Abstract

We report on a fiber-stabilized agile laser with ultra-low frequency noise. The frequency noise power spectral density is comparable to that of an ultra-stable cavity stabilized laser at Fourier frequencies higher than 30 Hz. When it is chirped at a constant rate of ~ 40 MHz/s, the max non-linearity frequency error is about 50 Hz peak-to-peak over more than 600 MHz tuning range. The Rayleigh backscattering is found to be a significant frequency noise source dependent on fiber length, chirping rate and the power imbalance of the interferometer arms. We analyze this effect both theoretically and experimentally and put forward techniques to reduce this noise contribution.

© 2010 OSA

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2010 (1)

2009 (7)

F. Kéfélian, H. Jiang, P. Lemonde, and G. Santarelli, “Ultralow-frequency-noise stabilization of a laser by locking to an optical fiber-delay line,” Opt. Lett. 34(7), 914–916 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Roos, R. R. Reibel, T. Berg, B. Kaylor, Z. W. Barber, and W. R. Babbitt, “Ultrabroadband optical chirp linearization for precision metrology applications,” Opt. Lett. 34(23), 3692–3694 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Knabe, S. Wu, J. Lim, K. A. Tillman, P. S. Light, F. Couny, N. Wheeler, R. Thapa, A. M. Jones, J. W. Nicholson, B. R. Washburn, F. Benabid, and K. L. Corwin, “10 kHz accuracy of an optical frequency reference based on 12C2H2-filled large-core kagome photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 17(18), 16017–16026 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Kéfélian, O. Lopez, H. Jiang, Ch. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “High-resolution optical frequency dissemination on a telecommunications network with data traffic,” Opt. Lett. 34(10), 1573–1575 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Grosche, O. Terra, K. Predehl, R. Holzwarth, B. Lipphardt, F. Vogt, U. Sterr, and H. Schnatz, “Optical frequency transfer via 146 km fiber link with 10 -19 relative accuracy,” Opt. Lett. 34(15), 2270–2272 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Wolf, C. J. Bordé, A. Clairon, L. Duchayne, A. Landragin, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, W. Ertmer, E. Rasel, F. S. Cataliotti, M. Inguscio, G. M. Tino, P. Gill, H. Klein, S. Reynaud, C. Salomon, E. Peik, O. Bertolami, P. Gil, J. Páramos, C. Jentsch, U. Johann, A. Rathke, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, D. Izzo, P. Natale, B. Christophe, P. Touboul, S. G. Turyshev, J. Anderson, M. E. Tobar, F. Schmidt-Kaler, J. Vigué, A. A. Madej, L. Marmet, M.-C. Angonin, P. Delva, P. Tourrenc, G. Metris, H. Müller, R. Walsworth, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, K. Bongs, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, H. Dittus, C. Lämmerzahl, G. Galzerano, P. Laporta, J. Laskar, A. Fienga, F. Roques, and K. Sengstock,, “Quantum Physics Exploring Gravity in the Outer Solar System: The Sagas Project,” Exp. Astron. 23(2), 651–687 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Millo, D. V. Magalhaes, C. Mandache, Y. Le Coq, E. M. L. English, P. G. Westergaard, J. Lodewyck, S. Bize, P. Lemonde, and G. Santarelli, “Ultrastable lasers based on vibration insensitive cavities,” Phys. Rev. A 79(5), 053829 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

2007 (4)

S. T. Dawkins, J. J. McFerran, and A. N. Luiten, “Considerations on the measurement of the stability of oscillators with frequency counters,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason, Ferroelec. and Freq. Control 54(5), 918–925 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Ludlow, X. Huang, M. Notcutt, T. Zanon-Willette, S. M. Foreman, M. M. Boyd, S. Blatt, and J. Ye, “Compact, thermal-noise-limited optical cavity for diode laser stabilization at 1×10−15,” Opt. Lett. 32(6), 641–643 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Gorju, A. Jucha, A. Jain, V. Crozatier, I. Lorgeré, J.-L. Le Gouët, F. Bretenaker, and M. Colice, “Active stabilization of a rapidly chirped laser by an optoelectronic digital servo-loop control,” Opt. Lett. 32(5), 484–486 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Guillot-Noël, Ph. Goldner, E. Antic-Fidancev, A. Louchet, J.-L. Le Gouët, F. Bretenaker, and I. Lorgeré, “Quantum storage in rare-earth doped crystals for secure networks,” J. Lumin. 122–123, 526–528 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

J.-F. Cliché, M. Allard, and M. Têtu, “High-power and ultranarrow DFB laser: the effect of linewidth reduction systems on coherence length and interferometer noise,” Proc. SPIE 6216, 6216001 (2006).

V. Crozatier, G. Gorju, F. Bretenaker, J.-L. Le Gouet, I. Lorgere, C. Gagnol, and E. Ducloux, “Phase locking of a frequency agile laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(26), 261115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Sheard, M. B. Gray, and D. E. McClelland, “High-bandwidth laser frequency stabilization to a fiber-optic delay line,” Appl. Opt. 45(33), 8491–8499 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

J. Hough and S. Rowan, “Laser interferometry for the detection of gravitational waves,” J. Opt. A 7, 257 (2005).

J. Geng, Ch. Spiegelberg, and S. Jiang, “Narrow Linewidth Fiber Laser for 100-km Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(9), 1827–1829 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

1999 (1)

B. C. Young, F. C. Cruz, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, “Visible Lasers with Subhertz Linewidths,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(19), 3799–3802 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

M. Harris, G. N. Pearson, J. M. Vaughan, D. Letalick, and C. Karlsson, “The role of laser coherence length in continuous-wave coherent laser radar,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1567–1581 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Greiner, B. Boggs, T. Wang, and T. W. Mossberg, “Laser frequency stabilization by means of optical self-heterodyne beat-frequency control,” Opt. Lett. 23(16), 1280–1282 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

K. H. Wanser, “Fundamental phase noise limit in optical fibers due to temperature fluctuation,” Electron. Lett. 28(1), 53–54 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

P. Gysel and R. K. Staubli, “Statistical properties of Rayleigh backscattering in single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8(4), 561–567 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1984 (1)

A. Hartog and M. Gold, “On the theory of backscattering in single-mode optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 2(2), 76–82 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31(2), 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

D. W. Allan, “Statistics of atomic frequency standards,” Proc. IEEE 54(2), 221–230 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1871 (1)

W. Sellmeier, “Zur Erklärung der abnormen Farbenfolge im Spectrum einiger Substanzen,” Annalen der Physik und Chemie 219(6), 272–282 (1871).
[CrossRef]

Allan, D. W.

D. W. Allan, “Statistics of atomic frequency standards,” Proc. IEEE 54(2), 221–230 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Allard, M.

J.-F. Cliché, M. Allard, and M. Têtu, “High-power and ultranarrow DFB laser: the effect of linewidth reduction systems on coherence length and interferometer noise,” Proc. SPIE 6216, 6216001 (2006).

Amy-Klein, A.

Anderson, J.

P. Wolf, C. J. Bordé, A. Clairon, L. Duchayne, A. Landragin, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, W. Ertmer, E. Rasel, F. S. Cataliotti, M. Inguscio, G. M. Tino, P. Gill, H. Klein, S. Reynaud, C. Salomon, E. Peik, O. Bertolami, P. Gil, J. Páramos, C. Jentsch, U. Johann, A. Rathke, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, D. Izzo, P. Natale, B. Christophe, P. Touboul, S. G. Turyshev, J. Anderson, M. E. Tobar, F. Schmidt-Kaler, J. Vigué, A. A. Madej, L. Marmet, M.-C. Angonin, P. Delva, P. Tourrenc, G. Metris, H. Müller, R. Walsworth, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, K. Bongs, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, H. Dittus, C. Lämmerzahl, G. Galzerano, P. Laporta, J. Laskar, A. Fienga, F. Roques, and K. Sengstock,, “Quantum Physics Exploring Gravity in the Outer Solar System: The Sagas Project,” Exp. Astron. 23(2), 651–687 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ando, M.

K. Takahashi, M. Ando, and K. Tsubono, “Stabilization of laser intensity and frequency using optical fiber,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 122, 012016 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Angonin, M.-C.

P. Wolf, C. J. Bordé, A. Clairon, L. Duchayne, A. Landragin, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, W. Ertmer, E. Rasel, F. S. Cataliotti, M. Inguscio, G. M. Tino, P. Gill, H. Klein, S. Reynaud, C. Salomon, E. Peik, O. Bertolami, P. Gil, J. Páramos, C. Jentsch, U. Johann, A. Rathke, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, D. Izzo, P. Natale, B. Christophe, P. Touboul, S. G. Turyshev, J. Anderson, M. E. Tobar, F. Schmidt-Kaler, J. Vigué, A. A. Madej, L. Marmet, M.-C. Angonin, P. Delva, P. Tourrenc, G. Metris, H. Müller, R. Walsworth, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, K. Bongs, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, H. Dittus, C. Lämmerzahl, G. Galzerano, P. Laporta, J. Laskar, A. Fienga, F. Roques, and K. Sengstock,, “Quantum Physics Exploring Gravity in the Outer Solar System: The Sagas Project,” Exp. Astron. 23(2), 651–687 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Antic-Fidancev, E.

O. Guillot-Noël, Ph. Goldner, E. Antic-Fidancev, A. Louchet, J.-L. Le Gouët, F. Bretenaker, and I. Lorgeré, “Quantum storage in rare-earth doped crystals for secure networks,” J. Lumin. 122–123, 526–528 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Babbitt, W. R.

Barber, Z. W.

Benabid, F.

Berg, T.

Bergquist, J. C.

B. C. Young, F. C. Cruz, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, “Visible Lasers with Subhertz Linewidths,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(19), 3799–3802 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bertolami, O.

P. Wolf, C. J. Bordé, A. Clairon, L. Duchayne, A. Landragin, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, W. Ertmer, E. Rasel, F. S. Cataliotti, M. Inguscio, G. M. Tino, P. Gill, H. Klein, S. Reynaud, C. Salomon, E. Peik, O. Bertolami, P. Gil, J. Páramos, C. Jentsch, U. Johann, A. Rathke, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, D. Izzo, P. Natale, B. Christophe, P. Touboul, S. G. Turyshev, J. Anderson, M. E. Tobar, F. Schmidt-Kaler, J. Vigué, A. A. Madej, L. Marmet, M.-C. Angonin, P. Delva, P. Tourrenc, G. Metris, H. Müller, R. Walsworth, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, K. Bongs, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, H. Dittus, C. Lämmerzahl, G. Galzerano, P. Laporta, J. Laskar, A. Fienga, F. Roques, and K. Sengstock,, “Quantum Physics Exploring Gravity in the Outer Solar System: The Sagas Project,” Exp. Astron. 23(2), 651–687 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bize, S.

