Abstract

Currently, cardiac radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is guided by indirect signals. We demonstrate optical coherence tomography (OCT) characterization of RFA lesions within swine ventricular wedges. Untreated tissue exhibited a consistent birefringence artifact within OCT images due to the organized myocardium, which was not present in treated tissue. Birefringence artifacts were detected by filtering with a Laplacian of Gaussian (LoG) to quantify gradient strength. The gradient strength distinguished RFA lesions from untreated sites (p=5.93×10-15) with a sensitivity and specificity of 94.5% and 86.7% respectively. This study demonstrates the potential of OCT for monitoring cardiac RFA, confirming lesion formation and providing feedback to avoid complications.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2008 (4)

T. Dickfeld, R. Kato, M. Zviman, S. Lai, G. Meininger, A. C. Lardo, A. Roguin, D. Blumke, R. Berger, H. Calkins, and H. Halperin, "Characterization of Radiofrequency Ablation Lesions With Gadolinium-Enhanced Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging," Journal American College Cardiology 47, 370-378 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Rosamond, K. Flegal, K. Furie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. M. Hailpern, M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lloyd-Jones, M. McDermott, J. Meigs, C. Moy, G. Nicho, C. O’Donnell, V. Roger, P. Sorlie, J. Steinberger, T. Thom, M. Wilson, and Y. Hong, "Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics 2008 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee," Circulation 117, e25-e146 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Fleming, C. Ripplinger, B. Webb, I. R. Efimov, and A. M. Rollins, "Quantification of Cardiac Fiber Orientation Using Optical Coherence Tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 030505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Hucker, C. Ripplinger, C. P. Fleming, V. Fedorov, A. M. Rollins, and I. R. Efimov, "Bimodal Biophotonic Imaging of the Structure-Function Relationship in Cardiac Tissue," J Biomed. Opt. 13, 054012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (7)

M. E. Brezinski, "Applications of optical coherence tomography to cardiac and musculoskeletal diseases: bench to bedside?," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 051705 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Dickfeld, R. Kato, M. Zviman, S. Nazarian, J. Dong, H. Ashikaga, A. C. Lardo, R. D. Berger, H. Calkins, and H. Halperin, "Characterization of acute and subacute radio frequency ablation lesions with nonenhanced magnetic resonance imaging," Heart Rhythm 4, 208-214 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Schmidt, V. K. Reddy, and J. N. Ruskin, "Nonenhanced magnetic resonance imaging for characterization of acute and subacute radiofrequency ablation lesions," Heart Rhythm 4, 215-217 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-F. Ren and F. E. Marchinski, "Utility of Intracardiac Echocardiography in Left Heart Ablation for Tachyarrhythmias," Echocardiography 24, 533-540 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Dickfeld, R. Kato, M. Zviman, S. Nazarian, H. Ashikaga, A. C. Lardo, R. D. Berger, H. Calkins, and H. Halperin, "Characterization of Acute and Subacute Radiofrequency Ablation Lesions with Non-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging," Heart Rhythm 4, 208-214 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Vakoc, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Real-time microscopic visualization of tissue response to laser thermal therapy," Opt. Lett. 12, 020501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Hu and A. Rollins, "Fourier domain optical coherence tomography with a linear-in-wavenumber spectrometer," Opt. Lett. 32, 3524-3527 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (6)

B. Liu, M. Harman, S. Giattina, D. Stamper, Charles Demakis, M. Chilek, S. Raby, and M. Brezinski, "Characterizing of tissue microstructure with single-detector polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Appl. Opt. 45, 4464-4479 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Giattina, B. K. Courtney, P. R. Herz, M. Harman, S. Shortkroff, D. L. Stamper, B. Liu, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, "Assessment of coronary plaque collagen with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT)," Intl. J. Cardiology 107, 400-409 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Dickfeld, R. Kato, M. Zviman, S. Lai, G. Meininger, A. C. Lardo, A. Roguin, D. Blumke, R. Berger, H. Calkins, and H. Halperin, "Characterization of Radiofrequency Ablation Lesions with Gadolinium-Enhanced Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging," J Am Coll Cardiol 47, 370-378 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Alaeddini, M. A. Wood, B. P. Lee, and K. A. Ellenbogen, "Incidence, Time Course, and Characteristics of Microbubble Formation During Radiofrequency Ablation of Pulmonary Veins with an 8-mm Ablation Catheter," Pacing Clin. Electrophysiol 29, 979-984 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. David Schwartzman, R. John Nosbisch, and R. Debra Housel, "Echocardiographically guided left atrial ablation: Characterization of a new technique," Heart Rhythm Soc. 3, 930-938 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Joung, M. Lee, J.-H. Sung, J.-Y. Kim, S. Ahn, and S. Kim, "Pediatric Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation Sedation Methods and Success, Complication and Recurrence Rates," Circulation J. 70, 278-284 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

M. Ford, Y. Zhou, H. Wang, C. X. Deng, and A. M. Rollins, "Optical coherence tomography monitoring of cardiac ablation by high-intensity focused ultrasound," Proc. SPIE 5686, 432 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Hu and A. M. Rollins, "Quasi-telecentric optical design of a microscope-compatible OCT scanner," Opt. Express 13, 6407-6415 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

D. O’Donnell and V. Nadurata, "Radiofrequency Ablation for Post Infarction Ventricular Tachycardia," Indian Pacing Electrophysiol. J. 4, 63-72 (2004).

J. M. Cooper, J. L. Sapp, U. Tedrow, C. P. Pellegrin, D. Robinson, L. M. Epstein, and W. G. Stevenson, "Ablation with an internally irrigated radiofrequency catheter: Learning how to avoid steam pops," Heart Rhythm 1, 329-333 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

A. O. Grant, "Recent Advances in the Treatment of Arrhythmias," Circulation J. 67, 651-655 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Patel, X. Li, D. L. Stamper, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, "Guidance of aortic ablation using optical coherence tomography," The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging 19, 171-178 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Swartling, S. Palsson, P. Platonov, S. B. Olsson, and S. Andersson-Engels, "Changes in tissue optical properties due to radio-frequency ablation of myocardium," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 41, 403-409 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yang, L. Wu, Y. Feng, and R. K. Wang, "Observations of birefringence in tissues from optic-fibre-based optical coherence tomography," Measurement Science Technol. 14, 41-46 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. Gupta, A. M. Rollins, J. A. Izatt, and I. R. Efimov, "Imaging of the atrioventricular node using optical coherence tomography," J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 13, 95 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

P. Whittaker, S.-m. Zheng, M. J. Patterson, R. A. Kloner, K. E. Daly, and R. A. Hartman, "Histologic Signatures of Thermal Injury: Applications in Transmyocardial Laser Revascularization and Radiofrequency Ablation," Lasers in Surgery and Medicine 27, 305-318 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

S. A. Boppart, J. Herrmann, C. Pitris, D. L. Stamper, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "High-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography-Guided Laser Ablation of Surgical Tissue," J. Surgical Res. 82, 275-284 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (4)

L. Bretzner and T. Lindeberg, "Feature Tracking with Automatic Selection of Spatial Scales," Computer Vision and Image Understanding 71, 385-392 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. F. de Boer, S. M. Srinivas, A. Malekafzali, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, "Imaging thermally damaged tissue by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 3, 212-218 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Schoenenberger, J. Bill W. Colston, D. J. Maitland, L. B. D. Silva, and M. J. Everett, "Mapping of birefringence and thermal damage in tissue by use of polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Appl. Opt. 37, 6026-6036 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Rollins, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, R. Un-arunyawee, and J. A. Izatt, "In Vivo Video Rate Optical Coherence Tomography," Opt. Express 3, 219-229 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knuttel, M. Yadlowsky, and M. A. Eckhaus, "Optical-coherence tomography of a dense tissue: statistics of attenuation and backscattering," Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1705-1720 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (2)

B. Holmbom, U. Niislund, A. Eriksson, I. Virtancn, and L.-E. Thornell, "Comparison of triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining versus detection of fibronectin in experimental myocardial infarction," Histochemistry 99, 265-275 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Bosman, "Heat-induced structural alterations in myocardium in relation to changing optical properties," Appl. Opt. 32, 461-463 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahn, S.

B. Joung, M. Lee, J.-H. Sung, J.-Y. Kim, S. Ahn, and S. Kim, "Pediatric Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation Sedation Methods and Success, Complication and Recurrence Rates," Circulation J. 70, 278-284 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alaeddini, J.

