Abstract

We present an experimental study of an integrated slot-waveguide refractive index sensor array fabricated in silicon nitride on silica. We study the temperature dependence of the slot-waveguide ring resonator sensors and find that they show a low temperature dependence of −16.6 pm/K, while at the same time a large refractive index sensitivity of 240 nm per refractive index unit. Furthermore, by using on-chip temperature referencing, a differential temperature sensitivity of only 0.3 pm/K is obtained, without individual sensor calibration. This low value indicates good sensor-to-sensor repeatability, thus enabling use in highly parallel chemical assays. We demonstrate refractive index measurements during temperature drift and show a detection limit of 8.8 × 10−6 refractive index units in a 7 K temperature operating window, without external temperature control. Finally, we suggest the possibility of athermal slot-waveguide sensor design.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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2010 (1)

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls, A. M. Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab on a Chip 10, 281–290 (2010). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b914183a.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, O. Schrevens, D. Giannone, L. Vivien, D. M. Morini, D. Bouville, E. Cas-san, K. B. Gylfason, H. Sohlströom, B. Sanchez, A. Griol, and D. Hill, “Light coupling and distribution for Si3N4/SiO2 integrated multichannel single-mode sensing system,” Opt. Eng. 48, 14, 401+ (2009). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.3067875.

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-Free Biosensing With a Slot-Waveguide-Based Ring Resonator in Silicon on Insulator,” IEEE Photonics Journal 1, 197–204 (2009). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JPHOT.2009.2031596.
[CrossRef]

2008 (6)

2007 (4)

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

Z. Wang and D. J. Bornhop, “Dual-Capillary Backscatter Interferometry for High-Sensitivity Nanoliter-Volume Refractive Index Detection with Density Gradient Compensation,” Anal. Chem. 77, 7872–7877 (2005). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac050752h.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, and A. Scherer, “High-Q optical resonators in silicon-on-insulator-based slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 081,101+ (2005). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1871360.
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luys-saert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328–1330 (2004). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/LPT.2004.826025.
[CrossRef]

V. R. Almeida, Q. Xu, C. A. Barrios, and M. Lipson, “Guiding and confining light in void nanostructure,” Optics Letters 29, 1209–1211 (2004). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.29.001209.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

J. N. Lee, C. Park, and G. M. Whitesides, “Solvent Compatibility of Poly(dimethylsiloxane)-Based Microfluidic Devices,” Anal. Chem. 75, 6544–6554 (2003). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac0346712.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

D. Markov, D. Begari, and D. J. Bornhop, “Breaking the 10-7 Barrier for RI Measurements in Nanoliter Volumes,” Anal. Chem. 74, 5438–5441 (2002). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac020403c.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

L. Eldada, “Advances in telecom and datacom optical components,” Opt. Eng. 40, 1165–1178 (2001). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.1372703.
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

A. H. Harvey, J. S. Gallagher, and J. M. H. Levelt Sengers, “Revised Formulation for the Refractive Index of Water and Steam as a Function of Wavelength, Temperature and Density,” Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data 27, 761–774 (1998). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.556029.
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1993 (1)

Y. Kokubun, N. Funato, and M. Takizawa, “Athermal waveguides for temperature-independent lightwave devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1297–1300 (1993). URL http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs all.jsp?arnumber=250049.
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

R. Karlsson, A. Michaelsson, and L. Mattsson, “Kinetic analysis of monoclonal antibody-antigen interactions with a new biosensor based analytical system,” J. Immunol. Methods 145, 229–240 (1991). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-1759(91)90331-9.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

Y. Shani, C. H. Henry, R. C. Kistler, K. J. Orlowsky, and D. A. Ackerman, “Efficient coupling of a semiconductor laser to an optical fiber by means of a tapered waveguide on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2389–2391 (1989). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.102290.
[CrossRef]

Ackerman, D. A.

Y. Shani, C. H. Henry, R. C. Kistler, K. J. Orlowsky, and D. A. Ackerman, “Efficient coupling of a semiconductor laser to an optical fiber by means of a tapered waveguide on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2389–2391 (1989). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.102290.
[CrossRef]

Almeida, V. R.

V. R. Almeida, Q. Xu, C. A. Barrios, and M. Lipson, “Guiding and confining light in void nanostructure,” Optics Letters 29, 1209–1211 (2004). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.29.001209.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, P. A.

Baehr-Jones, T.