J. Millo, D. V. Magalhaes, C. Mandache, Y. Le Coq, E. M. L. English, P. G. Westergaard, J. Lodewyck, S. Bize, P. Lemonde, and G. Santarelli, “Ultrastable lasers based on vibration insensitive cavities,” Phys. Rev. A 79(5), 053829 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Blatt, S.

Boggs, B.

Bongs, K.

P. Wolf, C. J. Bordé, A. Clairon, L. Duchayne, A. Landragin, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, W. Ertmer, E. Rasel, F. S. Cataliotti, M. Inguscio, G. M. Tino, P. Gill, H. Klein, S. Reynaud, C. Salomon, E. Peik, O. Bertolami, P. Gil, J. Páramos, C. Jentsch, U. Johann, A. Rathke, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, D. Izzo, P. Natale, B. Christophe, P. Touboul, S. G. Turyshev, J. Anderson, M. E. Tobar, F. Schmidt-Kaler, J. Vigué, A. A. Madej, L. Marmet, M.-C. Angonin, P. Delva, P. Tourrenc, G. Metris, H. Müller, R. Walsworth, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, K. Bongs, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, H. Dittus, C. Lämmerzahl, G. Galzerano, P. Laporta, J. Laskar, A. Fienga, F. Roques, and K. Sengstock,, “Quantum Physics Exploring Gravity in the Outer Solar System: The Sagas Project,” Exp. Astron. 23(2), 651–687 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bordé, C. J.

P. Wolf, C. J. Bordé, A. Clairon, L. Duchayne, A. Landragin, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, W. Ertmer, E. Rasel, F. S. Cataliotti, M. Inguscio, G. M. Tino, P. Gill, H. Klein, S. Reynaud, C. Salomon, E. Peik, O. Bertolami, P. Gil, J. Páramos, C. Jentsch, U. Johann, A. Rathke, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, D. Izzo, P. Natale, B. Christophe, P. Touboul, S. G. Turyshev, J. Anderson, M. E. Tobar, F. Schmidt-Kaler, J. Vigué, A. A. Madej, L. Marmet, M.-C. Angonin, P. Delva, P. Tourrenc, G. Metris, H. Müller, R. Walsworth, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, K. Bongs, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, H. Dittus, C. Lämmerzahl, G. Galzerano, P. Laporta, J. Laskar, A. Fienga, F. Roques, and K. Sengstock,, “Quantum Physics Exploring Gravity in the Outer Solar System: The Sagas Project,” Exp. Astron. 23(2), 651–687 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bouyer, P.

P. Wolf, C. J. Bordé, A. Clairon, L. Duchayne, A. Landragin, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, W. Ertmer, E. Rasel, F. S. Cataliotti, M. Inguscio, G. M. Tino, P. Gill, H. Klein, S. Reynaud, C. Salomon, E. Peik, O. Bertolami, P. Gil, J. Páramos, C. Jentsch, U. Johann, A. Rathke, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, D. Izzo, P. Natale, B. Christophe, P. Touboul, S. G. Turyshev, J. Anderson, M. E. Tobar, F. Schmidt-Kaler, J. Vigué, A. A. Madej, L. Marmet, M.-C. Angonin, P. Delva, P. Tourrenc, G. Metris, H. Müller, R. Walsworth, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, K. Bongs, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, H. Dittus, C. Lämmerzahl, G. Galzerano, P. Laporta, J. Laskar, A. Fienga, F. Roques, and K. Sengstock,, “Quantum Physics Exploring Gravity in the Outer Solar System: The Sagas Project,” Exp. Astron. 23(2), 651–687 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, M. M.

Bretenaker, F.

G. Gorju, A. Jucha, A. Jain, V. Crozatier, I. Lorgeré, J.-L. Le Gouët, F. Bretenaker, and M. Colice, “Active stabilization of a rapidly chirped laser by an optoelectronic digital servo-loop control,” Opt. Lett. 32(5), 484–486 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Guillot-Noël, Ph. Goldner, E. Antic-Fidancev, A. Louchet, J.-L. Le Gouët, F. Bretenaker, and I. Lorgeré, “Quantum storage in rare-earth doped crystals for secure networks,” J. Lumin. 122–123, 526–528 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Crozatier, G. Gorju, F. Bretenaker, J.-L. Le Gouet, I. Lorgere, C. Gagnol, and E. Ducloux, “Phase locking of a frequency agile laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(26), 261115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cacciapuoti, L.

P. Wolf, C. J. Bordé, A. Clairon, L. Duchayne, A. Landragin, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, W. Ertmer, E. Rasel, F. S. Cataliotti, M. Inguscio, G. M. Tino, P. Gill, H. Klein, S. Reynaud, C. Salomon, E. Peik, O. Bertolami, P. Gil, J. Páramos, C. Jentsch, U. Johann, A. Rathke, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, D. Izzo, P. Natale, B. Christophe, P. Touboul, S. G. Turyshev, J. Anderson, M. E. Tobar, F. Schmidt-Kaler, J. Vigué, A. A. Madej, L. Marmet, M.-C. Angonin, P. Delva, P. Tourrenc, G. Metris, H. Müller, R. Walsworth, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, K. Bongs, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, H. Dittus, C. Lämmerzahl, G. Galzerano, P. Laporta, J. Laskar, A. Fienga, F. Roques, and K. Sengstock,, “Quantum Physics Exploring Gravity in the Outer Solar System: The Sagas Project,” Exp. Astron. 23(2), 651–687 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cataliotti, F. S.

P. Wolf, C. J. Bordé, A. Clairon, L. Duchayne, A. Landragin, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, W. Ertmer, E. Rasel, F. S. Cataliotti, M. Inguscio, G. M. Tino, P. Gill, H. Klein, S. Reynaud, C. Salomon, E. Peik, O. Bertolami, P. Gil, J. Páramos, C. Jentsch, U. Johann, A. Rathke, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, D. Izzo, P. Natale, B. Christophe, P. Touboul, S. G. Turyshev, J. Anderson, M. E. Tobar, F. Schmidt-Kaler, J. Vigué, A. A. Madej, L. Marmet, M.-C. Angonin, P. Delva, P. Tourrenc, G. Metris, H. Müller, R. Walsworth, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, K. Bongs, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, H. Dittus, C. Lämmerzahl, G. Galzerano, P. Laporta, J. Laskar, A. Fienga, F. Roques, and K. Sengstock,, “Quantum Physics Exploring Gravity in the Outer Solar System: The Sagas Project,” Exp. Astron. 23(2), 651–687 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chardonnet, Ch.

Chen, Y. T.

Christophe, B.

P. Wolf, C. J. Bordé, A. Clairon, L. Duchayne, A. Landragin, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, W. Ertmer, E. Rasel, F. S. Cataliotti, M. Inguscio, G. M. Tino, P. Gill, H. Klein, S. Reynaud, C. Salomon, E. Peik, O. Bertolami, P. Gil, J. Páramos, C. Jentsch, U. Johann, A. Rathke, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, D. Izzo, P. Natale, B. Christophe, P. Touboul, S. G. Turyshev, J. Anderson, M. E. Tobar, F. Schmidt-Kaler, J. Vigué, A. A. Madej, L. Marmet, M.-C. Angonin, P. Delva, P. Tourrenc, G. Metris, H. Müller, R. Walsworth, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, K. Bongs, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, H. Dittus, C. Lämmerzahl, G. Galzerano, P. Laporta, J. Laskar, A. Fienga, F. Roques, and K. Sengstock,, “Quantum Physics Exploring Gravity in the Outer Solar System: The Sagas Project,” Exp. Astron. 23(2), 651–687 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Clairon, A.

P. Wolf, C. J. Bordé, A. Clairon, L. Duchayne, A. Landragin, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, W. Ertmer, E. Rasel, F. S. Cataliotti, M. Inguscio, G. M. Tino, P. Gill, H. Klein, S. Reynaud, C. Salomon, E. Peik, O. Bertolami, P. Gil, J. Páramos, C. Jentsch, U. Johann, A. Rathke, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, D. Izzo, P. Natale, B. Christophe, P. Touboul, S. G. Turyshev, J. Anderson, M. E. Tobar, F. Schmidt-Kaler, J. Vigué, A. A. Madej, L. Marmet, M.-C. Angonin, P. Delva, P. Tourrenc, G. Metris, H. Müller, R. Walsworth, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, K. Bongs, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, H. Dittus, C. Lämmerzahl, G. Galzerano, P. Laporta, J. Laskar, A. Fienga, F. Roques, and K. Sengstock,, “Quantum Physics Exploring Gravity in the Outer Solar System: The Sagas Project,” Exp. Astron. 23(2), 651–687 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cliché, J.-F.

J.-F. Cliché, M. Allard, and M. Têtu, “High-power and ultranarrow DFB laser: the effect of linewidth reduction systems on coherence length and interferometer noise,” Proc. SPIE 6216, 6216001 (2006).

Colice, M.

Corwin, K. L.

Couny, F.

Cranch, G. A.

Crane, S.

Crozatier, V.

G. Gorju, A. Jucha, A. Jain, V. Crozatier, I. Lorgeré, J.-L. Le Gouët, F. Bretenaker, and M. Colice, “Active stabilization of a rapidly chirped laser by an optoelectronic digital servo-loop control,” Opt. Lett. 32(5), 484–486 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Crozatier, G. Gorju, F. Bretenaker, J.-L. Le Gouet, I. Lorgere, C. Gagnol, and E. Ducloux, “Phase locking of a frequency agile laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(26), 261115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cruz, F. C.

B. C. Young, F. C. Cruz, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, “Visible Lasers with Subhertz Linewidths,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(19), 3799–3802 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dawkins, S. T.

S. T. Dawkins, J. J. McFerran, and A. N. Luiten, “Considerations on the measurement of the stability of oscillators with frequency counters,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason, Ferroelec. and Freq. Control 54(5), 918–925 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Delva, P.

P. Wolf, C. J. Bordé, A. Clairon, L. Duchayne, A. Landragin, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, W. Ertmer, E. Rasel, F. S. Cataliotti, M. Inguscio, G. M. Tino, P. Gill, H. Klein, S. Reynaud, C. Salomon, E. Peik, O. Bertolami, P. Gil, J. Páramos, C. Jentsch, U. Johann, A. Rathke, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, D. Izzo, P. Natale, B. Christophe, P. Touboul, S. G. Turyshev, J. Anderson, M. E. Tobar, F. Schmidt-Kaler, J. Vigué, A. A. Madej, L. Marmet, M.-C. Angonin, P. Delva, P. Tourrenc, G. Metris, H. Müller, R. Walsworth, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, K. Bongs, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, H. Dittus, C. Lämmerzahl, G. Galzerano, P. Laporta, J. Laskar, A. Fienga, F. Roques, and K. Sengstock,, “Quantum Physics Exploring Gravity in the Outer Solar System: The Sagas Project,” Exp. Astron. 23(2), 651–687 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dittus, H.