J. Alaeddini, M. A. Wood, B. P. Lee, and K. A. Ellenbogen, "Incidence, Time Course, and Characteristics of Microbubble Formation During Radiofrequency Ablation of Pulmonary Veins with an 8-mm Ablation Catheter," Pacing Clin. Electrophysiol 29, 979-984 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andersson-Engels, S.

J. Swartling, S. Palsson, P. Platonov, S. B. Olsson, and S. Andersson-Engels, "Changes in tissue optical properties due to radio-frequency ablation of myocardium," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 41, 403-409 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ashikaga, H.

T. Dickfeld, R. Kato, M. Zviman, S. Nazarian, J. Dong, H. Ashikaga, A. C. Lardo, R. D. Berger, H. Calkins, and H. Halperin, "Characterization of acute and subacute radio frequency ablation lesions with nonenhanced magnetic resonance imaging," Heart Rhythm 4, 208-214 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Dickfeld, R. Kato, M. Zviman, S. Nazarian, H. Ashikaga, A. C. Lardo, R. D. Berger, H. Calkins, and H. Halperin, "Characterization of Acute and Subacute Radiofrequency Ablation Lesions with Non-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging," Heart Rhythm 4, 208-214 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berger, R.

T. Dickfeld, R. Kato, M. Zviman, S. Lai, G. Meininger, A. C. Lardo, A. Roguin, D. Blumke, R. Berger, H. Calkins, and H. Halperin, "Characterization of Radiofrequency Ablation Lesions With Gadolinium-Enhanced Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging," Journal American College Cardiology 47, 370-378 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Dickfeld, R. Kato, M. Zviman, S. Lai, G. Meininger, A. C. Lardo, A. Roguin, D. Blumke, R. Berger, H. Calkins, and H. Halperin, "Characterization of Radiofrequency Ablation Lesions with Gadolinium-Enhanced Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging," J Am Coll Cardiol 47, 370-378 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berger, R. D.

T. Dickfeld, R. Kato, M. Zviman, S. Nazarian, H. Ashikaga, A. C. Lardo, R. D. Berger, H. Calkins, and H. Halperin, "Characterization of Acute and Subacute Radiofrequency Ablation Lesions with Non-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging," Heart Rhythm 4, 208-214 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Dickfeld, R. Kato, M. Zviman, S. Nazarian, J. Dong, H. Ashikaga, A. C. Lardo, R. D. Berger, H. Calkins, and H. Halperin, "Characterization of acute and subacute radio frequency ablation lesions with nonenhanced magnetic resonance imaging," Heart Rhythm 4, 208-214 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blumke, D.

T. Dickfeld, R. Kato, M. Zviman, S. Lai, G. Meininger, A. C. Lardo, A. Roguin, D. Blumke, R. Berger, H. Calkins, and H. Halperin, "Characterization of Radiofrequency Ablation Lesions With Gadolinium-Enhanced Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging," Journal American College Cardiology 47, 370-378 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Dickfeld, R. Kato, M. Zviman, S. Lai, G. Meininger, A. C. Lardo, A. Roguin, D. Blumke, R. Berger, H. Calkins, and H. Halperin, "Characterization of Radiofrequency Ablation Lesions with Gadolinium-Enhanced Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging," J Am Coll Cardiol 47, 370-378 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boppart, S. A.

S. A. Boppart, J. Herrmann, C. Pitris, D. L. Stamper, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "High-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography-Guided Laser Ablation of Surgical Tissue," J. Surgical Res. 82, 275-284 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bosman, S.

S. Bosman, "Heat-induced structural alterations in myocardium in relation to changing optical properties," Appl. Opt. 32, 461-463 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

B. J. Vakoc, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Real-time microscopic visualization of tissue response to laser thermal therapy," Opt. Lett. 12, 020501 (2007).
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Bretzner, L.

L. Bretzner and T. Lindeberg, "Feature Tracking with Automatic Selection of Spatial Scales," Computer Vision and Image Understanding 71, 385-392 (1998).
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Brezinski, M. E.

M. E. Brezinski, "Applications of optical coherence tomography to cardiac and musculoskeletal diseases: bench to bedside?," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 051705 (2007).
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S. D. Giattina, B. K. Courtney, P. R. Herz, M. Harman, S. Shortkroff, D. L. Stamper, B. Liu, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, "Assessment of coronary plaque collagen with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT)," Intl. J. Cardiology 107, 400-409 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Patel, X. Li, D. L. Stamper, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, "Guidance of aortic ablation using optical coherence tomography," The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging 19, 171-178 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Boppart, J. Herrmann, C. Pitris, D. L. Stamper, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "High-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography-Guided Laser Ablation of Surgical Tissue," J. Surgical Res. 82, 275-284 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Calkins, H.

T. Dickfeld, R. Kato, M. Zviman, S. Lai, G. Meininger, A. C. Lardo, A. Roguin, D. Blumke, R. Berger, H. Calkins, and H. Halperin, "Characterization of Radiofrequency Ablation Lesions With Gadolinium-Enhanced Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging," Journal American College Cardiology 47, 370-378 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Dickfeld, R. Kato, M. Zviman, S. Nazarian, H. Ashikaga, A. C. Lardo, R. D. Berger, H. Calkins, and H. Halperin, "Characterization of Acute and Subacute Radiofrequency Ablation Lesions with Non-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging," Heart Rhythm 4, 208-214 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Dickfeld, R. Kato, M. Zviman, S. Nazarian, J. Dong, H. Ashikaga, A. C. Lardo, R. D. Berger, H. Calkins, and H. Halperin, "Characterization of acute and subacute radio frequency ablation lesions with nonenhanced magnetic resonance imaging," Heart Rhythm 4, 208-214 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Dickfeld, R. Kato, M. Zviman, S. Lai, G. Meininger, A. C. Lardo, A. Roguin, D. Blumke, R. Berger, H. Calkins, and H. Halperin, "Characterization of Radiofrequency Ablation Lesions with Gadolinium-Enhanced Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging," J Am Coll Cardiol 47, 370-378 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Charles Demakis, D.

B. Liu, M. Harman, S. Giattina, D. Stamper, Charles Demakis, M. Chilek, S. Raby, and M. Brezinski, "Characterizing of tissue microstructure with single-detector polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Appl. Opt. 45, 4464-4479 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

J. F. de Boer, S. M. Srinivas, A. Malekafzali, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, "Imaging thermally damaged tissue by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 3, 212-218 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cooper, J. M.

J. M. Cooper, J. L. Sapp, U. Tedrow, C. P. Pellegrin, D. Robinson, L. M. Epstein, and W. G. Stevenson, "Ablation with an internally irrigated radiofrequency catheter: Learning how to avoid steam pops," Heart Rhythm 1, 329-333 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Courtney, B. K.

S. D. Giattina, B. K. Courtney, P. R. Herz, M. Harman, S. Shortkroff, D. L. Stamper, B. Liu, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, "Assessment of coronary plaque collagen with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT)," Intl. J. Cardiology 107, 400-409 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Daly, K. E.

P. Whittaker, S.-m. Zheng, M. J. Patterson, R. A. Kloner, K. E. Daly, and R. A. Hartman, "Histologic Signatures of Thermal Injury: Applications in Transmyocardial Laser Revascularization and Radiofrequency Ablation," Lasers in Surgery and Medicine 27, 305-318 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

David Schwartzman, M.

M. David Schwartzman, R. John Nosbisch, and R. Debra Housel, "Echocardiographically guided left atrial ablation: Characterization of a new technique," Heart Rhythm Soc. 3, 930-938 (2006).
[CrossRef]

de Boer, J. F.

J. F. de Boer, S. M. Srinivas, A. Malekafzali, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, "Imaging thermally damaged tissue by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 3, 212-218 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Debra Housel, R.

M. David Schwartzman, R. John Nosbisch, and R. Debra Housel, "Echocardiographically guided left atrial ablation: Characterization of a new technique," Heart Rhythm Soc. 3, 930-938 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Deng, C. X.

M. Ford, Y. Zhou, H. Wang, C. X. Deng, and A. M. Rollins, "Optical coherence tomography monitoring of cardiac ablation by high-intensity focused ultrasound," Proc. SPIE 5686, 432 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dickfeld, T.

