 61-71 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beeckman, J.

J. Beeckman, R. James, F. Fernandez,W. De Cort, P. Vanbrabant, and K. Neyts, "Calculation of Fully Anisotropic Liquid Crystal Waveguide Modes," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3812-3819 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, X. Hutsebaut, C. Cambournac, and M. Haelterman, "Simulation of 2-D Lateral Light Propagation in Nematic-liquid-crystal Cells with Tilted Molecules and Nonlinear Reorientational Effect," Opt. Quantum Electron. 37, 95-106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Hutsebaut, C. Cambournac, M. Haelterman, J. Beeckman, and K. Neyts, "Measurement of the Self-induced Waveguide of a Solitonlike Optical Beam in a Nematic Liquid Crystal," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 1424-1431 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, X. Hutsebaut, C. Cambournac, and M. Haelterman, "Simulations and Experiments on Self-focusing Conditions in Nematic Liquid-crystal Planar Cells," Opt. Express 12, 1011-1018 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Belic, M. R.

Blach, J.

J. Henninot, J. Blach, and M. Warenghem, "Experimental study of the nonlocality of spatial optical solitons excited in nematic liquid crystal," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 9, 20-25 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brzdakiewicz, K. A.

K. Jaworowicz, K. A. Brzdakiewicz, M. A. Karpierz, and M. Sierakowski, "Spatial solitons in twisted nematic layer," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 453, 301-307 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Buccoliero, D.

D. Buccoliero, A. Desyatnikov, W. Krolikowski, and Y. Kivshar, "Laguerre and Hermite Soliton Clusters in Nonlocal Nonlinear Media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 053901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cambournac, C.

J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, X. Hutsebaut, C. Cambournac, and M. Haelterman, "Simulation of 2-D Lateral Light Propagation in Nematic-liquid-crystal Cells with Tilted Molecules and Nonlinear Reorientational Effect," Opt. Quantum Electron. 37, 95-106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Hutsebaut, C. Cambournac, M. Haelterman, J. Beeckman, and K. Neyts, "Measurement of the Self-induced Waveguide of a Solitonlike Optical Beam in a Nematic Liquid Crystal," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 1424-1431 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Hutsebaut, C. Cambournac, M. Haelterman, A. Adamski, and K. Neyts, "Single-component higher-order mode solitons in liquid crystals," Opt. Commun. 233, 211217 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, X. Hutsebaut, C. Cambournac, and M. Haelterman, "Simulations and Experiments on Self-focusing Conditions in Nematic Liquid-crystal Planar Cells," Opt. Express 12, 1011-1018 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christodoulides, D.

M. Mitchell, M. Segev, T. Coskun, and D. Christodoulides, "Theory of self-trapped spatially incoherent light beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4990-4993 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ciuchi, F.

R. Barberi, F. Ciuchi, G. Durand, M. Iovane, D. Sikharulidze, A. Sonnet, and E. Virga, "Electric Field Induced Order Reconstruction in a Nematic Cell," Eur. Phys.J. E Soft Matter 13, 61-71 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cohen, O.

C. Rotschild, M. Segev, Z. Xu, V. Kartashov, L. Torner, and O. Cohen, "Two-dimensional multipole solitons in nonlocal nonlinear media," Opt. Lett. 31, 3312-3314 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Rotschild, O. Cohen, O. Manela, and M. Segev, "Solitons in nonlinear media with an infinite range of nonlocality: First observation of coherent elliptic solitons and of vortex-ring solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 213904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Conti, C.

M. Peccianti, C. Conti, and G. Assanto, "Interplay between nonlocality and nonlinearity in nematic liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 30, 415-417 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Conti, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, "Spatial solitons and modulational instability in the precense of large birefringence: The case of highly nonlocal liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. E 72, 066614 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti, C. Conti, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, and C. Umeton, "Routing of Anisotropic Spatial Solitons and Modulational Instability in Liquid Crystals," Nature 432, 733-737 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Conti, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, "Observation of Optical Spatial Solitons in a Highly Nonlocal Medium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Conti, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, "Route to Nonlocality and Observation of Accessible Solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 073901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coskun, T.

M. Mitchell, M. Segev, T. Coskun, and D. Christodoulides, "Theory of self-trapped spatially incoherent light beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4990-4993 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Day, S. E.