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, and A. Scherer, “High-Q optical resonators in silicon-on-insulator-based slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 081,101+ (2005). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1871360.
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-Free Biosensing With a Slot-Waveguide-Based Ring Resonator in Silicon on Insulator,” IEEE Photonics Journal 1, 197–204 (2009). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JPHOT.2009.2031596.
[CrossRef]

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luys-saert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328–1330 (2004). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/LPT.2004.826025.
[CrossRef]

Bañuls, M. J.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls, A. M. Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab on a Chip 10, 281–290 (2010). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b914183a.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barrios, C. A.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls, A. M. Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab on a Chip 10, 281–290 (2010). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b914183a.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Barrios, K. B. Gylfason, B. Sánchez, A. Griol, H. Sohlström, M. Holgado, and R. Casquel, “Slot-waveguide biochemical sensor,” Optics Letters 32, 3080–3082 (2007). URL http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?id=144251.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Barrios, B. Sánchez, K. B. Gylfason, A. Griol, H. Sohlström, M. Holgado, and R. Casquel, “Demonstration of slot-waveguide structures on silicon nitride / silicon oxide platform,” Opt. Express 15, 6846–6856 (2007). URL http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?id=134979.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Barrios, “Analysis and modeling of a silicon nitride slot-waveguide microring resonator biochemical sensor,” in Optical Sensors 2009, F. Baldini, J. Homola, and R. A. Lieberman, eds., vol. 7356, pp. 735,605+ (SPIE, 2009). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.820172.

J. Blasco and C. A. Barrios, “Compact slot-waveguide/channel-waveguide mode-converter,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe 2005, p. 607 (2005). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/CLEOE.2005.1568383.
[CrossRef]

Barrios, Q. Xu, C. A.

V. R. Almeida, Q. Xu, C. A. Barrios, and M. Lipson, “Guiding and confining light in void nanostructure,” Optics Letters 29, 1209–1211 (2004). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.29.001209.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beckx, S.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luys-saert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328–1330 (2004). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/LPT.2004.826025.
[CrossRef]

Begari, D.

D. Markov, D. Begari, and D. J. Bornhop, “Breaking the 10-7 Barrier for RI Measurements in Nanoliter Volumes,” Anal. Chem. 74, 5438–5441 (2002). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac020403c.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bienstman, P.

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-Free Biosensing With a Slot-Waveguide-Based Ring Resonator in Silicon on Insulator,” IEEE Photonics Journal 1, 197–204 (2009). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JPHOT.2009.2031596.
[CrossRef]

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luys-saert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328–1330 (2004). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/LPT.2004.826025.
[CrossRef]

Blasco, J.

J. Blasco and C. A. Barrios, “Compact slot-waveguide/channel-waveguide mode-converter,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics Europe 2005, p. 607 (2005). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/CLEOE.2005.1568383.
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luys-saert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328–1330 (2004). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/LPT.2004.826025.
[CrossRef]

Bornhop, D. J.

Z. Wang and D. J. Bornhop, “Dual-Capillary Backscatter Interferometry for High-Sensitivity Nanoliter-Volume Refractive Index Detection with Density Gradient Compensation,” Anal. Chem. 77, 7872–7877 (2005). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac050752h.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Markov, D. Begari, and D. J. Bornhop, “Breaking the 10-7 Barrier for RI Measurements in Nanoliter Volumes,” Anal. Chem. 74, 5438–5441 (2002). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac020403c.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouville, D.

A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, O. Schrevens, D. Giannone, L. Vivien, D. M. Morini, D. Bouville, E. Cas-san, K. B. Gylfason, H. Sohlströom, B. Sanchez, A. Griol, and D. Hill, “Light coupling and distribution for Si3N4/SiO2 integrated multichannel single-mode sensing system,” Opt. Eng. 48, 14, 401+ (2009). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.3067875.

Campenhout, J. Van

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luys-saert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328–1330 (2004). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/LPT.2004.826025.
[CrossRef]

Carlborg, C. F.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls, A. M. Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab on a Chip 10, 281–290 (2010). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b914183a.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Casquel, R.

C. A. Barrios, K. B. Gylfason, B. Sánchez, A. Griol, H. Sohlström, M. Holgado, and R. Casquel, “Slot-waveguide biochemical sensor,” Optics Letters 32, 3080–3082 (2007). URL http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?id=144251.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Barrios, B. Sánchez, K. B. Gylfason, A. Griol, H. Sohlström, M. Holgado, and R. Casquel, “Demonstration of slot-waveguide structures on silicon nitride / silicon oxide platform,” Opt. Express 15, 6846–6856 (2007). URL http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?id=134979.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cas-san, E.