T. Dickfeld, R. Kato, M. Zviman, S. Lai, G. Meininger, A. C. Lardo, A. Roguin, D. Blumke, R. Berger, H. Calkins, and H. Halperin, "Characterization of Radiofrequency Ablation Lesions With Gadolinium-Enhanced Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging," Journal American College Cardiology 47, 370-378 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Dickfeld, R. Kato, M. Zviman, S. Nazarian, J. Dong, H. Ashikaga, A. C. Lardo, R. D. Berger, H. Calkins, and H. Halperin, "Characterization of acute and subacute radio frequency ablation lesions with nonenhanced magnetic resonance imaging," Heart Rhythm 4, 208-214 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Dickfeld, R. Kato, M. Zviman, S. Nazarian, H. Ashikaga, A. C. Lardo, R. D. Berger, H. Calkins, and H. Halperin, "Characterization of Acute and Subacute Radiofrequency Ablation Lesions with Non-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging," Heart Rhythm 4, 208-214 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Dickfeld, R. Kato, M. Zviman, S. Lai, G. Meininger, A. C. Lardo, A. Roguin, D. Blumke, R. Berger, H. Calkins, and H. Halperin, "Characterization of Radiofrequency Ablation Lesions with Gadolinium-Enhanced Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging," J Am Coll Cardiol 47, 370-378 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dong, J.

T. Dickfeld, R. Kato, M. Zviman, S. Nazarian, J. Dong, H. Ashikaga, A. C. Lardo, R. D. Berger, H. Calkins, and H. Halperin, "Characterization of acute and subacute radio frequency ablation lesions with nonenhanced magnetic resonance imaging," Heart Rhythm 4, 208-214 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eckhaus, M. A.

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knuttel, M. Yadlowsky, and M. A. Eckhaus, "Optical-coherence tomography of a dense tissue: statistics of attenuation and backscattering," Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1705-1720 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Efimov, I. R.

W. Hucker, C. Ripplinger, C. P. Fleming, V. Fedorov, A. M. Rollins, and I. R. Efimov, "Bimodal Biophotonic Imaging of the Structure-Function Relationship in Cardiac Tissue," J Biomed. Opt. 13, 054012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Fleming, C. Ripplinger, B. Webb, I. R. Efimov, and A. M. Rollins, "Quantification of Cardiac Fiber Orientation Using Optical Coherence Tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 030505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Gupta, A. M. Rollins, J. A. Izatt, and I. R. Efimov, "Imaging of the atrioventricular node using optical coherence tomography," J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 13, 95 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ellenbogen, K. A.

J. Alaeddini, M. A. Wood, B. P. Lee, and K. A. Ellenbogen, "Incidence, Time Course, and Characteristics of Microbubble Formation During Radiofrequency Ablation of Pulmonary Veins with an 8-mm Ablation Catheter," Pacing Clin. Electrophysiol 29, 979-984 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Epstein, L. M.

J. M. Cooper, J. L. Sapp, U. Tedrow, C. P. Pellegrin, D. Robinson, L. M. Epstein, and W. G. Stevenson, "Ablation with an internally irrigated radiofrequency catheter: Learning how to avoid steam pops," Heart Rhythm 1, 329-333 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Eriksson, A.

B. Holmbom, U. Niislund, A. Eriksson, I. Virtancn, and L.-E. Thornell, "Comparison of triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining versus detection of fibronectin in experimental myocardial infarction," Histochemistry 99, 265-275 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fedorov, V.

W. Hucker, C. Ripplinger, C. P. Fleming, V. Fedorov, A. M. Rollins, and I. R. Efimov, "Bimodal Biophotonic Imaging of the Structure-Function Relationship in Cardiac Tissue," J Biomed. Opt. 13, 054012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feng, Y.

Y. Yang, L. Wu, Y. Feng, and R. K. Wang, "Observations of birefringence in tissues from optic-fibre-based optical coherence tomography," Measurement Science Technol. 14, 41-46 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Flegal, K.

W. Rosamond, K. Flegal, K. Furie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. M. Hailpern, M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lloyd-Jones, M. McDermott, J. Meigs, C. Moy, G. Nicho, C. O’Donnell, V. Roger, P. Sorlie, J. Steinberger, T. Thom, M. Wilson, and Y. Hong, "Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics 2008 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee," Circulation 117, e25-e146 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fleming, C. P.

C. P. Fleming, C. Ripplinger, B. Webb, I. R. Efimov, and A. M. Rollins, "Quantification of Cardiac Fiber Orientation Using Optical Coherence Tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 030505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Hucker, C. Ripplinger, C. P. Fleming, V. Fedorov, A. M. Rollins, and I. R. Efimov, "Bimodal Biophotonic Imaging of the Structure-Function Relationship in Cardiac Tissue," J Biomed. Opt. 13, 054012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ford, M.

M. Ford, Y. Zhou, H. Wang, C. X. Deng, and A. M. Rollins, "Optical coherence tomography monitoring of cardiac ablation by high-intensity focused ultrasound," Proc. SPIE 5686, 432 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

S. D. Giattina, B. K. Courtney, P. R. Herz, M. Harman, S. Shortkroff, D. L. Stamper, B. Liu, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, "Assessment of coronary plaque collagen with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT)," Intl. J. Cardiology 107, 400-409 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Patel, X. Li, D. L. Stamper, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, "Guidance of aortic ablation using optical coherence tomography," The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging 19, 171-178 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Boppart, J. Herrmann, C. Pitris, D. L. Stamper, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "High-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography-Guided Laser Ablation of Surgical Tissue," J. Surgical Res. 82, 275-284 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Furie, K.

W. Rosamond, K. Flegal, K. Furie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. M. Hailpern, M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lloyd-Jones, M. McDermott, J. Meigs, C. Moy, G. Nicho, C. O’Donnell, V. Roger, P. Sorlie, J. Steinberger, T. Thom, M. Wilson, and Y. Hong, "Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics 2008 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee," Circulation 117, e25-e146 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Giattina, S.

B. Liu, M. Harman, S. Giattina, D. Stamper, Charles Demakis, M. Chilek, S. Raby, and M. Brezinski, "Characterizing of tissue microstructure with single-detector polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Appl. Opt. 45, 4464-4479 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giattina, S. D.

S. D. Giattina, B. K. Courtney, P. R. Herz, M. Harman, S. Shortkroff, D. L. Stamper, B. Liu, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, "Assessment of coronary plaque collagen with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT)," Intl. J. Cardiology 107, 400-409 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Go, A.

W. Rosamond, K. Flegal, K. Furie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. M. Hailpern, M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lloyd-Jones, M. McDermott, J. Meigs, C. Moy, G. Nicho, C. O’Donnell, V. Roger, P. Sorlie, J. Steinberger, T. Thom, M. Wilson, and Y. Hong, "Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics 2008 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee," Circulation 117, e25-e146 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grant, A. O.

A. O. Grant, "Recent Advances in the Treatment of Arrhythmias," Circulation J. 67, 651-655 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greenlund, K.

W. Rosamond, K. Flegal, K. Furie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. M. Hailpern, M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lloyd-Jones, M. McDermott, J. Meigs, C. Moy, G. Nicho, C. O’Donnell, V. Roger, P. Sorlie, J. Steinberger, T. Thom, M. Wilson, and Y. Hong, "Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics 2008 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee," Circulation 117, e25-e146 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, M.

M. Gupta, A. M. Rollins, J. A. Izatt, and I. R. Efimov, "Imaging of the atrioventricular node using optical coherence tomography," J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 13, 95 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haase, N.

W. Rosamond, K. Flegal, K. Furie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. M. Hailpern, M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lloyd-Jones, M. McDermott, J. Meigs, C. Moy, G. Nicho, C. O’Donnell, V. Roger, P. Sorlie, J. Steinberger, T. Thom, M. Wilson, and Y. Hong, "Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics 2008 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee," Circulation 117, e25-e146 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hailpern, S. M.

W. Rosamond, K. Flegal, K. Furie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. M. Hailpern, M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lloyd-Jones, M. McDermott, J. Meigs, C. Moy, G. Nicho, C. O’Donnell, V. Roger, P. Sorlie, J. Steinberger, T. Thom, M. Wilson, and Y. Hong, "Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics 2008 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee," Circulation 117, e25-e146 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Halperin, H.