R. James, E. Willman, F. A. Fern’andez, and S. E. Day, "Finite-Element Modeling of Liquid-Crystal Hydrodynamics With a Variable Degree of Order," IEEE T. Electron Dev. 53, 1575-1582 (2006).
[CrossRef]

De Cort, W.

J. Beeckman, R. James, F. Fernandez,W. De Cort, P. Vanbrabant, and K. Neyts, "Calculation of Fully Anisotropic Liquid Crystal Waveguide Modes," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3812-3819 (2009).
[CrossRef]

De Luca, A.

M. Peccianti, C. Conti, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, and C. Umeton, "Routing of Anisotropic Spatial Solitons and Modulational Instability in Liquid Crystals," Nature 432, 733-737 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peccianti, A. De Rossi, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, C. Umeton, and I. Khoo, "Electrically Assisted Selfconfinement and Waveguiding in Planar Nematic Liquid Crystal Cells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 7-9 (2000).
[CrossRef]

De Rossi, A.

M. Peccianti, A. De Rossi, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, C. Umeton, and I. Khoo, "Electrically Assisted Selfconfinement and Waveguiding in Planar Nematic Liquid Crystal Cells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 7-9 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Desyatnikov, A.

D. Buccoliero, A. Desyatnikov, W. Krolikowski, and Y. Kivshar, "Laguerre and Hermite Soliton Clusters in Nonlocal Nonlinear Media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 053901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durand, G.

R. Barberi, F. Ciuchi, G. Durand, M. Iovane, D. Sikharulidze, A. Sonnet, and E. Virga, "Electric Field Induced Order Reconstruction in a Nematic Cell," Eur. Phys.J. E Soft Matter 13, 61-71 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fern’andez, F. A.

R. James, E. Willman, F. A. Fern’andez, and S. E. Day, "Finite-Element Modeling of Liquid-Crystal Hydrodynamics With a Variable Degree of Order," IEEE T. Electron Dev. 53, 1575-1582 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fernandez, F.

J. Beeckman, R. James, F. Fernandez,W. De Cort, P. Vanbrabant, and K. Neyts, "Calculation of Fully Anisotropic Liquid Crystal Waveguide Modes," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3812-3819 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fratalocchi, A.

Green, M.

Guo, Q.

H. Ren, S. Ouyang, Q. Guo,W. Hu, and C. Longgui, "A perturbed (1+2)-dimensional soliton solution in nematic liquid crystals," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 025102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Haelterman, M.

J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, X. Hutsebaut, C. Cambournac, and M. Haelterman, "Simulation of 2-D Lateral Light Propagation in Nematic-liquid-crystal Cells with Tilted Molecules and Nonlinear Reorientational Effect," Opt. Quantum Electron. 37, 95-106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Hutsebaut, C. Cambournac, M. Haelterman, J. Beeckman, and K. Neyts, "Measurement of the Self-induced Waveguide of a Solitonlike Optical Beam in a Nematic Liquid Crystal," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 1424-1431 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Hutsebaut, C. Cambournac, M. Haelterman, A. Adamski, and K. Neyts, "Single-component higher-order mode solitons in liquid crystals," Opt. Commun. 233, 211217 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, X. Hutsebaut, C. Cambournac, and M. Haelterman, "Simulations and Experiments on Self-focusing Conditions in Nematic Liquid-crystal Planar Cells," Opt. Express 12, 1011-1018 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henninot, J.

J. Henninot, J. Blach, and M. Warenghem, "Experimental study of the nonlocality of spatial optical solitons excited in nematic liquid crystal," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 9, 20-25 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hu, B.

Hu, W.

H. Ren, S. Ouyang, Q. Guo,W. Hu, and C. Longgui, "A perturbed (1+2)-dimensional soliton solution in nematic liquid crystals," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 025102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hutsebaut, X.

J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, X. Hutsebaut, C. Cambournac, and M. Haelterman, "Simulation of 2-D Lateral Light Propagation in Nematic-liquid-crystal Cells with Tilted Molecules and Nonlinear Reorientational Effect," Opt. Quantum Electron. 37, 95-106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Hutsebaut, C. Cambournac, M. Haelterman, J. Beeckman, and K. Neyts, "Measurement of the Self-induced Waveguide of a Solitonlike Optical Beam in a Nematic Liquid Crystal," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 1424-1431 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Hutsebaut, C. Cambournac, M. Haelterman, A. Adamski, and K. Neyts, "Single-component higher-order mode solitons in liquid crystals," Opt. Commun. 233, 211217 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, X. Hutsebaut, C. Cambournac, and M. Haelterman, "Simulations and Experiments on Self-focusing Conditions in Nematic Liquid-crystal Planar Cells," Opt. Express 12, 1011-1018 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iovane, M.