P. Wolf, C. J. Bordé, A. Clairon, L. Duchayne, A. Landragin, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, W. Ertmer, E. Rasel, F. S. Cataliotti, M. Inguscio, G. M. Tino, P. Gill, H. Klein, S. Reynaud, C. Salomon, E. Peik, O. Bertolami, P. Gil, J. Páramos, C. Jentsch, U. Johann, A. Rathke, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, D. Izzo, P. Natale, B. Christophe, P. Touboul, S. G. Turyshev, J. Anderson, M. E. Tobar, F. Schmidt-Kaler, J. Vigué, A. A. Madej, L. Marmet, M.-C. Angonin, P. Delva, P. Tourrenc, G. Metris, H. Müller, R. Walsworth, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, K. Bongs, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, H. Dittus, C. Lämmerzahl, G. Galzerano, P. Laporta, J. Laskar, A. Fienga, F. Roques, and K. Sengstock,, “Quantum Physics Exploring Gravity in the Outer Solar System: The Sagas Project,” Exp. Astron. 23(2), 651–687 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dolfi, D.

Drever, R. W. P.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31(2), 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Duchayne, L.

P. Wolf, C. J. Bordé, A. Clairon, L. Duchayne, A. Landragin, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, W. Ertmer, E. Rasel, F. S. Cataliotti, M. Inguscio, G. M. Tino, P. Gill, H. Klein, S. Reynaud, C. Salomon, E. Peik, O. Bertolami, P. Gil, J. Páramos, C. Jentsch, U. Johann, A. Rathke, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, D. Izzo, P. Natale, B. Christophe, P. Touboul, S. G. Turyshev, J. Anderson, M. E. Tobar, F. Schmidt-Kaler, J. Vigué, A. A. Madej, L. Marmet, M.-C. Angonin, P. Delva, P. Tourrenc, G. Metris, H. Müller, R. Walsworth, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, K. Bongs, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, H. Dittus, C. Lämmerzahl, G. Galzerano, P. Laporta, J. Laskar, A. Fienga, F. Roques, and K. Sengstock,, “Quantum Physics Exploring Gravity in the Outer Solar System: The Sagas Project,” Exp. Astron. 23(2), 651–687 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ducloux, E.

V. Crozatier, G. Gorju, F. Bretenaker, J.-L. Le Gouet, I. Lorgere, C. Gagnol, and E. Ducloux, “Phase locking of a frequency agile laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(26), 261115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

English, E. M. L.

J. Millo, D. V. Magalhaes, C. Mandache, Y. Le Coq, E. M. L. English, P. G. Westergaard, J. Lodewyck, S. Bize, P. Lemonde, and G. Santarelli, “Ultrastable lasers based on vibration insensitive cavities,” Phys. Rev. A 79(5), 053829 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ertmer, W.

P. Wolf, C. J. Bordé, A. Clairon, L. Duchayne, A. Landragin, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, W. Ertmer, E. Rasel, F. S. Cataliotti, M. Inguscio, G. M. Tino, P. Gill, H. Klein, S. Reynaud, C. Salomon, E. Peik, O. Bertolami, P. Gil, J. Páramos, C. Jentsch, U. Johann, A. Rathke, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, D. Izzo, P. Natale, B. Christophe, P. Touboul, S. G. Turyshev, J. Anderson, M. E. Tobar, F. Schmidt-Kaler, J. Vigué, A. A. Madej, L. Marmet, M.-C. Angonin, P. Delva, P. Tourrenc, G. Metris, H. Müller, R. Walsworth, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, K. Bongs, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, H. Dittus, C. Lämmerzahl, G. Galzerano, P. Laporta, J. Laskar, A. Fienga, F. Roques, and K. Sengstock,, “Quantum Physics Exploring Gravity in the Outer Solar System: The Sagas Project,” Exp. Astron. 23(2), 651–687 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fienga, A.

P. Wolf, C. J. Bordé, A. Clairon, L. Duchayne, A. Landragin, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, W. Ertmer, E. Rasel, F. S. Cataliotti, M. Inguscio, G. M. Tino, P. Gill, H. Klein, S. Reynaud, C. Salomon, E. Peik, O. Bertolami, P. Gil, J. Páramos, C. Jentsch, U. Johann, A. Rathke, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, D. Izzo, P. Natale, B. Christophe, P. Touboul, S. G. Turyshev, J. Anderson, M. E. Tobar, F. Schmidt-Kaler, J. Vigué, A. A. Madej, L. Marmet, M.-C. Angonin, P. Delva, P. Tourrenc, G. Metris, H. Müller, R. Walsworth, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, K. Bongs, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, H. Dittus, C. Lämmerzahl, G. Galzerano, P. Laporta, J. Laskar, A. Fienga, F. Roques, and K. Sengstock,, “Quantum Physics Exploring Gravity in the Outer Solar System: The Sagas Project,” Exp. Astron. 23(2), 651–687 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ford, G. M.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31(2), 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Foreman, S. M.

Gagnol, C.

V. Crozatier, G. Gorju, F. Bretenaker, J.-L. Le Gouet, I. Lorgere, C. Gagnol, and E. Ducloux, “Phase locking of a frequency agile laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(26), 261115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Galzerano, G.

P. Wolf, C. J. Bordé, A. Clairon, L. Duchayne, A. Landragin, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, W. Ertmer, E. Rasel, F. S. Cataliotti, M. Inguscio, G. M. Tino, P. Gill, H. Klein, S. Reynaud, C. Salomon, E. Peik, O. Bertolami, P. Gil, J. Páramos, C. Jentsch, U. Johann, A. Rathke, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, D. Izzo, P. Natale, B. Christophe, P. Touboul, S. G. Turyshev, J. Anderson, M. E. Tobar, F. Schmidt-Kaler, J. Vigué, A. A. Madej, L. Marmet, M.-C. Angonin, P. Delva, P. Tourrenc, G. Metris, H. Müller, R. Walsworth, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, K. Bongs, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, H. Dittus, C. Lämmerzahl, G. Galzerano, P. Laporta, J. Laskar, A. Fienga, F. Roques, and K. Sengstock,, “Quantum Physics Exploring Gravity in the Outer Solar System: The Sagas Project,” Exp. Astron. 23(2), 651–687 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Geng, J.

J. Geng, Ch. Spiegelberg, and S. Jiang, “Narrow Linewidth Fiber Laser for 100-km Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(9), 1827–1829 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gil, P.

P. Wolf, C. J. Bordé, A. Clairon, L. Duchayne, A. Landragin, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, W. Ertmer, E. Rasel, F. S. Cataliotti, M. Inguscio, G. M. Tino, P. Gill, H. Klein, S. Reynaud, C. Salomon, E. Peik, O. Bertolami, P. Gil, J. Páramos, C. Jentsch, U. Johann, A. Rathke, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, D. Izzo, P. Natale, B. Christophe, P. Touboul, S. G. Turyshev, J. Anderson, M. E. Tobar, F. Schmidt-Kaler, J. Vigué, A. A. Madej, L. Marmet, M.-C. Angonin, P. Delva, P. Tourrenc, G. Metris, H. Müller, R. Walsworth, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, K. Bongs, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, H. Dittus, C. Lämmerzahl, G. Galzerano, P. Laporta, J. Laskar, A. Fienga, F. Roques, and K. Sengstock,, “Quantum Physics Exploring Gravity in the Outer Solar System: The Sagas Project,” Exp. Astron. 23(2), 651–687 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gill, P.

P. Wolf, C. J. Bordé, A. Clairon, L. Duchayne, A. Landragin, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, W. Ertmer, E. Rasel, F. S. Cataliotti, M. Inguscio, G. M. Tino, P. Gill, H. Klein, S. Reynaud, C. Salomon, E. Peik, O. Bertolami, P. Gil, J. Páramos, C. Jentsch, U. Johann, A. Rathke, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, D. Izzo, P. Natale, B. Christophe, P. Touboul, S. G. Turyshev, J. Anderson, M. E. Tobar, F. Schmidt-Kaler, J. Vigué, A. A. Madej, L. Marmet, M.-C. Angonin, P. Delva, P. Tourrenc, G. Metris, H. Müller, R. Walsworth, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, K. Bongs, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, H. Dittus, C. Lämmerzahl, G. Galzerano, P. Laporta, J. Laskar, A. Fienga, F. Roques, and K. Sengstock,, “Quantum Physics Exploring Gravity in the Outer Solar System: The Sagas Project,” Exp. Astron. 23(2), 651–687 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gold, M.

A. Hartog and M. Gold, “On the theory of backscattering in single-mode optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 2(2), 76–82 (1984).
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Goldner, Ph.

O. Guillot-Noël, Ph. Goldner, E. Antic-Fidancev, A. Louchet, J.-L. Le Gouët, F. Bretenaker, and I. Lorgeré, “Quantum storage in rare-earth doped crystals for secure networks,” J. Lumin. 122–123, 526–528 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gorju, G.

G. Gorju, A. Jucha, A. Jain, V. Crozatier, I. Lorgeré, J.-L. Le Gouët, F. Bretenaker, and M. Colice, “Active stabilization of a rapidly chirped laser by an optoelectronic digital servo-loop control,” Opt. Lett. 32(5), 484–486 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Crozatier, G. Gorju, F. Bretenaker, J.-L. Le Gouet, I. Lorgere, C. Gagnol, and E. Ducloux, “Phase locking of a frequency agile laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(26), 261115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gray, M. B.

Greiner, C.

Grosche, G.

Guillot-Noël, O.

O. Guillot-Noël, Ph. Goldner, E. Antic-Fidancev, A. Louchet, J.-L. Le Gouët, F. Bretenaker, and I. Lorgeré, “Quantum storage in rare-earth doped crystals for secure networks,” J. Lumin. 122–123, 526–528 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gysel, P.

P. Gysel and R. K. Staubli, “Statistical properties of Rayleigh backscattering in single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8(4), 561–567 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31(2), 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Harris, M.

M. Harris, G. N. Pearson, J. M. Vaughan, D. Letalick, and C. Karlsson, “The role of laser coherence length in continuous-wave coherent laser radar,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1567–1581 (1998).
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Hartog, A.