T. Dickfeld, R. Kato, M. Zviman, S. Lai, G. Meininger, A. C. Lardo, A. Roguin, D. Blumke, R. Berger, H. Calkins, and H. Halperin, "Characterization of Radiofrequency Ablation Lesions With Gadolinium-Enhanced Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging," Journal American College Cardiology 47, 370-378 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Dickfeld, R. Kato, M. Zviman, S. Nazarian, H. Ashikaga, A. C. Lardo, R. D. Berger, H. Calkins, and H. Halperin, "Characterization of Acute and Subacute Radiofrequency Ablation Lesions with Non-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging," Heart Rhythm 4, 208-214 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Dickfeld, R. Kato, M. Zviman, S. Nazarian, J. Dong, H. Ashikaga, A. C. Lardo, R. D. Berger, H. Calkins, and H. Halperin, "Characterization of acute and subacute radio frequency ablation lesions with nonenhanced magnetic resonance imaging," Heart Rhythm 4, 208-214 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Dickfeld, R. Kato, M. Zviman, S. Lai, G. Meininger, A. C. Lardo, A. Roguin, D. Blumke, R. Berger, H. Calkins, and H. Halperin, "Characterization of Radiofrequency Ablation Lesions with Gadolinium-Enhanced Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging," J Am Coll Cardiol 47, 370-378 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harman, M.

B. Liu, M. Harman, S. Giattina, D. Stamper, Charles Demakis, M. Chilek, S. Raby, and M. Brezinski, "Characterizing of tissue microstructure with single-detector polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Appl. Opt. 45, 4464-4479 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Giattina, B. K. Courtney, P. R. Herz, M. Harman, S. Shortkroff, D. L. Stamper, B. Liu, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, "Assessment of coronary plaque collagen with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT)," Intl. J. Cardiology 107, 400-409 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hartman, R. A.

P. Whittaker, S.-m. Zheng, M. J. Patterson, R. A. Kloner, K. E. Daly, and R. A. Hartman, "Histologic Signatures of Thermal Injury: Applications in Transmyocardial Laser Revascularization and Radiofrequency Ablation," Lasers in Surgery and Medicine 27, 305-318 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herrmann, J.

S. A. Boppart, J. Herrmann, C. Pitris, D. L. Stamper, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "High-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography-Guided Laser Ablation of Surgical Tissue," J. Surgical Res. 82, 275-284 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herz, P. R.

S. D. Giattina, B. K. Courtney, P. R. Herz, M. Harman, S. Shortkroff, D. L. Stamper, B. Liu, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, "Assessment of coronary plaque collagen with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT)," Intl. J. Cardiology 107, 400-409 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ho, M.

W. Rosamond, K. Flegal, K. Furie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. M. Hailpern, M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lloyd-Jones, M. McDermott, J. Meigs, C. Moy, G. Nicho, C. O’Donnell, V. Roger, P. Sorlie, J. Steinberger, T. Thom, M. Wilson, and Y. Hong, "Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics 2008 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee," Circulation 117, e25-e146 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Holmbom, B.

B. Holmbom, U. Niislund, A. Eriksson, I. Virtancn, and L.-E. Thornell, "Comparison of triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining versus detection of fibronectin in experimental myocardial infarction," Histochemistry 99, 265-275 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, Y.

W. Rosamond, K. Flegal, K. Furie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. M. Hailpern, M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lloyd-Jones, M. McDermott, J. Meigs, C. Moy, G. Nicho, C. O’Donnell, V. Roger, P. Sorlie, J. Steinberger, T. Thom, M. Wilson, and Y. Hong, "Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics 2008 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee," Circulation 117, e25-e146 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Howard, V.

W. Rosamond, K. Flegal, K. Furie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. M. Hailpern, M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lloyd-Jones, M. McDermott, J. Meigs, C. Moy, G. Nicho, C. O’Donnell, V. Roger, P. Sorlie, J. Steinberger, T. Thom, M. Wilson, and Y. Hong, "Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics 2008 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee," Circulation 117, e25-e146 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Z.

Z. Hu and A. Rollins, "Fourier domain optical coherence tomography with a linear-in-wavenumber spectrometer," Opt. Lett. 32, 3524-3527 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Hu and A. M. Rollins, "Quasi-telecentric optical design of a microscope-compatible OCT scanner," Opt. Express 13, 6407-6415 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hucker, W.

W. Hucker, C. Ripplinger, C. P. Fleming, V. Fedorov, A. M. Rollins, and I. R. Efimov, "Bimodal Biophotonic Imaging of the Structure-Function Relationship in Cardiac Tissue," J Biomed. Opt. 13, 054012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izatt, J. A.

M. Gupta, A. M. Rollins, J. A. Izatt, and I. R. Efimov, "Imaging of the atrioventricular node using optical coherence tomography," J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 13, 95 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Rollins, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, R. Un-arunyawee, and J. A. Izatt, "In Vivo Video Rate Optical Coherence Tomography," Opt. Express 3, 219-229 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

John Nosbisch, R.

M. David Schwartzman, R. John Nosbisch, and R. Debra Housel, "Echocardiographically guided left atrial ablation: Characterization of a new technique," Heart Rhythm Soc. 3, 930-938 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Joung, B.

B. Joung, M. Lee, J.-H. Sung, J.-Y. Kim, S. Ahn, and S. Kim, "Pediatric Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation Sedation Methods and Success, Complication and Recurrence Rates," Circulation J. 70, 278-284 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kato, R.

T. Dickfeld, R. Kato, M. Zviman, S. Lai, G. Meininger, A. C. Lardo, A. Roguin, D. Blumke, R. Berger, H. Calkins, and H. Halperin, "Characterization of Radiofrequency Ablation Lesions With Gadolinium-Enhanced Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging," Journal American College Cardiology 47, 370-378 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Dickfeld, R. Kato, M. Zviman, S. Nazarian, J. Dong, H. Ashikaga, A. C. Lardo, R. D. Berger, H. Calkins, and H. Halperin, "Characterization of acute and subacute radio frequency ablation lesions with nonenhanced magnetic resonance imaging," Heart Rhythm 4, 208-214 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Dickfeld, R. Kato, M. Zviman, S. Nazarian, H. Ashikaga, A. C. Lardo, R. D. Berger, H. Calkins, and H. Halperin, "Characterization of Acute and Subacute Radiofrequency Ablation Lesions with Non-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging," Heart Rhythm 4, 208-214 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Dickfeld, R. Kato, M. Zviman, S. Lai, G. Meininger, A. C. Lardo, A. Roguin, D. Blumke, R. Berger, H. Calkins, and H. Halperin, "Characterization of Radiofrequency Ablation Lesions with Gadolinium-Enhanced Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging," J Am Coll Cardiol 47, 370-378 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J.-Y.

B. Joung, M. Lee, J.-H. Sung, J.-Y. Kim, S. Ahn, and S. Kim, "Pediatric Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation Sedation Methods and Success, Complication and Recurrence Rates," Circulation J. 70, 278-284 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S.

B. Joung, M. Lee, J.-H. Sung, J.-Y. Kim, S. Ahn, and S. Kim, "Pediatric Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation Sedation Methods and Success, Complication and Recurrence Rates," Circulation J. 70, 278-284 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kissela, B.

W. Rosamond, K. Flegal, K. Furie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. M. Hailpern, M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lloyd-Jones, M. McDermott, J. Meigs, C. Moy, G. Nicho, C. O’Donnell, V. Roger, P. Sorlie, J. Steinberger, T. Thom, M. Wilson, and Y. Hong, "Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics 2008 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee," Circulation 117, e25-e146 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kittner, S.

W. Rosamond, K. Flegal, K. Furie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. M. Hailpern, M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lloyd-Jones, M. McDermott, J. Meigs, C. Moy, G. Nicho, C. O’Donnell, V. Roger, P. Sorlie, J. Steinberger, T. Thom, M. Wilson, and Y. Hong, "Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics 2008 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee," Circulation 117, e25-e146 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kloner, R. A.

P. Whittaker, S.-m. Zheng, M. J. Patterson, R. A. Kloner, K. E. Daly, and R. A. Hartman, "Histologic Signatures of Thermal Injury: Applications in Transmyocardial Laser Revascularization and Radiofrequency Ablation," Lasers in Surgery and Medicine 27, 305-318 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knuttel, A.

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knuttel, M. Yadlowsky, and M. A. Eckhaus, "Optical-coherence tomography of a dense tissue: statistics of attenuation and backscattering," Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1705-1720 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kulkarni, M. D.

A. M. Rollins, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, R. Un-arunyawee, and J. A. Izatt, "In Vivo Video Rate Optical Coherence Tomography," Opt. Express 3, 219-229 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lai, S.