R. Barberi, F. Ciuchi, G. Durand, M. Iovane, D. Sikharulidze, A. Sonnet, and E. Virga, "Electric Field Induced Order Reconstruction in a Nematic Cell," Eur. Phys.J. E Soft Matter 13, 61-71 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

James, R.

J. Beeckman, R. James, F. Fernandez,W. De Cort, P. Vanbrabant, and K. Neyts, "Calculation of Fully Anisotropic Liquid Crystal Waveguide Modes," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3812-3819 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. James, E. Willman, F. A. Fern’andez, and S. E. Day, "Finite-Element Modeling of Liquid-Crystal Hydrodynamics With a Variable Degree of Order," IEEE T. Electron Dev. 53, 1575-1582 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jaworowicz, K.

K. Jaworowicz, K. A. Brzdakiewicz, M. A. Karpierz, and M. Sierakowski, "Spatial solitons in twisted nematic layer," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 453, 301-307 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kaminer, I.

Karpierz, M.

U. Laudyn, M. Kwasny, and M. Karpierz, "Nematicons in chiral nematic liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 091110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Karpierz, M. A.

K. Jaworowicz, K. A. Brzdakiewicz, M. A. Karpierz, and M. Sierakowski, "Spatial solitons in twisted nematic layer," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 453, 301-307 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kartashov, V.

Kartashov, Y.

Khoo, I.

M. Peccianti, A. De Rossi, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, C. Umeton, and I. Khoo, "Electrically Assisted Selfconfinement and Waveguiding in Planar Nematic Liquid Crystal Cells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 7-9 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kivshar, Y.

D. Buccoliero, A. Desyatnikov, W. Krolikowski, and Y. Kivshar, "Laguerre and Hermite Soliton Clusters in Nonlocal Nonlinear Media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 053901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Snyder, D. Mitchell, and Y. Kivshar, "Unification of linear and nonlinear-wave optics," Mod. Phys. Lett. B 9, 1479-1506 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Krolikowski, W.

D. Buccoliero, A. Desyatnikov, W. Krolikowski, and Y. Kivshar, "Laguerre and Hermite Soliton Clusters in Nonlocal Nonlinear Media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 053901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwasny, M.

U. Laudyn, M. Kwasny, and M. Karpierz, "Nematicons in chiral nematic liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 091110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ladouceur, F.

Laudyn, U.

U. Laudyn, M. Kwasny, and M. Karpierz, "Nematicons in chiral nematic liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 091110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

H. Zhang, D. Xu, and L. Li, "An approximate solution for describing a fundamental soliton in nonlocal nonlinear media," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 11, 125203 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Longgui, C.

H. Ren, S. Ouyang, Q. Guo,W. Hu, and C. Longgui, "A perturbed (1+2)-dimensional soliton solution in nematic liquid crystals," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 025102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Madden, S.

Manela, O.

I. Kaminer, C. Rotschild, O. Manela, and M. Segev, "Periodic solitons in nonlocal nonlinear media," Opt. Lett. 32, 3209-3211 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Rotschild, O. Cohen, O. Manela, and M. Segev, "Solitons in nonlinear media with an infinite range of nonlocality: First observation of coherent elliptic solitons and of vortex-ring solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 213904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Minzoni, A.

Mitchell, D.

A. Snyder and D. Mitchell, "Accessible Solitons," Science 276, 1538-1541 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Snyder, D. Mitchell, and Y. Kivshar, "Unification of linear and nonlinear-wave optics," Mod. Phys. Lett. B 9, 1479-1506 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Snyder, D. Mitchell, L. Poladian, and F. Ladouceur, "Self-induced Optical Fibers - Spatial Solitary Waves," Opt. Lett. 16, 21-23 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mitchell, M.

M. Mitchell, M. Segev, T. Coskun, and D. Christodoulides, "Theory of self-trapped spatially incoherent light beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4990-4993 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Neyts, K.