A. Hartog and M. Gold, “On the theory of backscattering in single-mode optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 2(2), 76–82 (1984).
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Holleville, D.

Holzwarth, R.

Hough, J.

J. Hough and S. Rowan, “Laser interferometry for the detection of gravitational waves,” J. Opt. A 7, 257 (2005).

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31(2), 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Huang, X.

Inguscio, M.

P. Wolf, C. J. Bordé, A. Clairon, L. Duchayne, A. Landragin, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, W. Ertmer, E. Rasel, F. S. Cataliotti, M. Inguscio, G. M. Tino, P. Gill, H. Klein, S. Reynaud, C. Salomon, E. Peik, O. Bertolami, P. Gil, J. Páramos, C. Jentsch, U. Johann, A. Rathke, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, D. Izzo, P. Natale, B. Christophe, P. Touboul, S. G. Turyshev, J. Anderson, M. E. Tobar, F. Schmidt-Kaler, J. Vigué, A. A. Madej, L. Marmet, M.-C. Angonin, P. Delva, P. Tourrenc, G. Metris, H. Müller, R. Walsworth, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, K. Bongs, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, H. Dittus, C. Lämmerzahl, G. Galzerano, P. Laporta, J. Laskar, A. Fienga, F. Roques, and K. Sengstock,, “Quantum Physics Exploring Gravity in the Outer Solar System: The Sagas Project,” Exp. Astron. 23(2), 651–687 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Itano, W. M.

B. C. Young, F. C. Cruz, W. M. Itano, and J. C. Bergquist, “Visible Lasers with Subhertz Linewidths,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(19), 3799–3802 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Izzo, D.

P. Wolf, C. J. Bordé, A. Clairon, L. Duchayne, A. Landragin, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, W. Ertmer, E. Rasel, F. S. Cataliotti, M. Inguscio, G. M. Tino, P. Gill, H. Klein, S. Reynaud, C. Salomon, E. Peik, O. Bertolami, P. Gil, J. Páramos, C. Jentsch, U. Johann, A. Rathke, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, D. Izzo, P. Natale, B. Christophe, P. Touboul, S. G. Turyshev, J. Anderson, M. E. Tobar, F. Schmidt-Kaler, J. Vigué, A. A. Madej, L. Marmet, M.-C. Angonin, P. Delva, P. Tourrenc, G. Metris, H. Müller, R. Walsworth, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, K. Bongs, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, H. Dittus, C. Lämmerzahl, G. Galzerano, P. Laporta, J. Laskar, A. Fienga, F. Roques, and K. Sengstock,, “Quantum Physics Exploring Gravity in the Outer Solar System: The Sagas Project,” Exp. Astron. 23(2), 651–687 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jain, A.

Jentsch, C.

P. Wolf, C. J. Bordé, A. Clairon, L. Duchayne, A. Landragin, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, W. Ertmer, E. Rasel, F. S. Cataliotti, M. Inguscio, G. M. Tino, P. Gill, H. Klein, S. Reynaud, C. Salomon, E. Peik, O. Bertolami, P. Gil, J. Páramos, C. Jentsch, U. Johann, A. Rathke, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, D. Izzo, P. Natale, B. Christophe, P. Touboul, S. G. Turyshev, J. Anderson, M. E. Tobar, F. Schmidt-Kaler, J. Vigué, A. A. Madej, L. Marmet, M.-C. Angonin, P. Delva, P. Tourrenc, G. Metris, H. Müller, R. Walsworth, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, K. Bongs, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, H. Dittus, C. Lämmerzahl, G. Galzerano, P. Laporta, J. Laskar, A. Fienga, F. Roques, and K. Sengstock,, “Quantum Physics Exploring Gravity in the Outer Solar System: The Sagas Project,” Exp. Astron. 23(2), 651–687 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H.

Jiang, S.

J. Geng, Ch. Spiegelberg, and S. Jiang, “Narrow Linewidth Fiber Laser for 100-km Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(9), 1827–1829 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Johann, U.

P. Wolf, C. J. Bordé, A. Clairon, L. Duchayne, A. Landragin, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, W. Ertmer, E. Rasel, F. S. Cataliotti, M. Inguscio, G. M. Tino, P. Gill, H. Klein, S. Reynaud, C. Salomon, E. Peik, O. Bertolami, P. Gil, J. Páramos, C. Jentsch, U. Johann, A. Rathke, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, D. Izzo, P. Natale, B. Christophe, P. Touboul, S. G. Turyshev, J. Anderson, M. E. Tobar, F. Schmidt-Kaler, J. Vigué, A. A. Madej, L. Marmet, M.-C. Angonin, P. Delva, P. Tourrenc, G. Metris, H. Müller, R. Walsworth, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, K. Bongs, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, H. Dittus, C. Lämmerzahl, G. Galzerano, P. Laporta, J. Laskar, A. Fienga, F. Roques, and K. Sengstock,, “Quantum Physics Exploring Gravity in the Outer Solar System: The Sagas Project,” Exp. Astron. 23(2), 651–687 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jones, A. M.

Jucha, A.

Karlsson, C.

M. Harris, G. N. Pearson, J. M. Vaughan, D. Letalick, and C. Karlsson, “The role of laser coherence length in continuous-wave coherent laser radar,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1567–1581 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kaylor, B.

Kéfélian, F.

Klein, H.

P. Wolf, C. J. Bordé, A. Clairon, L. Duchayne, A. Landragin, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, W. Ertmer, E. Rasel, F. S. Cataliotti, M. Inguscio, G. M. Tino, P. Gill, H. Klein, S. Reynaud, C. Salomon, E. Peik, O. Bertolami, P. Gil, J. Páramos, C. Jentsch, U. Johann, A. Rathke, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, D. Izzo, P. Natale, B. Christophe, P. Touboul, S. G. Turyshev, J. Anderson, M. E. Tobar, F. Schmidt-Kaler, J. Vigué, A. A. Madej, L. Marmet, M.-C. Angonin, P. Delva, P. Tourrenc, G. Metris, H. Müller, R. Walsworth, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, K. Bongs, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, H. Dittus, C. Lämmerzahl, G. Galzerano, P. Laporta, J. Laskar, A. Fienga, F. Roques, and K. Sengstock,, “Quantum Physics Exploring Gravity in the Outer Solar System: The Sagas Project,” Exp. Astron. 23(2), 651–687 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Knabe, K.

Kowalski, F. V.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31(2), 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Lämmerzahl, C.

P. Wolf, C. J. Bordé, A. Clairon, L. Duchayne, A. Landragin, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, W. Ertmer, E. Rasel, F. S. Cataliotti, M. Inguscio, G. M. Tino, P. Gill, H. Klein, S. Reynaud, C. Salomon, E. Peik, O. Bertolami, P. Gil, J. Páramos, C. Jentsch, U. Johann, A. Rathke, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, D. Izzo, P. Natale, B. Christophe, P. Touboul, S. G. Turyshev, J. Anderson, M. E. Tobar, F. Schmidt-Kaler, J. Vigué, A. A. Madej, L. Marmet, M.-C. Angonin, P. Delva, P. Tourrenc, G. Metris, H. Müller, R. Walsworth, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, K. Bongs, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, H. Dittus, C. Lämmerzahl, G. Galzerano, P. Laporta, J. Laskar, A. Fienga, F. Roques, and K. Sengstock,, “Quantum Physics Exploring Gravity in the Outer Solar System: The Sagas Project,” Exp. Astron. 23(2), 651–687 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Landragin, A.

P. Wolf, C. J. Bordé, A. Clairon, L. Duchayne, A. Landragin, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, W. Ertmer, E. Rasel, F. S. Cataliotti, M. Inguscio, G. M. Tino, P. Gill, H. Klein, S. Reynaud, C. Salomon, E. Peik, O. Bertolami, P. Gil, J. Páramos, C. Jentsch, U. Johann, A. Rathke, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, D. Izzo, P. Natale, B. Christophe, P. Touboul, S. G. Turyshev, J. Anderson, M. E. Tobar, F. Schmidt-Kaler, J. Vigué, A. A. Madej, L. Marmet, M.-C. Angonin, P. Delva, P. Tourrenc, G. Metris, H. Müller, R. Walsworth, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, K. Bongs, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, H. Dittus, C. Lämmerzahl, G. Galzerano, P. Laporta, J. Laskar, A. Fienga, F. Roques, and K. Sengstock,, “Quantum Physics Exploring Gravity in the Outer Solar System: The Sagas Project,” Exp. Astron. 23(2), 651–687 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Laporta, P.

P. Wolf, C. J. Bordé, A. Clairon, L. Duchayne, A. Landragin, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, W. Ertmer, E. Rasel, F. S. Cataliotti, M. Inguscio, G. M. Tino, P. Gill, H. Klein, S. Reynaud, C. Salomon, E. Peik, O. Bertolami, P. Gil, J. Páramos, C. Jentsch, U. Johann, A. Rathke, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, D. Izzo, P. Natale, B. Christophe, P. Touboul, S. G. Turyshev, J. Anderson, M. E. Tobar, F. Schmidt-Kaler, J. Vigué, A. A. Madej, L. Marmet, M.-C. Angonin, P. Delva, P. Tourrenc, G. Metris, H. Müller, R. Walsworth, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, K. Bongs, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, H. Dittus, C. Lämmerzahl, G. Galzerano, P. Laporta, J. Laskar, A. Fienga, F. Roques, and K. Sengstock,, “Quantum Physics Exploring Gravity in the Outer Solar System: The Sagas Project,” Exp. Astron. 23(2), 651–687 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Laskar, J.

P. Wolf, C. J. Bordé, A. Clairon, L. Duchayne, A. Landragin, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, W. Ertmer, E. Rasel, F. S. Cataliotti, M. Inguscio, G. M. Tino, P. Gill, H. Klein, S. Reynaud, C. Salomon, E. Peik, O. Bertolami, P. Gil, J. Páramos, C. Jentsch, U. Johann, A. Rathke, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, D. Izzo, P. Natale, B. Christophe, P. Touboul, S. G. Turyshev, J. Anderson, M. E. Tobar, F. Schmidt-Kaler, J. Vigué, A. A. Madej, L. Marmet, M.-C. Angonin, P. Delva, P. Tourrenc, G. Metris, H. Müller, R. Walsworth, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, K. Bongs, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, H. Dittus, C. Lämmerzahl, G. Galzerano, P. Laporta, J. Laskar, A. Fienga, F. Roques, and K. Sengstock,, “Quantum Physics Exploring Gravity in the Outer Solar System: The Sagas Project,” Exp. Astron. 23(2), 651–687 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lavielle, V.