A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, O. Schrevens, D. Giannone, L. Vivien, D. M. Morini, D. Bouville, E. Cas-san, K. B. Gylfason, H. Sohlströom, B. Sanchez, A. Griol, and D. Hill, “Light coupling and distribution for Si3N4/SiO2 integrated multichannel single-mode sensing system,” Opt. Eng. 48, 14, 401+ (2009). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.3067875.

G. Maire, L. Vivien, G. Sattler, A. Kaźmierczak, B. Sanchez, K. B. Gylfason, A. Griol, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cas-san, D. Giannone, H. Sohlström, and D. Hill, “High efficiency silicon nitride surface grating couplers,” Opt. Express 16, 328–333 (2008). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.16.000328.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Catala, A. M.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls, A. M. Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab on a Chip 10, 281–290 (2010). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b914183a.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, L.

Claes, T.

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-Free Biosensing With a Slot-Waveguide-Based Ring Resonator in Silicon on Insulator,” IEEE Photonics Journal 1, 197–204 (2009). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JPHOT.2009.2031596.
[CrossRef]

Dell’Olio, F.

Dortu, F.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls, A. M. Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab on a Chip 10, 281–290 (2010). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b914183a.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, O. Schrevens, D. Giannone, L. Vivien, D. M. Morini, D. Bouville, E. Cas-san, K. B. Gylfason, H. Sohlströom, B. Sanchez, A. Griol, and D. Hill, “Light coupling and distribution for Si3N4/SiO2 integrated multichannel single-mode sensing system,” Opt. Eng. 48, 14, 401+ (2009). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.3067875.

Dumon, P.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luys-saert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328–1330 (2004). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/LPT.2004.826025.
[CrossRef]

Eldada, L.

L. Eldada, “Advances in telecom and datacom optical components,” Opt. Eng. 40, 1165–1178 (2001). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.1372703.
[CrossRef]

Fan, X.

Funato, N.

Y. Kokubun, N. Funato, and M. Takizawa, “Athermal waveguides for temperature-independent lightwave devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1297–1300 (1993). URL http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs all.jsp?arnumber=250049.
[CrossRef]

Gallagher, J. S.

A. H. Harvey, J. S. Gallagher, and J. M. H. Levelt Sengers, “Revised Formulation for the Refractive Index of Water and Steam as a Function of Wavelength, Temperature and Density,” Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data 27, 761–774 (1998). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.556029.
[CrossRef]

Giannone, D.

A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, O. Schrevens, D. Giannone, L. Vivien, D. M. Morini, D. Bouville, E. Cas-san, K. B. Gylfason, H. Sohlströom, B. Sanchez, A. Griol, and D. Hill, “Light coupling and distribution for Si3N4/SiO2 integrated multichannel single-mode sensing system,” Opt. Eng. 48, 14, 401+ (2009). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.3067875.

G. Maire, L. Vivien, G. Sattler, A. Kaźmierczak, B. Sanchez, K. B. Gylfason, A. Griol, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cas-san, D. Giannone, H. Sohlström, and D. Hill, “High efficiency silicon nitride surface grating couplers,” Opt. Express 16, 328–333 (2008). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.16.000328.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Griol, A.

A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, O. Schrevens, D. Giannone, L. Vivien, D. M. Morini, D. Bouville, E. Cas-san, K. B. Gylfason, H. Sohlströom, B. Sanchez, A. Griol, and D. Hill, “Light coupling and distribution for Si3N4/SiO2 integrated multichannel single-mode sensing system,” Opt. Eng. 48, 14, 401+ (2009). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.3067875.