J. Beeckman, R. James, F. Fernandez,W. De Cort, P. Vanbrabant, and K. Neyts, "Calculation of Fully Anisotropic Liquid Crystal Waveguide Modes," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3812-3819 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, X. Hutsebaut, C. Cambournac, and M. Haelterman, "Simulation of 2-D Lateral Light Propagation in Nematic-liquid-crystal Cells with Tilted Molecules and Nonlinear Reorientational Effect," Opt. Quantum Electron. 37, 95-106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Hutsebaut, C. Cambournac, M. Haelterman, J. Beeckman, and K. Neyts, "Measurement of the Self-induced Waveguide of a Solitonlike Optical Beam in a Nematic Liquid Crystal," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22, 1424-1431 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Hutsebaut, C. Cambournac, M. Haelterman, A. Adamski, and K. Neyts, "Single-component higher-order mode solitons in liquid crystals," Opt. Commun. 233, 211217 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, X. Hutsebaut, C. Cambournac, and M. Haelterman, "Simulations and Experiments on Self-focusing Conditions in Nematic Liquid-crystal Planar Cells," Opt. Express 12, 1011-1018 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ouyang, S.

H. Ren, S. Ouyang, Q. Guo,W. Hu, and C. Longgui, "A perturbed (1+2)-dimensional soliton solution in nematic liquid crystals," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 025102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Peccianti, M.

M. Peccianti, C. Conti, and G. Assanto, "Interplay between nonlocality and nonlinearity in nematic liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 30, 415-417 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Conti, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, "Spatial solitons and modulational instability in the precense of large birefringence: The case of highly nonlocal liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. E 72, 066614 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti, A. Fratalocchi, and G. Assanto, "Transverse Dynamics of Nematicons," Opt. Express 12, 6524-6529 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Conti, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, "Observation of Optical Spatial Solitons in a Highly Nonlocal Medium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peccianti, C. Conti, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, and C. Umeton, "Routing of Anisotropic Spatial Solitons and Modulational Instability in Liquid Crystals," Nature 432, 733-737 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Conti, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, "Route to Nonlocality and Observation of Accessible Solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 073901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peccianti and G. Assanto, "Incoherent Spatial Solitary Waves in Nematic Liquid Crystals," Opt. Lett. 15, 1791-1793 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Peccianti, A. De Rossi, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, C. Umeton, and I. Khoo, "Electrically Assisted Selfconfinement and Waveguiding in Planar Nematic Liquid Crystal Cells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 7-9 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Petrovic, M.

Poladian, L.

Ren, H.

H. Ren, S. Ouyang, Q. Guo,W. Hu, and C. Longgui, "A perturbed (1+2)-dimensional soliton solution in nematic liquid crystals," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 025102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rotschild, C.

Segev, M.

I. Kaminer, C. Rotschild, O. Manela, and M. Segev, "Periodic solitons in nonlocal nonlinear media," Opt. Lett. 32, 3209-3211 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Rotschild, M. Segev, Z. Xu, V. Kartashov, L. Torner, and O. Cohen, "Two-dimensional multipole solitons in nonlocal nonlinear media," Opt. Lett. 31, 3312-3314 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Rotschild, O. Cohen, O. Manela, and M. Segev, "Solitons in nonlinear media with an infinite range of nonlocality: First observation of coherent elliptic solitons and of vortex-ring solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 213904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mitchell, M. Segev, T. Coskun, and D. Christodoulides, "Theory of self-trapped spatially incoherent light beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4990-4993 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sierakowski, M.

K. Jaworowicz, K. A. Brzdakiewicz, M. A. Karpierz, and M. Sierakowski, "Spatial solitons in twisted nematic layer," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 453, 301-307 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sikharulidze, D.

R. Barberi, F. Ciuchi, G. Durand, M. Iovane, D. Sikharulidze, A. Sonnet, and E. Virga, "Electric Field Induced Order Reconstruction in a Nematic Cell," Eur. Phys.J. E Soft Matter 13, 61-71 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smyth, N.

Snyder, A.

A. Snyder and D. Mitchell, "Accessible Solitons," Science 276, 1538-1541 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Snyder, D. Mitchell, and Y. Kivshar, "Unification of linear and nonlinear-wave optics," Mod. Phys. Lett. B 9, 1479-1506 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Snyder, D. Mitchell, L. Poladian, and F. Ladouceur, "Self-induced Optical Fibers - Spatial Solitary Waves," Opt. Lett. 16, 21-23 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sonnet, A.