Le Coq, Y.

J. Millo, D. V. Magalhaes, C. Mandache, Y. Le Coq, E. M. L. English, P. G. Westergaard, J. Lodewyck, S. Bize, P. Lemonde, and G. Santarelli, “Ultrastable lasers based on vibration insensitive cavities,” Phys. Rev. A 79(5), 053829 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Le Gouet, J.-L.

V. Crozatier, G. Gorju, F. Bretenaker, J.-L. Le Gouet, I. Lorgere, C. Gagnol, and E. Ducloux, “Phase locking of a frequency agile laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(26), 261115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Le Gouët, J.-L.

Lemonde, P.

P. Wolf, C. J. Bordé, A. Clairon, L. Duchayne, A. Landragin, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, W. Ertmer, E. Rasel, F. S. Cataliotti, M. Inguscio, G. M. Tino, P. Gill, H. Klein, S. Reynaud, C. Salomon, E. Peik, O. Bertolami, P. Gil, J. Páramos, C. Jentsch, U. Johann, A. Rathke, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, D. Izzo, P. Natale, B. Christophe, P. Touboul, S. G. Turyshev, J. Anderson, M. E. Tobar, F. Schmidt-Kaler, J. Vigué, A. A. Madej, L. Marmet, M.-C. Angonin, P. Delva, P. Tourrenc, G. Metris, H. Müller, R. Walsworth, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, K. Bongs, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, H. Dittus, C. Lämmerzahl, G. Galzerano, P. Laporta, J. Laskar, A. Fienga, F. Roques, and K. Sengstock,, “Quantum Physics Exploring Gravity in the Outer Solar System: The Sagas Project,” Exp. Astron. 23(2), 651–687 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Kéfélian, H. Jiang, P. Lemonde, and G. Santarelli, “Ultralow-frequency-noise stabilization of a laser by locking to an optical fiber-delay line,” Opt. Lett. 34(7), 914–916 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Millo, D. V. Magalhaes, C. Mandache, Y. Le Coq, E. M. L. English, P. G. Westergaard, J. Lodewyck, S. Bize, P. Lemonde, and G. Santarelli, “Ultrastable lasers based on vibration insensitive cavities,” Phys. Rev. A 79(5), 053829 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Jiang, F. Kéfélian, S. Crane, O. Lopez, M. Lours, J. Millo, D. Holleville, P. Lemonde, Ch. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Long-distance frequency transfer over an urban fiber link using optical phase stabilization,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(12), 2029–2035 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Letalick, D.

M. Harris, G. N. Pearson, J. M. Vaughan, D. Letalick, and C. Karlsson, “The role of laser coherence length in continuous-wave coherent laser radar,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1567–1581 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Light, P. S.

Lim, J.

Lipphardt, B.

Lodewyck, J.

J. Millo, D. V. Magalhaes, C. Mandache, Y. Le Coq, E. M. L. English, P. G. Westergaard, J. Lodewyck, S. Bize, P. Lemonde, and G. Santarelli, “Ultrastable lasers based on vibration insensitive cavities,” Phys. Rev. A 79(5), 053829 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lopez, O.

Lorgere, I.

V. Crozatier, G. Gorju, F. Bretenaker, J.-L. Le Gouet, I. Lorgere, C. Gagnol, and E. Ducloux, “Phase locking of a frequency agile laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(26), 261115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lorgeré, I.

Louchet, A.

O. Guillot-Noël, Ph. Goldner, E. Antic-Fidancev, A. Louchet, J.-L. Le Gouët, F. Bretenaker, and I. Lorgeré, “Quantum storage in rare-earth doped crystals for secure networks,” J. Lumin. 122–123, 526–528 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lours, M.

Lu, Z. H.

P. Wolf, C. J. Bordé, A. Clairon, L. Duchayne, A. Landragin, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, W. Ertmer, E. Rasel, F. S. Cataliotti, M. Inguscio, G. M. Tino, P. Gill, H. Klein, S. Reynaud, C. Salomon, E. Peik, O. Bertolami, P. Gil, J. Páramos, C. Jentsch, U. Johann, A. Rathke, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, D. Izzo, P. Natale, B. Christophe, P. Touboul, S. G. Turyshev, J. Anderson, M. E. Tobar, F. Schmidt-Kaler, J. Vigué, A. A. Madej, L. Marmet, M.-C. Angonin, P. Delva, P. Tourrenc, G. Metris, H. Müller, R. Walsworth, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, K. Bongs, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, H. Dittus, C. Lämmerzahl, G. Galzerano, P. Laporta, J. Laskar, A. Fienga, F. Roques, and K. Sengstock,, “Quantum Physics Exploring Gravity in the Outer Solar System: The Sagas Project,” Exp. Astron. 23(2), 651–687 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ludlow, A. D.

Luiten, A. N.

S. T. Dawkins, J. J. McFerran, and A. N. Luiten, “Considerations on the measurement of the stability of oscillators with frequency counters,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason, Ferroelec. and Freq. Control 54(5), 918–925 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Madej, A. A.

P. Wolf, C. J. Bordé, A. Clairon, L. Duchayne, A. Landragin, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, W. Ertmer, E. Rasel, F. S. Cataliotti, M. Inguscio, G. M. Tino, P. Gill, H. Klein, S. Reynaud, C. Salomon, E. Peik, O. Bertolami, P. Gil, J. Páramos, C. Jentsch, U. Johann, A. Rathke, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, D. Izzo, P. Natale, B. Christophe, P. Touboul, S. G. Turyshev, J. Anderson, M. E. Tobar, F. Schmidt-Kaler, J. Vigué, A. A. Madej, L. Marmet, M.-C. Angonin, P. Delva, P. Tourrenc, G. Metris, H. Müller, R. Walsworth, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, K. Bongs, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, H. Dittus, C. Lämmerzahl, G. Galzerano, P. Laporta, J. Laskar, A. Fienga, F. Roques, and K. Sengstock,, “Quantum Physics Exploring Gravity in the Outer Solar System: The Sagas Project,” Exp. Astron. 23(2), 651–687 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Magalhaes, D. V.

J. Millo, D. V. Magalhaes, C. Mandache, Y. Le Coq, E. M. L. English, P. G. Westergaard, J. Lodewyck, S. Bize, P. Lemonde, and G. Santarelli, “Ultrastable lasers based on vibration insensitive cavities,” Phys. Rev. A 79(5), 053829 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mandache, C.

J. Millo, D. V. Magalhaes, C. Mandache, Y. Le Coq, E. M. L. English, P. G. Westergaard, J. Lodewyck, S. Bize, P. Lemonde, and G. Santarelli, “Ultrastable lasers based on vibration insensitive cavities,” Phys. Rev. A 79(5), 053829 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Marmet, L.

P. Wolf, C. J. Bordé, A. Clairon, L. Duchayne, A. Landragin, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, W. Ertmer, E. Rasel, F. S. Cataliotti, M. Inguscio, G. M. Tino, P. Gill, H. Klein, S. Reynaud, C. Salomon, E. Peik, O. Bertolami, P. Gil, J. Páramos, C. Jentsch, U. Johann, A. Rathke, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, D. Izzo, P. Natale, B. Christophe, P. Touboul, S. G. Turyshev, J. Anderson, M. E. Tobar, F. Schmidt-Kaler, J. Vigué, A. A. Madej, L. Marmet, M.-C. Angonin, P. Delva, P. Tourrenc, G. Metris, H. Müller, R. Walsworth, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, K. Bongs, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, H. Dittus, C. Lämmerzahl, G. Galzerano, P. Laporta, J. Laskar, A. Fienga, F. Roques, and K. Sengstock,, “Quantum Physics Exploring Gravity in the Outer Solar System: The Sagas Project,” Exp. Astron. 23(2), 651–687 (2009).
[CrossRef]

McClelland, D. E.

McFerran, J. J.

S. T. Dawkins, J. J. McFerran, and A. N. Luiten, “Considerations on the measurement of the stability of oscillators with frequency counters,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason, Ferroelec. and Freq. Control 54(5), 918–925 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Metris, G.

P. Wolf, C. J. Bordé, A. Clairon, L. Duchayne, A. Landragin, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, W. Ertmer, E. Rasel, F. S. Cataliotti, M. Inguscio, G. M. Tino, P. Gill, H. Klein, S. Reynaud, C. Salomon, E. Peik, O. Bertolami, P. Gil, J. Páramos, C. Jentsch, U. Johann, A. Rathke, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, D. Izzo, P. Natale, B. Christophe, P. Touboul, S. G. Turyshev, J. Anderson, M. E. Tobar, F. Schmidt-Kaler, J. Vigué, A. A. Madej, L. Marmet, M.-C. Angonin, P. Delva, P. Tourrenc, G. Metris, H. Müller, R. Walsworth, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, K. Bongs, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, H. Dittus, C. Lämmerzahl, G. Galzerano, P. Laporta, J. Laskar, A. Fienga, F. Roques, and K. Sengstock,, “Quantum Physics Exploring Gravity in the Outer Solar System: The Sagas Project,” Exp. Astron. 23(2), 651–687 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Millo, J.

J. Millo, D. V. Magalhaes, C. Mandache, Y. Le Coq, E. M. L. English, P. G. Westergaard, J. Lodewyck, S. Bize, P. Lemonde, and G. Santarelli, “Ultrastable lasers based on vibration insensitive cavities,” Phys. Rev. A 79(5), 053829 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Jiang, F. Kéfélian, S. Crane, O. Lopez, M. Lours, J. Millo, D. Holleville, P. Lemonde, Ch. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Long-distance frequency transfer over an urban fiber link using optical phase stabilization,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(12), 2029–2035 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mossberg, T. W.

Müller, H.

P. Wolf, C. J. Bordé, A. Clairon, L. Duchayne, A. Landragin, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, W. Ertmer, E. Rasel, F. S. Cataliotti, M. Inguscio, G. M. Tino, P. Gill, H. Klein, S. Reynaud, C. Salomon, E. Peik, O. Bertolami, P. Gil, J. Páramos, C. Jentsch, U. Johann, A. Rathke, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, D. Izzo, P. Natale, B. Christophe, P. Touboul, S. G. Turyshev, J. Anderson, M. E. Tobar, F. Schmidt-Kaler, J. Vigué, A. A. Madej, L. Marmet, M.-C. Angonin, P. Delva, P. Tourrenc, G. Metris, H. Müller, R. Walsworth, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, K. Bongs, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, H. Dittus, C. Lämmerzahl, G. Galzerano, P. Laporta, J. Laskar, A. Fienga, F. Roques, and K. Sengstock,, “Quantum Physics Exploring Gravity in the Outer Solar System: The Sagas Project,” Exp. Astron. 23(2), 651–687 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Munley, A. J.