G. Maire, L. Vivien, G. Sattler, A. Kaźmierczak, B. Sanchez, K. B. Gylfason, A. Griol, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cas-san, D. Giannone, H. Sohlström, and D. Hill, “High efficiency silicon nitride surface grating couplers,” Opt. Express 16, 328–333 (2008). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.16.000328.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Barrios, B. Sánchez, K. B. Gylfason, A. Griol, H. Sohlström, M. Holgado, and R. Casquel, “Demonstration of slot-waveguide structures on silicon nitride / silicon oxide platform,” Opt. Express 15, 6846–6856 (2007). URL http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?id=134979.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Barrios, K. B. Gylfason, B. Sánchez, A. Griol, H. Sohlström, M. Holgado, and R. Casquel, “Slot-waveguide biochemical sensor,” Optics Letters 32, 3080–3082 (2007). URL http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?id=144251.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gylfason, K. B.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls, A. M. Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab on a Chip 10, 281–290 (2010). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b914183a.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, O. Schrevens, D. Giannone, L. Vivien, D. M. Morini, D. Bouville, E. Cas-san, K. B. Gylfason, H. Sohlströom, B. Sanchez, A. Griol, and D. Hill, “Light coupling and distribution for Si3N4/SiO2 integrated multichannel single-mode sensing system,” Opt. Eng. 48, 14, 401+ (2009). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.3067875.

G. Maire, L. Vivien, G. Sattler, A. Kaźmierczak, B. Sanchez, K. B. Gylfason, A. Griol, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cas-san, D. Giannone, H. Sohlström, and D. Hill, “High efficiency silicon nitride surface grating couplers,” Opt. Express 16, 328–333 (2008). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.16.000328.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Barrios, B. Sánchez, K. B. Gylfason, A. Griol, H. Sohlström, M. Holgado, and R. Casquel, “Demonstration of slot-waveguide structures on silicon nitride / silicon oxide platform,” Opt. Express 15, 6846–6856 (2007). URL http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?id=134979.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Barrios, K. B. Gylfason, B. Sánchez, A. Griol, H. Sohlström, M. Holgado, and R. Casquel, “Slot-waveguide biochemical sensor,” Optics Letters 32, 3080–3082 (2007). URL http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?id=144251.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harvey, A. H.

A. H. Harvey, J. S. Gallagher, and J. M. H. Levelt Sengers, “Revised Formulation for the Refractive Index of Water and Steam as a Function of Wavelength, Temperature and Density,” Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data 27, 761–774 (1998). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.556029.
[CrossRef]

Henry, C. H.

Y. Shani, C. H. Henry, R. C. Kistler, K. J. Orlowsky, and D. A. Ackerman, “Efficient coupling of a semiconductor laser to an optical fiber by means of a tapered waveguide on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2389–2391 (1989). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.102290.
[CrossRef]

Hill, D.

A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, O. Schrevens, D. Giannone, L. Vivien, D. M. Morini, D. Bouville, E. Cas-san, K. B. Gylfason, H. Sohlströom, B. Sanchez, A. Griol, and D. Hill, “Light coupling and distribution for Si3N4/SiO2 integrated multichannel single-mode sensing system,” Opt. Eng. 48, 14, 401+ (2009). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.3067875.

G. Maire, L. Vivien, G. Sattler, A. Kaźmierczak, B. Sanchez, K. B. Gylfason, A. Griol, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cas-san, D. Giannone, H. Sohlström, and D. Hill, “High efficiency silicon nitride surface grating couplers,” Opt. Express 16, 328–333 (2008). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.16.000328.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hochberg, M.

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, and A. Scherer, “High-Q optical resonators in silicon-on-insulator-based slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 081,101+ (2005). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1871360.
[CrossRef]

Holgado, M.

C. A. Barrios, B. Sánchez, K. B. Gylfason, A. Griol, H. Sohlström, M. Holgado, and R. Casquel, “Demonstration of slot-waveguide structures on silicon nitride / silicon oxide platform,” Opt. Express 15, 6846–6856 (2007). URL http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?id=134979.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Barrios, K. B. Gylfason, B. Sánchez, A. Griol, H. Sohlström, M. Holgado, and R. Casquel, “Slot-waveguide biochemical sensor,” Optics Letters 32, 3080–3082 (2007). URL http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?id=144251.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karlsson, R.

R. Karlsson, A. Michaelsson, and L. Mattsson, “Kinetic analysis of monoclonal antibody-antigen interactions with a new biosensor based analytical system,” J. Immunol. Methods 145, 229–240 (1991). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-1759(91)90331-9.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kazmierczak, A.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls, A. M. Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab on a Chip 10, 281–290 (2010). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b914183a.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, O. Schrevens, D. Giannone, L. Vivien, D. M. Morini, D. Bouville, E. Cas-san, K. B. Gylfason, H. Sohlströom, B. Sanchez, A. Griol, and D. Hill, “Light coupling and distribution for Si3N4/SiO2 integrated multichannel single-mode sensing system,” Opt. Eng. 48, 14, 401+ (2009). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.3067875.