T. Dickfeld, R. Kato, M. Zviman, S. Lai, G. Meininger, A. C. Lardo, A. Roguin, D. Blumke, R. Berger, H. Calkins, and H. Halperin, "Characterization of Radiofrequency Ablation Lesions With Gadolinium-Enhanced Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging," Journal American College Cardiology 47, 370-378 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Dickfeld, R. Kato, M. Zviman, S. Lai, G. Meininger, A. C. Lardo, A. Roguin, D. Blumke, R. Berger, H. Calkins, and H. Halperin, "Characterization of Radiofrequency Ablation Lesions with Gadolinium-Enhanced Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging," J Am Coll Cardiol 47, 370-378 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lardo, A. C.

T. Dickfeld, R. Kato, M. Zviman, S. Lai, G. Meininger, A. C. Lardo, A. Roguin, D. Blumke, R. Berger, H. Calkins, and H. Halperin, "Characterization of Radiofrequency Ablation Lesions With Gadolinium-Enhanced Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging," Journal American College Cardiology 47, 370-378 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Dickfeld, R. Kato, M. Zviman, S. Nazarian, H. Ashikaga, A. C. Lardo, R. D. Berger, H. Calkins, and H. Halperin, "Characterization of Acute and Subacute Radiofrequency Ablation Lesions with Non-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging," Heart Rhythm 4, 208-214 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Dickfeld, R. Kato, M. Zviman, S. Nazarian, J. Dong, H. Ashikaga, A. C. Lardo, R. D. Berger, H. Calkins, and H. Halperin, "Characterization of acute and subacute radio frequency ablation lesions with nonenhanced magnetic resonance imaging," Heart Rhythm 4, 208-214 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Dickfeld, R. Kato, M. Zviman, S. Lai, G. Meininger, A. C. Lardo, A. Roguin, D. Blumke, R. Berger, H. Calkins, and H. Halperin, "Characterization of Radiofrequency Ablation Lesions with Gadolinium-Enhanced Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging," J Am Coll Cardiol 47, 370-378 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, B. P.

J. Alaeddini, M. A. Wood, B. P. Lee, and K. A. Ellenbogen, "Incidence, Time Course, and Characteristics of Microbubble Formation During Radiofrequency Ablation of Pulmonary Veins with an 8-mm Ablation Catheter," Pacing Clin. Electrophysiol 29, 979-984 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, M.

B. Joung, M. Lee, J.-H. Sung, J.-Y. Kim, S. Ahn, and S. Kim, "Pediatric Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation Sedation Methods and Success, Complication and Recurrence Rates," Circulation J. 70, 278-284 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, X.

N. A. Patel, X. Li, D. L. Stamper, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, "Guidance of aortic ablation using optical coherence tomography," The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging 19, 171-178 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindeberg, T.

L. Bretzner and T. Lindeberg, "Feature Tracking with Automatic Selection of Spatial Scales," Computer Vision and Image Understanding 71, 385-392 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liu, B.

S. D. Giattina, B. K. Courtney, P. R. Herz, M. Harman, S. Shortkroff, D. L. Stamper, B. Liu, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, "Assessment of coronary plaque collagen with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT)," Intl. J. Cardiology 107, 400-409 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Liu, M. Harman, S. Giattina, D. Stamper, Charles Demakis, M. Chilek, S. Raby, and M. Brezinski, "Characterizing of tissue microstructure with single-detector polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Appl. Opt. 45, 4464-4479 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lloyd-Jones, D.

W. Rosamond, K. Flegal, K. Furie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. M. Hailpern, M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lloyd-Jones, M. McDermott, J. Meigs, C. Moy, G. Nicho, C. O’Donnell, V. Roger, P. Sorlie, J. Steinberger, T. Thom, M. Wilson, and Y. Hong, "Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics 2008 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee," Circulation 117, e25-e146 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Malekafzali, A.

J. F. de Boer, S. M. Srinivas, A. Malekafzali, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, "Imaging thermally damaged tissue by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 3, 212-218 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marchinski, F. E.

J.-F. Ren and F. E. Marchinski, "Utility of Intracardiac Echocardiography in Left Heart Ablation for Tachyarrhythmias," Echocardiography 24, 533-540 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McDermott, M.

W. Rosamond, K. Flegal, K. Furie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. M. Hailpern, M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lloyd-Jones, M. McDermott, J. Meigs, C. Moy, G. Nicho, C. O’Donnell, V. Roger, P. Sorlie, J. Steinberger, T. Thom, M. Wilson, and Y. Hong, "Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics 2008 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee," Circulation 117, e25-e146 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Meigs, J.

W. Rosamond, K. Flegal, K. Furie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. M. Hailpern, M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lloyd-Jones, M. McDermott, J. Meigs, C. Moy, G. Nicho, C. O’Donnell, V. Roger, P. Sorlie, J. Steinberger, T. Thom, M. Wilson, and Y. Hong, "Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics 2008 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee," Circulation 117, e25-e146 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Meininger, G.

T. Dickfeld, R. Kato, M. Zviman, S. Lai, G. Meininger, A. C. Lardo, A. Roguin, D. Blumke, R. Berger, H. Calkins, and H. Halperin, "Characterization of Radiofrequency Ablation Lesions With Gadolinium-Enhanced Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging," Journal American College Cardiology 47, 370-378 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Dickfeld, R. Kato, M. Zviman, S. Lai, G. Meininger, A. C. Lardo, A. Roguin, D. Blumke, R. Berger, H. Calkins, and H. Halperin, "Characterization of Radiofrequency Ablation Lesions with Gadolinium-Enhanced Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging," J Am Coll Cardiol 47, 370-378 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moy, C.

W. Rosamond, K. Flegal, K. Furie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. M. Hailpern, M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lloyd-Jones, M. McDermott, J. Meigs, C. Moy, G. Nicho, C. O’Donnell, V. Roger, P. Sorlie, J. Steinberger, T. Thom, M. Wilson, and Y. Hong, "Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics 2008 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee," Circulation 117, e25-e146 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nadurata, V.

D. O’Donnell and V. Nadurata, "Radiofrequency Ablation for Post Infarction Ventricular Tachycardia," Indian Pacing Electrophysiol. J. 4, 63-72 (2004).

Nazarian, S.

T. Dickfeld, R. Kato, M. Zviman, S. Nazarian, H. Ashikaga, A. C. Lardo, R. D. Berger, H. Calkins, and H. Halperin, "Characterization of Acute and Subacute Radiofrequency Ablation Lesions with Non-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging," Heart Rhythm 4, 208-214 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Dickfeld, R. Kato, M. Zviman, S. Nazarian, J. Dong, H. Ashikaga, A. C. Lardo, R. D. Berger, H. Calkins, and H. Halperin, "Characterization of acute and subacute radio frequency ablation lesions with nonenhanced magnetic resonance imaging," Heart Rhythm 4, 208-214 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nelson, J. S.

J. F. de Boer, S. M. Srinivas, A. Malekafzali, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, "Imaging thermally damaged tissue by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 3, 212-218 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nicho, G.

W. Rosamond, K. Flegal, K. Furie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. M. Hailpern, M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lloyd-Jones, M. McDermott, J. Meigs, C. Moy, G. Nicho, C. O’Donnell, V. Roger, P. Sorlie, J. Steinberger, T. Thom, M. Wilson, and Y. Hong, "Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics 2008 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee," Circulation 117, e25-e146 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Niislund, U.

B. Holmbom, U. Niislund, A. Eriksson, I. Virtancn, and L.-E. Thornell, "Comparison of triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining versus detection of fibronectin in experimental myocardial infarction," Histochemistry 99, 265-275 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Donnell, C.

W. Rosamond, K. Flegal, K. Furie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. M. Hailpern, M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lloyd-Jones, M. McDermott, J. Meigs, C. Moy, G. Nicho, C. O’Donnell, V. Roger, P. Sorlie, J. Steinberger, T. Thom, M. Wilson, and Y. Hong, "Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics 2008 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee," Circulation 117, e25-e146 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O’Donnell, D.

D. O’Donnell and V. Nadurata, "Radiofrequency Ablation for Post Infarction Ventricular Tachycardia," Indian Pacing Electrophysiol. J. 4, 63-72 (2004).

Olsson, S. B.

J. Swartling, S. Palsson, P. Platonov, S. B. Olsson, and S. Andersson-Engels, "Changes in tissue optical properties due to radio-frequency ablation of myocardium," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 41, 403-409 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palsson, S.

J. Swartling, S. Palsson, P. Platonov, S. B. Olsson, and S. Andersson-Engels, "Changes in tissue optical properties due to radio-frequency ablation of myocardium," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 41, 403-409 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patel, N. A.