R. W. P. Drever, J. L. Hall, F. V. Kowalski, J. Hough, G. M. Ford, A. J. Munley, and H. Ward, “Laser phase and frequency stabilization using an optical resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 31(2), 97–105 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Natale, P.

P. Wolf, C. J. Bordé, A. Clairon, L. Duchayne, A. Landragin, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, W. Ertmer, E. Rasel, F. S. Cataliotti, M. Inguscio, G. M. Tino, P. Gill, H. Klein, S. Reynaud, C. Salomon, E. Peik, O. Bertolami, P. Gil, J. Páramos, C. Jentsch, U. Johann, A. Rathke, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, D. Izzo, P. Natale, B. Christophe, P. Touboul, S. G. Turyshev, J. Anderson, M. E. Tobar, F. Schmidt-Kaler, J. Vigué, A. A. Madej, L. Marmet, M.-C. Angonin, P. Delva, P. Tourrenc, G. Metris, H. Müller, R. Walsworth, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, K. Bongs, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, H. Dittus, C. Lämmerzahl, G. Galzerano, P. Laporta, J. Laskar, A. Fienga, F. Roques, and K. Sengstock,, “Quantum Physics Exploring Gravity in the Outer Solar System: The Sagas Project,” Exp. Astron. 23(2), 651–687 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nicholson, J. W.

Notcutt, M.

Páramos, J.

P. Wolf, C. J. Bordé, A. Clairon, L. Duchayne, A. Landragin, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, W. Ertmer, E. Rasel, F. S. Cataliotti, M. Inguscio, G. M. Tino, P. Gill, H. Klein, S. Reynaud, C. Salomon, E. Peik, O. Bertolami, P. Gil, J. Páramos, C. Jentsch, U. Johann, A. Rathke, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, D. Izzo, P. Natale, B. Christophe, P. Touboul, S. G. Turyshev, J. Anderson, M. E. Tobar, F. Schmidt-Kaler, J. Vigué, A. A. Madej, L. Marmet, M.-C. Angonin, P. Delva, P. Tourrenc, G. Metris, H. Müller, R. Walsworth, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, K. Bongs, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, H. Dittus, C. Lämmerzahl, G. Galzerano, P. Laporta, J. Laskar, A. Fienga, F. Roques, and K. Sengstock,, “Quantum Physics Exploring Gravity in the Outer Solar System: The Sagas Project,” Exp. Astron. 23(2), 651–687 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pearson, G. N.

M. Harris, G. N. Pearson, J. M. Vaughan, D. Letalick, and C. Karlsson, “The role of laser coherence length in continuous-wave coherent laser radar,” J. Mod. Opt. 45, 1567–1581 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Peik, E.

P. Wolf, C. J. Bordé, A. Clairon, L. Duchayne, A. Landragin, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, W. Ertmer, E. Rasel, F. S. Cataliotti, M. Inguscio, G. M. Tino, P. Gill, H. Klein, S. Reynaud, C. Salomon, E. Peik, O. Bertolami, P. Gil, J. Páramos, C. Jentsch, U. Johann, A. Rathke, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, D. Izzo, P. Natale, B. Christophe, P. Touboul, S. G. Turyshev, J. Anderson, M. E. Tobar, F. Schmidt-Kaler, J. Vigué, A. A. Madej, L. Marmet, M.-C. Angonin, P. Delva, P. Tourrenc, G. Metris, H. Müller, R. Walsworth, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, K. Bongs, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, H. Dittus, C. Lämmerzahl, G. Galzerano, P. Laporta, J. Laskar, A. Fienga, F. Roques, and K. Sengstock,, “Quantum Physics Exploring Gravity in the Outer Solar System: The Sagas Project,” Exp. Astron. 23(2), 651–687 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Predehl, K.

Rasel, E.

P. Wolf, C. J. Bordé, A. Clairon, L. Duchayne, A. Landragin, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, W. Ertmer, E. Rasel, F. S. Cataliotti, M. Inguscio, G. M. Tino, P. Gill, H. Klein, S. Reynaud, C. Salomon, E. Peik, O. Bertolami, P. Gil, J. Páramos, C. Jentsch, U. Johann, A. Rathke, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, D. Izzo, P. Natale, B. Christophe, P. Touboul, S. G. Turyshev, J. Anderson, M. E. Tobar, F. Schmidt-Kaler, J. Vigué, A. A. Madej, L. Marmet, M.-C. Angonin, P. Delva, P. Tourrenc, G. Metris, H. Müller, R. Walsworth, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, K. Bongs, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, H. Dittus, C. Lämmerzahl, G. Galzerano, P. Laporta, J. Laskar, A. Fienga, F. Roques, and K. Sengstock,, “Quantum Physics Exploring Gravity in the Outer Solar System: The Sagas Project,” Exp. Astron. 23(2), 651–687 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rathke, A.

P. Wolf, C. J. Bordé, A. Clairon, L. Duchayne, A. Landragin, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, W. Ertmer, E. Rasel, F. S. Cataliotti, M. Inguscio, G. M. Tino, P. Gill, H. Klein, S. Reynaud, C. Salomon, E. Peik, O. Bertolami, P. Gil, J. Páramos, C. Jentsch, U. Johann, A. Rathke, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, D. Izzo, P. Natale, B. Christophe, P. Touboul, S. G. Turyshev, J. Anderson, M. E. Tobar, F. Schmidt-Kaler, J. Vigué, A. A. Madej, L. Marmet, M.-C. Angonin, P. Delva, P. Tourrenc, G. Metris, H. Müller, R. Walsworth, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, K. Bongs, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, H. Dittus, C. Lämmerzahl, G. Galzerano, P. Laporta, J. Laskar, A. Fienga, F. Roques, and K. Sengstock,, “Quantum Physics Exploring Gravity in the Outer Solar System: The Sagas Project,” Exp. Astron. 23(2), 651–687 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Reibel, R. R.

Reynaud, S.

P. Wolf, C. J. Bordé, A. Clairon, L. Duchayne, A. Landragin, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, W. Ertmer, E. Rasel, F. S. Cataliotti, M. Inguscio, G. M. Tino, P. Gill, H. Klein, S. Reynaud, C. Salomon, E. Peik, O. Bertolami, P. Gil, J. Páramos, C. Jentsch, U. Johann, A. Rathke, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, D. Izzo, P. Natale, B. Christophe, P. Touboul, S. G. Turyshev, J. Anderson, M. E. Tobar, F. Schmidt-Kaler, J. Vigué, A. A. Madej, L. Marmet, M.-C. Angonin, P. Delva, P. Tourrenc, G. Metris, H. Müller, R. Walsworth, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, K. Bongs, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, H. Dittus, C. Lämmerzahl, G. Galzerano, P. Laporta, J. Laskar, A. Fienga, F. Roques, and K. Sengstock,, “Quantum Physics Exploring Gravity in the Outer Solar System: The Sagas Project,” Exp. Astron. 23(2), 651–687 (2009).
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P. Wolf, C. J. Bordé, A. Clairon, L. Duchayne, A. Landragin, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, W. Ertmer, E. Rasel, F. S. Cataliotti, M. Inguscio, G. M. Tino, P. Gill, H. Klein, S. Reynaud, C. Salomon, E. Peik, O. Bertolami, P. Gil, J. Páramos, C. Jentsch, U. Johann, A. Rathke, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, D. Izzo, P. Natale, B. Christophe, P. Touboul, S. G. Turyshev, J. Anderson, M. E. Tobar, F. Schmidt-Kaler, J. Vigué, A. A. Madej, L. Marmet, M.-C. Angonin, P. Delva, P. Tourrenc, G. Metris, H. Müller, R. Walsworth, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, K. Bongs, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, H. Dittus, C. Lämmerzahl, G. Galzerano, P. Laporta, J. Laskar, A. Fienga, F. Roques, and K. Sengstock,, “Quantum Physics Exploring Gravity in the Outer Solar System: The Sagas Project,” Exp. Astron. 23(2), 651–687 (2009).
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P. Wolf, C. J. Bordé, A. Clairon, L. Duchayne, A. Landragin, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, W. Ertmer, E. Rasel, F. S. Cataliotti, M. Inguscio, G. M. Tino, P. Gill, H. Klein, S. Reynaud, C. Salomon, E. Peik, O. Bertolami, P. Gil, J. Páramos, C. Jentsch, U. Johann, A. Rathke, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, D. Izzo, P. Natale, B. Christophe, P. Touboul, S. G. Turyshev, J. Anderson, M. E. Tobar, F. Schmidt-Kaler, J. Vigué, A. A. Madej, L. Marmet, M.-C. Angonin, P. Delva, P. Tourrenc, G. Metris, H. Müller, R. Walsworth, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, K. Bongs, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, H. Dittus, C. Lämmerzahl, G. Galzerano, P. Laporta, J. Laskar, A. Fienga, F. Roques, and K. Sengstock,, “Quantum Physics Exploring Gravity in the Outer Solar System: The Sagas Project,” Exp. Astron. 23(2), 651–687 (2009).
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P. Wolf, C. J. Bordé, A. Clairon, L. Duchayne, A. Landragin, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, W. Ertmer, E. Rasel, F. S. Cataliotti, M. Inguscio, G. M. Tino, P. Gill, H. Klein, S. Reynaud, C. Salomon, E. Peik, O. Bertolami, P. Gil, J. Páramos, C. Jentsch, U. Johann, A. Rathke, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, D. Izzo, P. Natale, B. Christophe, P. Touboul, S. G. Turyshev, J. Anderson, M. E. Tobar, F. Schmidt-Kaler, J. Vigué, A. A. Madej, L. Marmet, M.-C. Angonin, P. Delva, P. Tourrenc, G. Metris, H. Müller, R. Walsworth, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, K. Bongs, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, H. Dittus, C. Lämmerzahl, G. Galzerano, P. Laporta, J. Laskar, A. Fienga, F. Roques, and K. Sengstock,, “Quantum Physics Exploring Gravity in the Outer Solar System: The Sagas Project,” Exp. Astron. 23(2), 651–687 (2009).
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F. Kéfélian, H. Jiang, P. Lemonde, and G. Santarelli, “Ultralow-frequency-noise stabilization of a laser by locking to an optical fiber-delay line,” Opt. Lett. 34(7), 914–916 (2009).
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J. Millo, D. V. Magalhaes, C. Mandache, Y. Le Coq, E. M. L. English, P. G. Westergaard, J. Lodewyck, S. Bize, P. Lemonde, and G. Santarelli, “Ultrastable lasers based on vibration insensitive cavities,” Phys. Rev. A 79(5), 053829 (2009).
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F. Kéfélian, O. Lopez, H. Jiang, Ch. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “High-resolution optical frequency dissemination on a telecommunications network with data traffic,” Opt. Lett. 34(10), 1573–1575 (2009).
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H. Jiang, F. Kéfélian, S. Crane, O. Lopez, M. Lours, J. Millo, D. Holleville, P. Lemonde, Ch. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Long-distance frequency transfer over an urban fiber link using optical phase stabilization,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(12), 2029–2035 (2008).
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Schmidt-Kaler, F.