R. Barberi, F. Ciuchi, G. Durand, M. Iovane, D. Sikharulidze, A. Sonnet, and E. Virga, "Electric Field Induced Order Reconstruction in a Nematic Cell," Eur. Phys.J. E Soft Matter 13, 61-71 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strinic, A. I.

Timotijevic, D. V.

Torner, L.

Umeton, C.

M. Peccianti, C. Conti, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, and C. Umeton, "Routing of Anisotropic Spatial Solitons and Modulational Instability in Liquid Crystals," Nature 432, 733-737 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Peccianti, A. De Rossi, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, C. Umeton, and I. Khoo, "Electrically Assisted Selfconfinement and Waveguiding in Planar Nematic Liquid Crystal Cells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 7-9 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vanbrabant, P.

J. Beeckman, R. James, F. Fernandez,W. De Cort, P. Vanbrabant, and K. Neyts, "Calculation of Fully Anisotropic Liquid Crystal Waveguide Modes," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3812-3819 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Virga, E.

R. Barberi, F. Ciuchi, G. Durand, M. Iovane, D. Sikharulidze, A. Sonnet, and E. Virga, "Electric Field Induced Order Reconstruction in a Nematic Cell," Eur. Phys.J. E Soft Matter 13, 61-71 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Warenghem, M.

J. Henninot, J. Blach, and M. Warenghem, "Experimental study of the nonlocality of spatial optical solitons excited in nematic liquid crystal," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 9, 20-25 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Willman, E.

R. James, E. Willman, F. A. Fern’andez, and S. E. Day, "Finite-Element Modeling of Liquid-Crystal Hydrodynamics With a Variable Degree of Order," IEEE T. Electron Dev. 53, 1575-1582 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Worthy, A.

Xu, D.

H. Zhang, D. Xu, and L. Li, "An approximate solution for describing a fundamental soliton in nonlocal nonlinear media," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 11, 125203 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z.

Ye, F.

Zhang, H.

H. Zhang, D. Xu, and L. Li, "An approximate solution for describing a fundamental soliton in nonlocal nonlinear media," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 11, 125203 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

M. Peccianti, A. De Rossi, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, C. Umeton, and I. Khoo, "Electrically Assisted Selfconfinement and Waveguiding in Planar Nematic Liquid Crystal Cells," Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 7-9 (2000).
[CrossRef]

U. Laudyn, M. Kwasny, and M. Karpierz, "Nematicons in chiral nematic liquid crystals," Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 091110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE T. Electron Dev. (1)

R. James, E. Willman, F. A. Fern’andez, and S. E. Day, "Finite-Element Modeling of Liquid-Crystal Hydrodynamics With a Variable Degree of Order," IEEE T. Electron Dev. 53, 1575-1582 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. E Soft Matter (1)

R. Barberi, F. Ciuchi, G. Durand, M. Iovane, D. Sikharulidze, A. Sonnet, and E. Virga, "Electric Field Induced Order Reconstruction in a Nematic Cell," Eur. Phys.J. E Soft Matter 13, 61-71 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lightw. Technol. (1)

J. Beeckman, R. James, F. Fernandez,W. De Cort, P. Vanbrabant, and K. Neyts, "Calculation of Fully Anisotropic Liquid Crystal Waveguide Modes," J. Lightw. Technol. 27, 3812-3819 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (3)

J. Henninot, J. Blach, and M. Warenghem, "Experimental study of the nonlocality of spatial optical solitons excited in nematic liquid crystal," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 9, 20-25 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren, S. Ouyang, Q. Guo,W. Hu, and C. Longgui, "A perturbed (1+2)-dimensional soliton solution in nematic liquid crystals," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 025102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Xu, and L. Li, "An approximate solution for describing a fundamental soliton in nonlocal nonlinear media," J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 11, 125203 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Mod. Phys. Lett. B (1)

A. Snyder, D. Mitchell, and Y. Kivshar, "Unification of linear and nonlinear-wave optics," Mod. Phys. Lett. B 9, 1479-1506 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (1)

K. Jaworowicz, K. A. Brzdakiewicz, M. A. Karpierz, and M. Sierakowski, "Spatial solitons in twisted nematic layer," Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 453, 301-307 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