N. A. Patel, X. Li, D. L. Stamper, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, "Guidance of aortic ablation using optical coherence tomography," The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging 19, 171-178 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patterson, M. J.

P. Whittaker, S.-m. Zheng, M. J. Patterson, R. A. Kloner, K. E. Daly, and R. A. Hartman, "Histologic Signatures of Thermal Injury: Applications in Transmyocardial Laser Revascularization and Radiofrequency Ablation," Lasers in Surgery and Medicine 27, 305-318 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pellegrin, C. P.

J. M. Cooper, J. L. Sapp, U. Tedrow, C. P. Pellegrin, D. Robinson, L. M. Epstein, and W. G. Stevenson, "Ablation with an internally irrigated radiofrequency catheter: Learning how to avoid steam pops," Heart Rhythm 1, 329-333 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pitris, C.

S. A. Boppart, J. Herrmann, C. Pitris, D. L. Stamper, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "High-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography-Guided Laser Ablation of Surgical Tissue," J. Surgical Res. 82, 275-284 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Platonov, P.

J. Swartling, S. Palsson, P. Platonov, S. B. Olsson, and S. Andersson-Engels, "Changes in tissue optical properties due to radio-frequency ablation of myocardium," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 41, 403-409 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reddy, V. K.

E. J. Schmidt, V. K. Reddy, and J. N. Ruskin, "Nonenhanced magnetic resonance imaging for characterization of acute and subacute radiofrequency ablation lesions," Heart Rhythm 4, 215-217 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ren, J.-F.

J.-F. Ren and F. E. Marchinski, "Utility of Intracardiac Echocardiography in Left Heart Ablation for Tachyarrhythmias," Echocardiography 24, 533-540 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ripplinger, C.

C. P. Fleming, C. Ripplinger, B. Webb, I. R. Efimov, and A. M. Rollins, "Quantification of Cardiac Fiber Orientation Using Optical Coherence Tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 030505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Hucker, C. Ripplinger, C. P. Fleming, V. Fedorov, A. M. Rollins, and I. R. Efimov, "Bimodal Biophotonic Imaging of the Structure-Function Relationship in Cardiac Tissue," J Biomed. Opt. 13, 054012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robinson, D.

J. M. Cooper, J. L. Sapp, U. Tedrow, C. P. Pellegrin, D. Robinson, L. M. Epstein, and W. G. Stevenson, "Ablation with an internally irrigated radiofrequency catheter: Learning how to avoid steam pops," Heart Rhythm 1, 329-333 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Roger, V.

W. Rosamond, K. Flegal, K. Furie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. M. Hailpern, M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lloyd-Jones, M. McDermott, J. Meigs, C. Moy, G. Nicho, C. O’Donnell, V. Roger, P. Sorlie, J. Steinberger, T. Thom, M. Wilson, and Y. Hong, "Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics 2008 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee," Circulation 117, e25-e146 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Roguin, A.

T. Dickfeld, R. Kato, M. Zviman, S. Lai, G. Meininger, A. C. Lardo, A. Roguin, D. Blumke, R. Berger, H. Calkins, and H. Halperin, "Characterization of Radiofrequency Ablation Lesions With Gadolinium-Enhanced Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging," Journal American College Cardiology 47, 370-378 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Dickfeld, R. Kato, M. Zviman, S. Lai, G. Meininger, A. C. Lardo, A. Roguin, D. Blumke, R. Berger, H. Calkins, and H. Halperin, "Characterization of Radiofrequency Ablation Lesions with Gadolinium-Enhanced Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging," J Am Coll Cardiol 47, 370-378 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rollins, A.

Z. Hu and A. Rollins, "Fourier domain optical coherence tomography with a linear-in-wavenumber spectrometer," Opt. Lett. 32, 3524-3527 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rollins, A. M.

W. Hucker, C. Ripplinger, C. P. Fleming, V. Fedorov, A. M. Rollins, and I. R. Efimov, "Bimodal Biophotonic Imaging of the Structure-Function Relationship in Cardiac Tissue," J Biomed. Opt. 13, 054012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Fleming, C. Ripplinger, B. Webb, I. R. Efimov, and A. M. Rollins, "Quantification of Cardiac Fiber Orientation Using Optical Coherence Tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 030505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ford, Y. Zhou, H. Wang, C. X. Deng, and A. M. Rollins, "Optical coherence tomography monitoring of cardiac ablation by high-intensity focused ultrasound," Proc. SPIE 5686, 432 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Hu and A. M. Rollins, "Quasi-telecentric optical design of a microscope-compatible OCT scanner," Opt. Express 13, 6407-6415 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Gupta, A. M. Rollins, J. A. Izatt, and I. R. Efimov, "Imaging of the atrioventricular node using optical coherence tomography," J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 13, 95 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Rollins, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, R. Un-arunyawee, and J. A. Izatt, "In Vivo Video Rate Optical Coherence Tomography," Opt. Express 3, 219-229 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosamond, W.

W. Rosamond, K. Flegal, K. Furie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. M. Hailpern, M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lloyd-Jones, M. McDermott, J. Meigs, C. Moy, G. Nicho, C. O’Donnell, V. Roger, P. Sorlie, J. Steinberger, T. Thom, M. Wilson, and Y. Hong, "Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics 2008 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee," Circulation 117, e25-e146 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ruskin, J. N.

E. J. Schmidt, V. K. Reddy, and J. N. Ruskin, "Nonenhanced magnetic resonance imaging for characterization of acute and subacute radiofrequency ablation lesions," Heart Rhythm 4, 215-217 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sapp, J. L.

J. M. Cooper, J. L. Sapp, U. Tedrow, C. P. Pellegrin, D. Robinson, L. M. Epstein, and W. G. Stevenson, "Ablation with an internally irrigated radiofrequency catheter: Learning how to avoid steam pops," Heart Rhythm 1, 329-333 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, E. J.

E. J. Schmidt, V. K. Reddy, and J. N. Ruskin, "Nonenhanced magnetic resonance imaging for characterization of acute and subacute radiofrequency ablation lesions," Heart Rhythm 4, 215-217 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmitt, J. M.

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knuttel, M. Yadlowsky, and M. A. Eckhaus, "Optical-coherence tomography of a dense tissue: statistics of attenuation and backscattering," Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1705-1720 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schoenenberger, K.

K. Schoenenberger, J. Bill W. Colston, D. J. Maitland, L. B. D. Silva, and M. J. Everett, "Mapping of birefringence and thermal damage in tissue by use of polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Appl. Opt. 37, 6026-6036 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shortkroff, S.

S. D. Giattina, B. K. Courtney, P. R. Herz, M. Harman, S. Shortkroff, D. L. Stamper, B. Liu, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, "Assessment of coronary plaque collagen with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT)," Intl. J. Cardiology 107, 400-409 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sorlie, P.

W. Rosamond, K. Flegal, K. Furie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. M. Hailpern, M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lloyd-Jones, M. McDermott, J. Meigs, C. Moy, G. Nicho, C. O’Donnell, V. Roger, P. Sorlie, J. Steinberger, T. Thom, M. Wilson, and Y. Hong, "Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics 2008 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee," Circulation 117, e25-e146 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Srinivas, S. M.

J. F. de Boer, S. M. Srinivas, A. Malekafzali, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, "Imaging thermally damaged tissue by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 3, 212-218 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stamper, D.

B. Liu, M. Harman, S. Giattina, D. Stamper, Charles Demakis, M. Chilek, S. Raby, and M. Brezinski, "Characterizing of tissue microstructure with single-detector polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Appl. Opt. 45, 4464-4479 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stamper, D. L.

S. D. Giattina, B. K. Courtney, P. R. Herz, M. Harman, S. Shortkroff, D. L. Stamper, B. Liu, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, "Assessment of coronary plaque collagen with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT)," Intl. J. Cardiology 107, 400-409 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Patel, X. Li, D. L. Stamper, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, "Guidance of aortic ablation using optical coherence tomography," The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging 19, 171-178 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Boppart, J. Herrmann, C. Pitris, D. L. Stamper, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "High-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography-Guided Laser Ablation of Surgical Tissue," J. Surgical Res. 82, 275-284 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steinberger, J.

W. Rosamond, K. Flegal, K. Furie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. M. Hailpern, M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lloyd-Jones, M. McDermott, J. Meigs, C. Moy, G. Nicho, C. O’Donnell, V. Roger, P. Sorlie, J. Steinberger, T. Thom, M. Wilson, and Y. Hong, "Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics 2008 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee," Circulation 117, e25-e146 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stevenson, W. G.