P. Wolf, C. J. Bordé, A. Clairon, L. Duchayne, A. Landragin, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, W. Ertmer, E. Rasel, F. S. Cataliotti, M. Inguscio, G. M. Tino, P. Gill, H. Klein, S. Reynaud, C. Salomon, E. Peik, O. Bertolami, P. Gil, J. Páramos, C. Jentsch, U. Johann, A. Rathke, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, D. Izzo, P. Natale, B. Christophe, P. Touboul, S. G. Turyshev, J. Anderson, M. E. Tobar, F. Schmidt-Kaler, J. Vigué, A. A. Madej, L. Marmet, M.-C. Angonin, P. Delva, P. Tourrenc, G. Metris, H. Müller, R. Walsworth, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, K. Bongs, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, H. Dittus, C. Lämmerzahl, G. Galzerano, P. Laporta, J. Laskar, A. Fienga, F. Roques, and K. Sengstock,, “Quantum Physics Exploring Gravity in the Outer Solar System: The Sagas Project,” Exp. Astron. 23(2), 651–687 (2009).
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Schnatz, H.

Sellmeier, W.

W. Sellmeier, “Zur Erklärung der abnormen Farbenfolge im Spectrum einiger Substanzen,” Annalen der Physik und Chemie 219(6), 272–282 (1871).
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Sengstock, K.

P. Wolf, C. J. Bordé, A. Clairon, L. Duchayne, A. Landragin, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, W. Ertmer, E. Rasel, F. S. Cataliotti, M. Inguscio, G. M. Tino, P. Gill, H. Klein, S. Reynaud, C. Salomon, E. Peik, O. Bertolami, P. Gil, J. Páramos, C. Jentsch, U. Johann, A. Rathke, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, D. Izzo, P. Natale, B. Christophe, P. Touboul, S. G. Turyshev, J. Anderson, M. E. Tobar, F. Schmidt-Kaler, J. Vigué, A. A. Madej, L. Marmet, M.-C. Angonin, P. Delva, P. Tourrenc, G. Metris, H. Müller, R. Walsworth, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, K. Bongs, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, H. Dittus, C. Lämmerzahl, G. Galzerano, P. Laporta, J. Laskar, A. Fienga, F. Roques, and K. Sengstock,, “Quantum Physics Exploring Gravity in the Outer Solar System: The Sagas Project,” Exp. Astron. 23(2), 651–687 (2009).
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Terra, O.

Têtu, M.

J.-F. Cliché, M. Allard, and M. Têtu, “High-power and ultranarrow DFB laser: the effect of linewidth reduction systems on coherence length and interferometer noise,” Proc. SPIE 6216, 6216001 (2006).

Thapa, R.

Tillman, K. A.

Tino, G. M.

P. Wolf, C. J. Bordé, A. Clairon, L. Duchayne, A. Landragin, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, W. Ertmer, E. Rasel, F. S. Cataliotti, M. Inguscio, G. M. Tino, P. Gill, H. Klein, S. Reynaud, C. Salomon, E. Peik, O. Bertolami, P. Gil, J. Páramos, C. Jentsch, U. Johann, A. Rathke, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, D. Izzo, P. Natale, B. Christophe, P. Touboul, S. G. Turyshev, J. Anderson, M. E. Tobar, F. Schmidt-Kaler, J. Vigué, A. A. Madej, L. Marmet, M.-C. Angonin, P. Delva, P. Tourrenc, G. Metris, H. Müller, R. Walsworth, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, K. Bongs, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, H. Dittus, C. Lämmerzahl, G. Galzerano, P. Laporta, J. Laskar, A. Fienga, F. Roques, and K. Sengstock,, “Quantum Physics Exploring Gravity in the Outer Solar System: The Sagas Project,” Exp. Astron. 23(2), 651–687 (2009).
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Tobar, M. E.

P. Wolf, C. J. Bordé, A. Clairon, L. Duchayne, A. Landragin, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, W. Ertmer, E. Rasel, F. S. Cataliotti, M. Inguscio, G. M. Tino, P. Gill, H. Klein, S. Reynaud, C. Salomon, E. Peik, O. Bertolami, P. Gil, J. Páramos, C. Jentsch, U. Johann, A. Rathke, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, D. Izzo, P. Natale, B. Christophe, P. Touboul, S. G. Turyshev, J. Anderson, M. E. Tobar, F. Schmidt-Kaler, J. Vigué, A. A. Madej, L. Marmet, M.-C. Angonin, P. Delva, P. Tourrenc, G. Metris, H. Müller, R. Walsworth, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, K. Bongs, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, H. Dittus, C. Lämmerzahl, G. Galzerano, P. Laporta, J. Laskar, A. Fienga, F. Roques, and K. Sengstock,, “Quantum Physics Exploring Gravity in the Outer Solar System: The Sagas Project,” Exp. Astron. 23(2), 651–687 (2009).
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Toncelli, A.

P. Wolf, C. J. Bordé, A. Clairon, L. Duchayne, A. Landragin, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, W. Ertmer, E. Rasel, F. S. Cataliotti, M. Inguscio, G. M. Tino, P. Gill, H. Klein, S. Reynaud, C. Salomon, E. Peik, O. Bertolami, P. Gil, J. Páramos, C. Jentsch, U. Johann, A. Rathke, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, D. Izzo, P. Natale, B. Christophe, P. Touboul, S. G. Turyshev, J. Anderson, M. E. Tobar, F. Schmidt-Kaler, J. Vigué, A. A. Madej, L. Marmet, M.-C. Angonin, P. Delva, P. Tourrenc, G. Metris, H. Müller, R. Walsworth, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, K. Bongs, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, H. Dittus, C. Lämmerzahl, G. Galzerano, P. Laporta, J. Laskar, A. Fienga, F. Roques, and K. Sengstock,, “Quantum Physics Exploring Gravity in the Outer Solar System: The Sagas Project,” Exp. Astron. 23(2), 651–687 (2009).
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Tonda, S.

Tonelli, M.

P. Wolf, C. J. Bordé, A. Clairon, L. Duchayne, A. Landragin, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, W. Ertmer, E. Rasel, F. S. Cataliotti, M. Inguscio, G. M. Tino, P. Gill, H. Klein, S. Reynaud, C. Salomon, E. Peik, O. Bertolami, P. Gil, J. Páramos, C. Jentsch, U. Johann, A. Rathke, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, D. Izzo, P. Natale, B. Christophe, P. Touboul, S. G. Turyshev, J. Anderson, M. E. Tobar, F. Schmidt-Kaler, J. Vigué, A. A. Madej, L. Marmet, M.-C. Angonin, P. Delva, P. Tourrenc, G. Metris, H. Müller, R. Walsworth, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, K. Bongs, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, H. Dittus, C. Lämmerzahl, G. Galzerano, P. Laporta, J. Laskar, A. Fienga, F. Roques, and K. Sengstock,, “Quantum Physics Exploring Gravity in the Outer Solar System: The Sagas Project,” Exp. Astron. 23(2), 651–687 (2009).
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P. Wolf, C. J. Bordé, A. Clairon, L. Duchayne, A. Landragin, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, W. Ertmer, E. Rasel, F. S. Cataliotti, M. Inguscio, G. M. Tino, P. Gill, H. Klein, S. Reynaud, C. Salomon, E. Peik, O. Bertolami, P. Gil, J. Páramos, C. Jentsch, U. Johann, A. Rathke, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, D. Izzo, P. Natale, B. Christophe, P. Touboul, S. G. Turyshev, J. Anderson, M. E. Tobar, F. Schmidt-Kaler, J. Vigué, A. A. Madej, L. Marmet, M.-C. Angonin, P. Delva, P. Tourrenc, G. Metris, H. Müller, R. Walsworth, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, K. Bongs, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, H. Dittus, C. Lämmerzahl, G. Galzerano, P. Laporta, J. Laskar, A. Fienga, F. Roques, and K. Sengstock,, “Quantum Physics Exploring Gravity in the Outer Solar System: The Sagas Project,” Exp. Astron. 23(2), 651–687 (2009).
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P. Wolf, C. J. Bordé, A. Clairon, L. Duchayne, A. Landragin, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, W. Ertmer, E. Rasel, F. S. Cataliotti, M. Inguscio, G. M. Tino, P. Gill, H. Klein, S. Reynaud, C. Salomon, E. Peik, O. Bertolami, P. Gil, J. Páramos, C. Jentsch, U. Johann, A. Rathke, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, D. Izzo, P. Natale, B. Christophe, P. Touboul, S. G. Turyshev, J. Anderson, M. E. Tobar, F. Schmidt-Kaler, J. Vigué, A. A. Madej, L. Marmet, M.-C. Angonin, P. Delva, P. Tourrenc, G. Metris, H. Müller, R. Walsworth, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, K. Bongs, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, H. Dittus, C. Lämmerzahl, G. Galzerano, P. Laporta, J. Laskar, A. Fienga, F. Roques, and K. Sengstock,, “Quantum Physics Exploring Gravity in the Outer Solar System: The Sagas Project,” Exp. Astron. 23(2), 651–687 (2009).
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P. Wolf, C. J. Bordé, A. Clairon, L. Duchayne, A. Landragin, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, W. Ertmer, E. Rasel, F. S. Cataliotti, M. Inguscio, G. M. Tino, P. Gill, H. Klein, S. Reynaud, C. Salomon, E. Peik, O. Bertolami, P. Gil, J. Páramos, C. Jentsch, U. Johann, A. Rathke, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, D. Izzo, P. Natale, B. Christophe, P. Touboul, S. G. Turyshev, J. Anderson, M. E. Tobar, F. Schmidt-Kaler, J. Vigué, A. A. Madej, L. Marmet, M.-C. Angonin, P. Delva, P. Tourrenc, G. Metris, H. Müller, R. Walsworth, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, K. Bongs, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, H. Dittus, C. Lämmerzahl, G. Galzerano, P. Laporta, J. Laskar, A. Fienga, F. Roques, and K. Sengstock,, “Quantum Physics Exploring Gravity in the Outer Solar System: The Sagas Project,” Exp. Astron. 23(2), 651–687 (2009).
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P. Wolf, C. J. Bordé, A. Clairon, L. Duchayne, A. Landragin, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, W. Ertmer, E. Rasel, F. S. Cataliotti, M. Inguscio, G. M. Tino, P. Gill, H. Klein, S. Reynaud, C. Salomon, E. Peik, O. Bertolami, P. Gil, J. Páramos, C. Jentsch, U. Johann, A. Rathke, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, D. Izzo, P. Natale, B. Christophe, P. Touboul, S. G. Turyshev, J. Anderson, M. E. Tobar, F. Schmidt-Kaler, J. Vigué, A. A. Madej, L. Marmet, M.-C. Angonin, P. Delva, P. Tourrenc, G. Metris, H. Müller, R. Walsworth, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, K. Bongs, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, H. Dittus, C. Lämmerzahl, G. Galzerano, P. Laporta, J. Laskar, A. Fienga, F. Roques, and K. Sengstock,, “Quantum Physics Exploring Gravity in the Outer Solar System: The Sagas Project,” Exp. Astron. 23(2), 651–687 (2009).
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Walsworth, R.