G. Maire, L. Vivien, G. Sattler, A. Kaźmierczak, B. Sanchez, K. B. Gylfason, A. Griol, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cas-san, D. Giannone, H. Sohlström, and D. Hill, “High efficiency silicon nitride surface grating couplers,” Opt. Express 16, 328–333 (2008). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.16.000328.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, D.-J.

Kim, G.

Kim, G.-H.

Kim, K.-J.

Kistler, R. C.

Y. Shani, C. H. Henry, R. C. Kistler, K. J. Orlowsky, and D. A. Ackerman, “Efficient coupling of a semiconductor laser to an optical fiber by means of a tapered waveguide on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2389–2391 (1989). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.102290.
[CrossRef]

Kokubun, Y.

Y. Kokubun, N. Funato, and M. Takizawa, “Athermal waveguides for temperature-independent lightwave devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1297–1300 (1993). URL http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs all.jsp?arnumber=250049.
[CrossRef]

Kresbach, G. M.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls, A. M. Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab on a Chip 10, 281–290 (2010). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b914183a.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwon, M.-S.

Kwon, O.-K.

Lee, J. N.

J. N. Lee, C. Park, and G. M. Whitesides, “Solvent Compatibility of Poly(dimethylsiloxane)-Based Microfluidic Devices,” Anal. Chem. 75, 6544–6554 (2003). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac0346712.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, J.-M.

Lipson, M.

Luys-saert, B.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luys-saert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328–1330 (2004). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/LPT.2004.826025.
[CrossRef]

Maire, G.

Markov, D.

D. Markov, D. Begari, and D. J. Bornhop, “Breaking the 10-7 Barrier for RI Measurements in Nanoliter Volumes,” Anal. Chem. 74, 5438–5441 (2002). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac020403c.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marris-Morini, D.

Mattsson, L.

R. Karlsson, A. Michaelsson, and L. Mattsson, “Kinetic analysis of monoclonal antibody-antigen interactions with a new biosensor based analytical system,” J. Immunol. Methods 145, 229–240 (1991). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-1759(91)90331-9.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michaelsson, A.

R. Karlsson, A. Michaelsson, and L. Mattsson, “Kinetic analysis of monoclonal antibody-antigen interactions with a new biosensor based analytical system,” J. Immunol. Methods 145, 229–240 (1991). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-1759(91)90331-9.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moh, T.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls, A. M. Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab on a Chip 10, 281–290 (2010). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b914183a.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Molera, J. G.

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-Free Biosensing With a Slot-Waveguide-Based Ring Resonator in Silicon on Insulator,” IEEE Photonics Journal 1, 197–204 (2009). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JPHOT.2009.2031596.
[CrossRef]

Morini, D. M.

A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, O. Schrevens, D. Giannone, L. Vivien, D. M. Morini, D. Bouville, E. Cas-san, K. B. Gylfason, H. Sohlströom, B. Sanchez, A. Griol, and D. Hill, “Light coupling and distribution for Si3N4/SiO2 integrated multichannel single-mode sensing system,” Opt. Eng. 48, 14, 401+ (2009). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.3067875.

Öberg, M.

H. Sohlström and M. Öberg, “Refractive index measurement using integrated ring resonators,” in The 8th European Conference on Integrated Optics, pp. 322–325 (1997).

Orlowsky, K. J.

Y. Shani, C. H. Henry, R. C. Kistler, K. J. Orlowsky, and D. A. Ackerman, “Efficient coupling of a semiconductor laser to an optical fiber by means of a tapered waveguide on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2389–2391 (1989). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.102290.
[CrossRef]

Park, C.

J. N. Lee, C. Park, and G. M. Whitesides, “Solvent Compatibility of Poly(dimethylsiloxane)-Based Microfluidic Devices,” Anal. Chem. 75, 6544–6554 (2003). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac0346712.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Passaro, V. M.

Popplewell, J.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls, A. M. Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab on a Chip 10, 281–290 (2010). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b914183a.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robinson, J. T.

Ronan, G.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls, A. M. Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab on a Chip 10, 281–290 (2010). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b914183a.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sanchez, B.

A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, O. Schrevens, D. Giannone, L. Vivien, D. M. Morini, D. Bouville, E. Cas-san, K. B. Gylfason, H. Sohlströom, B. Sanchez, A. Griol, and D. Hill, “Light coupling and distribution for Si3N4/SiO2 integrated multichannel single-mode sensing system,” Opt. Eng. 48, 14, 401+ (2009). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.3067875.