J. M. Cooper, J. L. Sapp, U. Tedrow, C. P. Pellegrin, D. Robinson, L. M. Epstein, and W. G. Stevenson, "Ablation with an internally irrigated radiofrequency catheter: Learning how to avoid steam pops," Heart Rhythm 1, 329-333 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sung, J.-H.

B. Joung, M. Lee, J.-H. Sung, J.-Y. Kim, S. Ahn, and S. Kim, "Pediatric Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation Sedation Methods and Success, Complication and Recurrence Rates," Circulation J. 70, 278-284 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swartling, J.

J. Swartling, S. Palsson, P. Platonov, S. B. Olsson, and S. Andersson-Engels, "Changes in tissue optical properties due to radio-frequency ablation of myocardium," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 41, 403-409 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

B. J. Vakoc, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Real-time microscopic visualization of tissue response to laser thermal therapy," Opt. Lett. 12, 020501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tedrow, U.

J. M. Cooper, J. L. Sapp, U. Tedrow, C. P. Pellegrin, D. Robinson, L. M. Epstein, and W. G. Stevenson, "Ablation with an internally irrigated radiofrequency catheter: Learning how to avoid steam pops," Heart Rhythm 1, 329-333 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thom, T.

W. Rosamond, K. Flegal, K. Furie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. M. Hailpern, M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lloyd-Jones, M. McDermott, J. Meigs, C. Moy, G. Nicho, C. O’Donnell, V. Roger, P. Sorlie, J. Steinberger, T. Thom, M. Wilson, and Y. Hong, "Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics 2008 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee," Circulation 117, e25-e146 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thornell, L.-E.

B. Holmbom, U. Niislund, A. Eriksson, I. Virtancn, and L.-E. Thornell, "Comparison of triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining versus detection of fibronectin in experimental myocardial infarction," Histochemistry 99, 265-275 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Un-arunyawee, R.

A. M. Rollins, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, R. Un-arunyawee, and J. A. Izatt, "In Vivo Video Rate Optical Coherence Tomography," Opt. Express 3, 219-229 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vakoc, B. J.

B. J. Vakoc, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Real-time microscopic visualization of tissue response to laser thermal therapy," Opt. Lett. 12, 020501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Virtancn, I.

B. Holmbom, U. Niislund, A. Eriksson, I. Virtancn, and L.-E. Thornell, "Comparison of triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining versus detection of fibronectin in experimental myocardial infarction," Histochemistry 99, 265-275 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

M. Ford, Y. Zhou, H. Wang, C. X. Deng, and A. M. Rollins, "Optical coherence tomography monitoring of cardiac ablation by high-intensity focused ultrasound," Proc. SPIE 5686, 432 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, R. K.

Y. Yang, L. Wu, Y. Feng, and R. K. Wang, "Observations of birefringence in tissues from optic-fibre-based optical coherence tomography," Measurement Science Technol. 14, 41-46 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Webb, B.

C. P. Fleming, C. Ripplinger, B. Webb, I. R. Efimov, and A. M. Rollins, "Quantification of Cardiac Fiber Orientation Using Optical Coherence Tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 030505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whittaker, P.

P. Whittaker, S.-m. Zheng, M. J. Patterson, R. A. Kloner, K. E. Daly, and R. A. Hartman, "Histologic Signatures of Thermal Injury: Applications in Transmyocardial Laser Revascularization and Radiofrequency Ablation," Lasers in Surgery and Medicine 27, 305-318 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilson, M.

W. Rosamond, K. Flegal, K. Furie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. M. Hailpern, M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lloyd-Jones, M. McDermott, J. Meigs, C. Moy, G. Nicho, C. O’Donnell, V. Roger, P. Sorlie, J. Steinberger, T. Thom, M. Wilson, and Y. Hong, "Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics 2008 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee," Circulation 117, e25-e146 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wood, M. A.

J. Alaeddini, M. A. Wood, B. P. Lee, and K. A. Ellenbogen, "Incidence, Time Course, and Characteristics of Microbubble Formation During Radiofrequency Ablation of Pulmonary Veins with an 8-mm Ablation Catheter," Pacing Clin. Electrophysiol 29, 979-984 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, L.

Y. Yang, L. Wu, Y. Feng, and R. K. Wang, "Observations of birefringence in tissues from optic-fibre-based optical coherence tomography," Measurement Science Technol. 14, 41-46 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yadlowsky, M.

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knuttel, M. Yadlowsky, and M. A. Eckhaus, "Optical-coherence tomography of a dense tissue: statistics of attenuation and backscattering," Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1705-1720 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, Y.

Y. Yang, L. Wu, Y. Feng, and R. K. Wang, "Observations of birefringence in tissues from optic-fibre-based optical coherence tomography," Measurement Science Technol. 14, 41-46 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yazdanfar, S.

A. M. Rollins, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, R. Un-arunyawee, and J. A. Izatt, "In Vivo Video Rate Optical Coherence Tomography," Opt. Express 3, 219-229 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheng, S.-m.

P. Whittaker, S.-m. Zheng, M. J. Patterson, R. A. Kloner, K. E. Daly, and R. A. Hartman, "Histologic Signatures of Thermal Injury: Applications in Transmyocardial Laser Revascularization and Radiofrequency Ablation," Lasers in Surgery and Medicine 27, 305-318 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, Y.

M. Ford, Y. Zhou, H. Wang, C. X. Deng, and A. M. Rollins, "Optical coherence tomography monitoring of cardiac ablation by high-intensity focused ultrasound," Proc. SPIE 5686, 432 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zviman, M.

T. Dickfeld, R. Kato, M. Zviman, S. Lai, G. Meininger, A. C. Lardo, A. Roguin, D. Blumke, R. Berger, H. Calkins, and H. Halperin, "Characterization of Radiofrequency Ablation Lesions With Gadolinium-Enhanced Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging," Journal American College Cardiology 47, 370-378 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Dickfeld, R. Kato, M. Zviman, S. Nazarian, J. Dong, H. Ashikaga, A. C. Lardo, R. D. Berger, H. Calkins, and H. Halperin, "Characterization of acute and subacute radio frequency ablation lesions with nonenhanced magnetic resonance imaging," Heart Rhythm 4, 208-214 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Dickfeld, R. Kato, M. Zviman, S. Nazarian, H. Ashikaga, A. C. Lardo, R. D. Berger, H. Calkins, and H. Halperin, "Characterization of Acute and Subacute Radiofrequency Ablation Lesions with Non-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging," Heart Rhythm 4, 208-214 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Dickfeld, R. Kato, M. Zviman, S. Lai, G. Meininger, A. C. Lardo, A. Roguin, D. Blumke, R. Berger, H. Calkins, and H. Halperin, "Characterization of Radiofrequency Ablation Lesions with Gadolinium-Enhanced Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging," J Am Coll Cardiol 47, 370-378 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (3)

S. Bosman, "Heat-induced structural alterations in myocardium in relation to changing optical properties," Appl. Opt. 32, 461-463 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Schoenenberger, J. Bill W. Colston, D. J. Maitland, L. B. D. Silva, and M. J. Everett, "Mapping of birefringence and thermal damage in tissue by use of polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Appl. Opt. 37, 6026-6036 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Liu, M. Harman, S. Giattina, D. Stamper, Charles Demakis, M. Chilek, S. Raby, and M. Brezinski, "Characterizing of tissue microstructure with single-detector polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography," Appl. Opt. 45, 4464-4479 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Circulation (1)

W. Rosamond, K. Flegal, K. Furie, A. Go, K. Greenlund, N. Haase, S. M. Hailpern, M. Ho, V. Howard, B. Kissela, S. Kittner, D. Lloyd-Jones, M. McDermott, J. Meigs, C. Moy, G. Nicho, C. O’Donnell, V. Roger, P. Sorlie, J. Steinberger, T. Thom, M. Wilson, and Y. Hong, "Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics 2008 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee," Circulation 117, e25-e146 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Circulation J. (2)

B. Joung, M. Lee, J.-H. Sung, J.-Y. Kim, S. Ahn, and S. Kim, "Pediatric Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation Sedation Methods and Success, Complication and Recurrence Rates," Circulation J. 70, 278-284 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. O. Grant, "Recent Advances in the Treatment of Arrhythmias," Circulation J. 67, 651-655 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Computer Vision and Image Understanding (1)