M. Peccianti, C. Conti, G. Assanto, A. De Luca, and C. Umeton, "Routing of Anisotropic Spatial Solitons and Modulational Instability in Liquid Crystals," Nature 432, 733-737 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

X. Hutsebaut, C. Cambournac, M. Haelterman, A. Adamski, and K. Neyts, "Single-component higher-order mode solitons in liquid crystals," Opt. Commun. 233, 211217 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Beeckman, K. Neyts, X. Hutsebaut, C. Cambournac, and M. Haelterman, "Simulation of 2-D Lateral Light Propagation in Nematic-liquid-crystal Cells with Tilted Molecules and Nonlinear Reorientational Effect," Opt. Quantum Electron. 37, 95-106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

C. Conti, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, "Spatial solitons and modulational instability in the precense of large birefringence: The case of highly nonlocal liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. E 72, 066614 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

C. Rotschild, O. Cohen, O. Manela, and M. Segev, "Solitons in nonlinear media with an infinite range of nonlocality: First observation of coherent elliptic solitons and of vortex-ring solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 213904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mitchell, M. Segev, T. Coskun, and D. Christodoulides, "Theory of self-trapped spatially incoherent light beams," Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4990-4993 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Conti, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, "Observation of Optical Spatial Solitons in a Highly Nonlocal Medium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 113902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Conti, M. Peccianti, and G. Assanto, "Route to Nonlocality and Observation of Accessible Solitons," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 073901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Buccoliero, A. Desyatnikov, W. Krolikowski, and Y. Kivshar, "Laguerre and Hermite Soliton Clusters in Nonlocal Nonlinear Media," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 053901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

A. Snyder and D. Mitchell, "Accessible Solitons," Science 276, 1538-1541 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

I. Khoo, Liquid Crystals: Physical Properties and Nonlinear Optical Phenomena (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1994).

Y. Kivshar and G. Agrawal, Optical Solitons - From Fibers to Photonic Crystals (Academic Press, San Diego, 2003).

P. G. de Gennes and J. Prost, The Physics of Liquid Crystals, International Series of Monographs on Physics (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1995).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Configuration used in the simulation. An x polarized Gaussian beam is injected into a LC cell along the z direction.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Director orientation in terms of the x and y components of the director field (nx and ny ) with an applied voltage of 1 V and a Gaussian input field with an optical power of 3.5 mW.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Director orientation in the twisted configuration in terms of the y component of the director (left). Corresponding refractive index profile (right).

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Field components of the lowest order mode.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Contour plots of the x-component of the electric field for the first 8 modes of a waveguide induced by a Gaussian beam of 3.5 mW optical power.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Profile of the fundamental mode of a waveguide induced by Gaussian beams of different optical powers. The Gaussian input profile is denoted by dashes. (note that the scale is different for x and y)

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Correlation coefficients of the mode profile along the x and y direction for different optical powers of the Gaussian input beam.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Correlation coefficients of the mode profile along the x and the y direction for different optical powers. The input field is the zero order mode from the first mode calculation.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

Absolute value of the mode profile along the y direction (first iteration), the dashed curve shows the input profile while the solid curves show the mode profile for different input optical powers (left). Correlation of the input mode profile and the output mode profile along x and y (right).

Fig. 10.
Fig. 10.

Absolute value of the mode profile along the x direction (left) and y direction (right) for the second iteration. The dashed curve shows the input profile while the solid curves show the mode profile for different input optical power.

Fig. 11.
Fig. 11.

Correlation of the input mode profile and the output mode profile along the y direction (second iteration).

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

𝓕 ( Q ) = Ω [ f D ( Q ) + f B ( Q ) f E s ( Q ) f E ( Q ) ] .
f D = 1 2 L 1 Q jk , l Q jk , l + 1 2 L 2 Q jk , k Q jl , l + 1 2 L 4 σ jkl Q jm Q km , l + 1 2 L 6 Q jk Q jm , j Q lm , k
f B ( Q ) = 1 2 A tr ( Q 2 ) + 1 3 B tr ( Q 3 ) + 1 4 tr ( Q 2 ) 2
f E s = 1 2 ε 0 E ¯ s ε ¯ ¯ s E ¯ s
f E = 1 2 ε 0 E ¯ * ε ¯ ¯ E ¯
× ( 1 μ r × E ¯ ) k 0 2 ε̿ . E ¯ = 0 .

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