G. Maire, L. Vivien, G. Sattler, A. Kaźmierczak, B. Sanchez, K. B. Gylfason, A. Griol, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cas-san, D. Giannone, H. Sohlström, and D. Hill, “High efficiency silicon nitride surface grating couplers,” Opt. Express 16, 328–333 (2008). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.16.000328.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sánchez, B.

C. A. Barrios, B. Sánchez, K. B. Gylfason, A. Griol, H. Sohlström, M. Holgado, and R. Casquel, “Demonstration of slot-waveguide structures on silicon nitride / silicon oxide platform,” Opt. Express 15, 6846–6856 (2007). URL http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?id=134979.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Barrios, K. B. Gylfason, B. Sánchez, A. Griol, H. Sohlström, M. Holgado, and R. Casquel, “Slot-waveguide biochemical sensor,” Optics Letters 32, 3080–3082 (2007). URL http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?id=144251.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sattler, G.

Schacht, E.

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-Free Biosensing With a Slot-Waveguide-Based Ring Resonator in Silicon on Insulator,” IEEE Photonics Journal 1, 197–204 (2009). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JPHOT.2009.2031596.
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, and A. Scherer, “High-Q optical resonators in silicon-on-insulator-based slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 081,101+ (2005). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1871360.
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, B. S.

Schrevens, O.

A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, O. Schrevens, D. Giannone, L. Vivien, D. M. Morini, D. Bouville, E. Cas-san, K. B. Gylfason, H. Sohlströom, B. Sanchez, A. Griol, and D. Hill, “Light coupling and distribution for Si3N4/SiO2 integrated multichannel single-mode sensing system,” Opt. Eng. 48, 14, 401+ (2009). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.3067875.

Sengers, J. M. H. Levelt

A. H. Harvey, J. S. Gallagher, and J. M. H. Levelt Sengers, “Revised Formulation for the Refractive Index of Water and Steam as a Function of Wavelength, Temperature and Density,” Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data 27, 761–774 (1998). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.556029.
[CrossRef]

Shani, Y.

Y. Shani, C. H. Henry, R. C. Kistler, K. J. Orlowsky, and D. A. Ackerman, “Efficient coupling of a semiconductor laser to an optical fiber by means of a tapered waveguide on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2389–2391 (1989). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.102290.
[CrossRef]

Shopova, S. I.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: A review,” Analytica Chimica Acta  620, 8–26 (2008). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2008.05.022.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sohlström, H.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls, A. M. Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab on a Chip 10, 281–290 (2010). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b914183a.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Maire, L. Vivien, G. Sattler, A. Kaźmierczak, B. Sanchez, K. B. Gylfason, A. Griol, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cas-san, D. Giannone, H. Sohlström, and D. Hill, “High efficiency silicon nitride surface grating couplers,” Opt. Express 16, 328–333 (2008). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.16.000328.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Barrios, B. Sánchez, K. B. Gylfason, A. Griol, H. Sohlström, M. Holgado, and R. Casquel, “Demonstration of slot-waveguide structures on silicon nitride / silicon oxide platform,” Opt. Express 15, 6846–6856 (2007). URL http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?id=134979.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Barrios, K. B. Gylfason, B. Sánchez, A. Griol, H. Sohlström, M. Holgado, and R. Casquel, “Slot-waveguide biochemical sensor,” Optics Letters 32, 3080–3082 (2007). URL http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?id=144251.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Sohlström and M. Öberg, “Refractive index measurement using integrated ring resonators,” in The 8th European Conference on Integrated Optics, pp. 322–325 (1997).

Sohlströom, H.

A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, O. Schrevens, D. Giannone, L. Vivien, D. M. Morini, D. Bouville, E. Cas-san, K. B. Gylfason, H. Sohlströom, B. Sanchez, A. Griol, and D. Hill, “Light coupling and distribution for Si3N4/SiO2 integrated multichannel single-mode sensing system,” Opt. Eng. 48, 14, 401+ (2009). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.3067875.

Steier, W. H.

Stemme, G.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls, A. M. Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab on a Chip 10, 281–290 (2010). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b914183a.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, Y.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: A review,” Analytica Chimica Acta  620, 8–26 (2008). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2008.05.022.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suter, J. D.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: A review,” Analytica Chimica Acta  620, 8–26 (2008). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2008.05.022.
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J. D. Suter, I. M. White, H. Zhu, and X. Fan, “Thermal characterization of liquid core optical ring resonator sensors,” Appl. Opt. 46, 389–396 (2007). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.46.000389.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taillaert, D.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luys-saert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328–1330 (2004). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/LPT.2004.826025.
[CrossRef]

Takashashi, H.