P. Wolf, C. J. Bordé, A. Clairon, L. Duchayne, A. Landragin, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, W. Ertmer, E. Rasel, F. S. Cataliotti, M. Inguscio, G. M. Tino, P. Gill, H. Klein, S. Reynaud, C. Salomon, E. Peik, O. Bertolami, P. Gil, J. Páramos, C. Jentsch, U. Johann, A. Rathke, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, D. Izzo, P. Natale, B. Christophe, P. Touboul, S. G. Turyshev, J. Anderson, M. E. Tobar, F. Schmidt-Kaler, J. Vigué, A. A. Madej, L. Marmet, M.-C. Angonin, P. Delva, P. Tourrenc, G. Metris, H. Müller, R. Walsworth, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, K. Bongs, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, H. Dittus, C. Lämmerzahl, G. Galzerano, P. Laporta, J. Laskar, A. Fienga, F. Roques, and K. Sengstock,, “Quantum Physics Exploring Gravity in the Outer Solar System: The Sagas Project,” Exp. Astron. 23(2), 651–687 (2009).
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P. Wolf, C. J. Bordé, A. Clairon, L. Duchayne, A. Landragin, P. Lemonde, G. Santarelli, W. Ertmer, E. Rasel, F. S. Cataliotti, M. Inguscio, G. M. Tino, P. Gill, H. Klein, S. Reynaud, C. Salomon, E. Peik, O. Bertolami, P. Gil, J. Páramos, C. Jentsch, U. Johann, A. Rathke, P. Bouyer, L. Cacciapuoti, D. Izzo, P. Natale, B. Christophe, P. Touboul, S. G. Turyshev, J. Anderson, M. E. Tobar, F. Schmidt-Kaler, J. Vigué, A. A. Madej, L. Marmet, M.-C. Angonin, P. Delva, P. Tourrenc, G. Metris, H. Müller, R. Walsworth, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, K. Bongs, A. Toncelli, M. Tonelli, H. Dittus, C. Lämmerzahl, G. Galzerano, P. Laporta, J. Laskar, A. Fienga, F. Roques, and K. Sengstock,, “Quantum Physics Exploring Gravity in the Outer Solar System: The Sagas Project,” Exp. Astron. 23(2), 651–687 (2009).
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Annalen der Physik und Chemie (1)

W. Sellmeier, “Zur Erklärung der abnormen Farbenfolge im Spectrum einiger Substanzen,” Annalen der Physik und Chemie 219(6), 272–282 (1871).
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Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

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Electron. Lett. (1)

K. H. Wanser, “Fundamental phase noise limit in optical fibers due to temperature fluctuation,” Electron. Lett. 28(1), 53–54 (1992).
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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Heterodyne interferometer, PD (Photodiode); (b) transfer function of the interferometer: relative magnitude |T(f)|/ 2πτ0 [black solid line] and phase [blue dashed line] of frequency response of the interferometer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup frame scheme: VCO (Voltage Controlled Oscillator), AOM (Acousto-Optical Modulator), PD (photodiode), PI (proportional-integral control system), PZT (piezo-electric transducer).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Frequency noise PSD of lasers beat-note between (a) fiber-stabilized laser and an ULE-cavity stabilized laser, (b) two ULE-cavity stabilized lasers. The frequency noise PSD of the free running laser is given in [21]. Note that no drift is removed in these measurements.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The scheme of the tunable synthesizer, BP (band-pass filter), HP (high-pass filter), DDS (direct digital synthesizer).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Scheme of the frequency noise measurement of a chirped laser using a second demodulation interferometer, (b) and (c) views of the Michelson interferometers set-up.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Frequency noise power density of chirped laser at different chirping rates (a linear frequency drift is removed).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Enhanced Michelson interferometer scheme with single RBS immunity

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Frequency noise of single RBS suppressed fiber-stabilized laser for various chirp rates.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

The distribution of single RBS (a) and double RBS (b) induced frequency noise PSD (linear scales).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a-1) Beat-note signal frequency of the chirped laser vs. ULE-cavity stabilized laser, (a-2) residual frequency fluctuations (0.2 s gate time) after removing linear frequency fit (blue line + diamonds), (insert) the PSD of the residuals of a-2, (b) chirp rate accuracy with respect to the chirp rate.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

The RBS effect on the laser frequency: AOM modulated reference signal (wide green line in arm1), short arm reference signal (wide black one), the RBS signals (red dash line, blue dot line); a1 and a2 are field amplitude coupling coefficients from the common input (in power).

Equations (19)

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cos [ 2 π v 0 τ 0 θ R F ( t ) ] = 0 ,
T ( f ) = ( 1 e i 2 π τ 0 f ) i f ​ rad/Hz,
Δ v l a s e r ( t ) = Δ θ R F ( t ) 2 π τ 0 =     0     t Δ v R F ( t ) d t τ 0 ,
{ S ν ( f ) = ( a 1 a 2 ) 2 a L a B c 8 n 1 ( 2 π τ 0 ) 2 1 v ' , f τ 0 v ' = Δ ν R F S ν ( f ) = 0 , f > τ 0 v ,
{ S v ( f ) = ( a L a B c n ) 2 1 32 π 2 τ 0 ν ( 1 f τ 0 ν ) , f τ 0 ν = Δ ν R F S v ( f ) = 0 , f > τ 0 ν .
ν ' = Δ ν R F τ 0 [ 1 D ( λ 0 ) λ 0 c / n ] .
D ( λ 0 ) S 0 4 [ λ 0 λ 0 D 4 λ 0 3 ] ,ps/(nm.km), 1200 nm λ 0 1600 nm ,
{ E 1 ( t ) = a 1 a A O M 1 E 0 e 0 e i 2 π     0     t 2 n L f / c [ v ( t ) + 2 f A O M 1 ] d t E 2 ( t ) = a 2 E 0 e 0 e i 2 π     0     t v ( t ) d t d E R B S 1 ( t , z ) = a 1 ρ ( z ) E 0 e R B S 1 ( z ) d z e i 2 π     0     t 2 n z / c [ v ( t ) ] d t ​ ​ d E R B S 2 ( t , z ) = a 1 a A O M 1 2 ρ ( z ) E 0 e R B S 2 ( z ) d z e i 2 π     0     t 2 n ( 2 L f z ) / c [ v ( t ) + 4 f A O M 1 ] d t ,
I 12 ( t ) = η a 1 a 2 a A O M 1 E 0 2 e i ( 2 π ( 2 f A O M 1 2 L f n v c ) t ,
{ d I 1 R B S 1 ( t , z ) = 1 2 η a 1 2 a A O M 1 ρ ( z ) d z E 0 2 e i ( 2 π ( 2 f A O M 1 2 ( L f z ) n v c ) t d I 1 R B S 2 ( t , z ) = 1 2 η a 1 2 a A O M 1 3 ρ ( z ) d z E 0 2 e i ( 2 π ( 2 f A O M 1 2 ( L f z ) n v c ) t ,
d θ 1 ( t , z ) 1 2 a 1 ρ 1 ( z ) d z a 2 e i 2 π 2 n z v c t .
[ ( 0 , 0 ) ; ( L f , L f ) ] d θ ( t , z ) d θ * ( t ' , z ' ) = a 1 2 2 a 2 2 ρ ( z ) ρ * ( z ' ) d z d z ' e i 2 π 2 n c ν ( t z t ' z ' ) .
{ S θ ( f ) = a 1 2 a 2 2 c 8 n ν a L a B , f τ 0 v = Δ ν R F S θ ( f ) = 0 , f > τ 0 v ,
{ S v ( f ) = S θ ( f ) ( 2 π τ 0 ) 2 = ( a 1 a 2 ) 2 a L a B c 8 n 1 ( 2 π τ 0 ) 2 v ' , f τ 0 v = Δ ν R F S v ( f ) = 0 , f > τ 0 v .
{ E 1 ( t ) = a 1 a A O M 1 E 0 e 0 e i 2 π     0     t 2 n L f / c [ v ( t ) + 2 f A O M 1 ] d t E 2 ( t ) = a 2 E 0 a A O M 2 e 0 e i 2 π     0     t [ v ( t ) + 2 f A O M 2 ] d t d 2 E D R B S ( t , z , z ' ) = a 1 a A O M 1 ρ ( z ) ρ ( z ) E 0 e R B S ( z , z ) d z d z e i 2 π     0     t 2 n [ L f + z z ' ] / c [ v ( t ) + 2 f A O M 1 ] d t .
I 12 ( t ) = η a 1 a 2 a A O M 1 a A O M 2 E 0 2 e i ( 2 π ( 2 [ f A O M 1 f A O M 2 ] 2 L f n v c ) t ,
d 2 I 2 D R B S ( t , z , z ) = 1 2 η a 1 a 2 a A O M 1 a A O M 2 ρ ( z ) ρ ( z ) d z d z E 0 2 e i ( 2 π ( 2 [ f A O M 1 f A O M 2 ] 2 ( L f + z z ) n v c ) t .
d 2 θ ( t , z , z ) 1 2 ρ ( z ) ρ ( z ) d z d z e i 2 π 2 n ( z z ) v c t .
{ S v ( f ) = S θ ( f ) ( 2 π τ 0 ) 2 = ( a L a B ) 2 c 2 32 π 2 n 2 1 τ 0 v ( 1 f τ 0 v ) , f τ 0 v = Δ ν R F S v ( f ) = 0 , f > τ 0 v .

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