Takizawa, M.

Y. Kokubun, N. Funato, and M. Takizawa, “Athermal waveguides for temperature-independent lightwave devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1297–1300 (1993). URL http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs all.jsp?arnumber=250049.
[CrossRef]

Thourhout, D. Van

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luys-saert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328–1330 (2004). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/LPT.2004.826025.
[CrossRef]

Vivien, L.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls, A. M. Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab on a Chip 10, 281–290 (2010). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b914183a.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, O. Schrevens, D. Giannone, L. Vivien, D. M. Morini, D. Bouville, E. Cas-san, K. B. Gylfason, H. Sohlströom, B. Sanchez, A. Griol, and D. Hill, “Light coupling and distribution for Si3N4/SiO2 integrated multichannel single-mode sensing system,” Opt. Eng. 48, 14, 401+ (2009). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.3067875.

G. Maire, L. Vivien, G. Sattler, A. Kaźmierczak, B. Sanchez, K. B. Gylfason, A. Griol, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cas-san, D. Giannone, H. Sohlström, and D. Hill, “High efficiency silicon nitride surface grating couplers,” Opt. Express 16, 328–333 (2008). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.16.000328.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vos, K. De

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-Free Biosensing With a Slot-Waveguide-Based Ring Resonator in Silicon on Insulator,” IEEE Photonics Journal 1, 197–204 (2009). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JPHOT.2009.2031596.
[CrossRef]

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T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, C. Walker, and A. Scherer, “High-Q optical resonators in silicon-on-insulator-based slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 081,101+ (2005). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1871360.
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

Z. Wang and D. J. Bornhop, “Dual-Capillary Backscatter Interferometry for High-Sensitivity Nanoliter-Volume Refractive Index Detection with Density Gradient Compensation,” Anal. Chem. 77, 7872–7877 (2005). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac050752h.
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J. N. Lee, C. Park, and G. M. Whitesides, “Solvent Compatibility of Poly(dimethylsiloxane)-Based Microfluidic Devices,” Anal. Chem. 75, 6544–6554 (2003). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac0346712.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiaux, V.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luys-saert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328–1330 (2004). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/LPT.2004.826025.
[CrossRef]

Wijngaart, W. van der

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls, A. M. Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab on a Chip 10, 281–290 (2010). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b914183a.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wouters, J.

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luys-saert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328–1330 (2004). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/LPT.2004.826025.
[CrossRef]

Zhu, H.

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: A review,” Analytica Chimica Acta  620, 8–26 (2008). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2008.05.022.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Suter, I. M. White, H. Zhu, and X. Fan, “Thermal characterization of liquid core optical ring resonator sensors,” Appl. Opt. 46, 389–396 (2007). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.46.000389.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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D. Markov, D. Begari, and D. J. Bornhop, “Breaking the 10-7 Barrier for RI Measurements in Nanoliter Volumes,” Anal. Chem. 74, 5438–5441 (2002). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac020403c.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. N. Lee, C. Park, and G. M. Whitesides, “Solvent Compatibility of Poly(dimethylsiloxane)-Based Microfluidic Devices,” Anal. Chem. 75, 6544–6554 (2003). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac0346712.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Analytica Chimica Acta (1)

X. Fan, I. M. White, S. I. Shopova, H. Zhu, J. D. Suter, and Y. Sun, “Sensitive optical biosensors for unlabeled targets: A review,” Analytica Chimica Acta  620, 8–26 (2008). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2008.05.022.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

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Y. Shani, C. H. Henry, R. C. Kistler, K. J. Orlowsky, and D. A. Ackerman, “Efficient coupling of a semiconductor laser to an optical fiber by means of a tapered waveguide on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2389–2391 (1989). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.102290.
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[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

Y. Kokubun, N. Funato, and M. Takizawa, “Athermal waveguides for temperature-independent lightwave devices,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 1297–1300 (1993). URL http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs all.jsp?arnumber=250049.
[CrossRef]

P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, V. Wiaux, J. Wouters, S. Beckx, J. Van Campenhout, D. Taillaert, B. Luys-saert, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-loss SOI photonic wires and ring resonators fabricated with deep UV lithography,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1328–1330 (2004). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/LPT.2004.826025.
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Journal (1)

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-Free Biosensing With a Slot-Waveguide-Based Ring Resonator in Silicon on Insulator,” IEEE Photonics Journal 1, 197–204 (2009). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JPHOT.2009.2031596.
[CrossRef]

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C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls, A. M. Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab on a Chip 10, 281–290 (2010). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b914183a.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Eng. (2)

A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, O. Schrevens, D. Giannone, L. Vivien, D. M. Morini, D. Bouville, E. Cas-san, K. B. Gylfason, H. Sohlströom, B. Sanchez, A. Griol, and D. Hill, “Light coupling and distribution for Si3N4/SiO2 integrated multichannel single-mode sensing system,” Opt. Eng. 48, 14, 401+ (2009). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.3067875.

L. Eldada, “Advances in telecom and datacom optical components,” Opt. Eng. 40, 1165–1178 (2001). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/1.1372703.
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J.-M. Lee, D.-J. Kim, G.-H. Kim, O.-K. Kwon, K.-J. Kim, and G. Kim, “Controlling temperature dependence of silicon waveguide using slot structure,” Opt. Express 16, 1645–1652 (2008). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.16.001645.
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G. Maire, L. Vivien, G. Sattler, A. Kaźmierczak, B. Sanchez, K. B. Gylfason, A. Griol, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cas-san, D. Giannone, H. Sohlström, and D. Hill, “High efficiency silicon nitride surface grating couplers,” Opt. Express 16, 328–333 (2008). URL http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.16.000328.
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C. A. Barrios, B. Sánchez, K. B. Gylfason, A. Griol, H. Sohlström, M. Holgado, and R. Casquel, “Demonstration of slot-waveguide structures on silicon nitride / silicon oxide platform,” Opt. Express 15, 6846–6856 (2007). URL http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?id=134979.
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C. A. Barrios, K. B. Gylfason, B. Sánchez, A. Griol, H. Sohlström, M. Holgado, and R. Casquel, “Slot-waveguide biochemical sensor,” Optics Letters 32, 3080–3082 (2007). URL http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?id=144251.
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

A schematic cross section of the coupling region of a slot-waveguide ring resonator refractive index sensor. To the left is the straight bus waveguide and to the right the bent ring waveguide. The opposite polarity of the thermo-optic coefficients κ of the solid waveguide materials and the liquid sample, utilized in athermal sensor design, is indicated on the ring waveguide end face.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

A top view of the layout of the optical chip: Light is injected at the surface grating coupler (c) and split, by the multi-mode interference splitter (b), to the six sensing channels M1–M6 and the two reference channels REF1 and REF2. Inset are an optical micro-graph of the splitter (b); and electron micro-graphs of the grating coupler (c), and a slot-waveguide ring resonator (a), with an enlargement of the coupling region.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Example transmission spectra of sensor M1 operating in DI water at two different temperatures. The wavelength step in this particular measurement was 20 pm. The solid line is a combined Lorentzian and double cavity Fabry-Perot model. The obtained quality factor of this device was 3000 and the arrows indicate the extracted resonance wavelengths. The inset shows an enlargement of the region around resonance at 33°C

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

The left panels show the resonance wavelengths of (a) channel M1, and (b) channel M2, as functions of time during temperature stepping from 23.0°C to 33.0°C and a jump back to 23.0°C. The right panels show the corresponding resonance wavelengths of (c) channel M1, and (d) channel M2, as functions of temperature. The slopes of the fitted lines yield the temperature sensitivities of the sensors.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) The resonance wavelength shifts of sensors M1, M4, and their difference, as functions of time during injections of a dilution series of ethanol into a running buffer of DI water in M1. The inset shows a magnification of the measured baseline noise of the differential signal. (b) The corresponding shifts observed in M1 – M4 as a function of the refractive index shift of the injected solution. (c) Resonance wavelength shifts of channels M1, M2, and their difference, for repeated injections of 2% ethanol in M1 during a 9 K temperature transient. The dashed line M2' indicates an interpolated M2 signal with cross talk from the injections in M1 removed.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Mass percentage (mass of ethanol/total mass of solution) of the injected ethanol calibration solutions and the corresponding shift from pure water refractive index.

Equations (1)

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D = 3 σ S = 2.1 pm 240 nm / RIU = 8.8 × 10 6 RIU ,

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