L. Bretzner and T. Lindeberg, "Feature Tracking with Automatic Selection of Spatial Scales," Computer Vision and Image Understanding 71, 385-392 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Echocardiography (1)

J.-F. Ren and F. E. Marchinski, "Utility of Intracardiac Echocardiography in Left Heart Ablation for Tachyarrhythmias," Echocardiography 24, 533-540 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heart Rhythm (4)

T. Dickfeld, R. Kato, M. Zviman, S. Nazarian, J. Dong, H. Ashikaga, A. C. Lardo, R. D. Berger, H. Calkins, and H. Halperin, "Characterization of acute and subacute radio frequency ablation lesions with nonenhanced magnetic resonance imaging," Heart Rhythm 4, 208-214 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Schmidt, V. K. Reddy, and J. N. Ruskin, "Nonenhanced magnetic resonance imaging for characterization of acute and subacute radiofrequency ablation lesions," Heart Rhythm 4, 215-217 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Dickfeld, R. Kato, M. Zviman, S. Nazarian, H. Ashikaga, A. C. Lardo, R. D. Berger, H. Calkins, and H. Halperin, "Characterization of Acute and Subacute Radiofrequency Ablation Lesions with Non-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging," Heart Rhythm 4, 208-214 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Cooper, J. L. Sapp, U. Tedrow, C. P. Pellegrin, D. Robinson, L. M. Epstein, and W. G. Stevenson, "Ablation with an internally irrigated radiofrequency catheter: Learning how to avoid steam pops," Heart Rhythm 1, 329-333 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Heart Rhythm Soc. (1)

M. David Schwartzman, R. John Nosbisch, and R. Debra Housel, "Echocardiographically guided left atrial ablation: Characterization of a new technique," Heart Rhythm Soc. 3, 930-938 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Histochemistry (1)

B. Holmbom, U. Niislund, A. Eriksson, I. Virtancn, and L.-E. Thornell, "Comparison of triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining versus detection of fibronectin in experimental myocardial infarction," Histochemistry 99, 265-275 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Indian Pacing Electrophysiol. J. (1)

D. O’Donnell and V. Nadurata, "Radiofrequency Ablation for Post Infarction Ventricular Tachycardia," Indian Pacing Electrophysiol. J. 4, 63-72 (2004).

Intl. J. Cardiology (1)

S. D. Giattina, B. K. Courtney, P. R. Herz, M. Harman, S. Shortkroff, D. L. Stamper, B. Liu, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, "Assessment of coronary plaque collagen with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT)," Intl. J. Cardiology 107, 400-409 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J Am Coll Cardiol (1)

T. Dickfeld, R. Kato, M. Zviman, S. Lai, G. Meininger, A. C. Lardo, A. Roguin, D. Blumke, R. Berger, H. Calkins, and H. Halperin, "Characterization of Radiofrequency Ablation Lesions with Gadolinium-Enhanced Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging," J Am Coll Cardiol 47, 370-378 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J Biomed. Opt. (1)

W. Hucker, C. Ripplinger, C. P. Fleming, V. Fedorov, A. M. Rollins, and I. R. Efimov, "Bimodal Biophotonic Imaging of the Structure-Function Relationship in Cardiac Tissue," J Biomed. Opt. 13, 054012 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol (1)

M. Gupta, A. M. Rollins, J. A. Izatt, and I. R. Efimov, "Imaging of the atrioventricular node using optical coherence tomography," J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 13, 95 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

M. E. Brezinski, "Applications of optical coherence tomography to cardiac and musculoskeletal diseases: bench to bedside?," J. Biomed. Opt. 12, 051705 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Fleming, C. Ripplinger, B. Webb, I. R. Efimov, and A. M. Rollins, "Quantification of Cardiac Fiber Orientation Using Optical Coherence Tomography," J. Biomed. Opt. 13, 030505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Surgical Res. (1)

S. A. Boppart, J. Herrmann, C. Pitris, D. L. Stamper, M. E. Brezinski, and J. G. Fujimoto, "High-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography-Guided Laser Ablation of Surgical Tissue," J. Surgical Res. 82, 275-284 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Journal American College Cardiology (1)

T. Dickfeld, R. Kato, M. Zviman, S. Lai, G. Meininger, A. C. Lardo, A. Roguin, D. Blumke, R. Berger, H. Calkins, and H. Halperin, "Characterization of Radiofrequency Ablation Lesions With Gadolinium-Enhanced Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Imaging," Journal American College Cardiology 47, 370-378 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lasers in Surgery and Medicine (1)

P. Whittaker, S.-m. Zheng, M. J. Patterson, R. A. Kloner, K. E. Daly, and R. A. Hartman, "Histologic Signatures of Thermal Injury: Applications in Transmyocardial Laser Revascularization and Radiofrequency Ablation," Lasers in Surgery and Medicine 27, 305-318 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Measurement Science Technol. (1)

Y. Yang, L. Wu, Y. Feng, and R. K. Wang, "Observations of birefringence in tissues from optic-fibre-based optical coherence tomography," Measurement Science Technol. 14, 41-46 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. (1)

J. Swartling, S. Palsson, P. Platonov, S. B. Olsson, and S. Andersson-Engels, "Changes in tissue optical properties due to radio-frequency ablation of myocardium," Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 41, 403-409 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

A. M. Rollins, M. D. Kulkarni, S. Yazdanfar, R. Un-arunyawee, and J. A. Izatt, "In Vivo Video Rate Optical Coherence Tomography," Opt. Express 3, 219-229 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Hu and A. M. Rollins, "Quasi-telecentric optical design of a microscope-compatible OCT scanner," Opt. Express 13, 6407-6415 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. F. de Boer, S. M. Srinivas, A. Malekafzali, Z. Chen, and J. S. Nelson, "Imaging thermally damaged tissue by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography," Opt. Express 3, 212-218 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Z. Hu and A. Rollins, "Fourier domain optical coherence tomography with a linear-in-wavenumber spectrometer," Opt. Lett. 32, 3524-3527 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Vakoc, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, "Real-time microscopic visualization of tissue response to laser thermal therapy," Opt. Lett. 12, 020501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pacing Clin. Electrophysiol (1)

J. Alaeddini, M. A. Wood, B. P. Lee, and K. A. Ellenbogen, "Incidence, Time Course, and Characteristics of Microbubble Formation During Radiofrequency Ablation of Pulmonary Veins with an 8-mm Ablation Catheter," Pacing Clin. Electrophysiol 29, 979-984 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

J. M. Schmitt, A. Knuttel, M. Yadlowsky, and M. A. Eckhaus, "Optical-coherence tomography of a dense tissue: statistics of attenuation and backscattering," Phys. Med. Biol. 39, 1705-1720 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. Ford, Y. Zhou, H. Wang, C. X. Deng, and A. M. Rollins, "Optical coherence tomography monitoring of cardiac ablation by high-intensity focused ultrasound," Proc. SPIE 5686, 432 (2005).
[CrossRef]

The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging (1)

N. A. Patel, X. Li, D. L. Stamper, J. G. Fujimoto, and M. E. Brezinski, "Guidance of aortic ablation using optical coherence tomography," The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging 19, 171-178 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (5)

S. Sato, T. Shimada, M. Ishihara, T. Arai, T. Matsui, A. Kurita, M. Obara, M. Kikuchi, H. Wakisaka, and H. Ashida, "Laser Ablation Characteristics of Myocardium Tissue in the UV Spectral Region: An In-vitro Study with Porcine Myocardium Tissue," in OSA BOSD, (1999).

S. K. S. Huang and M. A. Wood, Catheter Ablation of Cardiac Arrhythmias (Saunders, 2006).

R. Brockman, "Cardiac Ablation Catheters Generic Arrhythmia Indications for Use; Guidance for Industry," (FDA Center for Devices and Radiological Health. Cardiac Electrophysiology and Monitoring Branch Division of Cardiovascular and Respiratory Devices Office of Device Evaluation, Rockville, MD, 2002).

M. W. Jenkins, R. S. Wade, Y. Cheng, A. M. Rollins, and I. R. Efimov, "Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging of the Purkinje Network," J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol 16(5), 559-560 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Drexler and J. G. Fujimoto, eds., Optical Coherence Tomography: Technology and Applications (Springer, 2008).
[CrossRef]

Supplementary Material (1)

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Figures (8)

Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Experimental setup for in vitro characterization of ablation lesions using OCT. A) In vitro radiofrequency ablation lesions created on excised ventricular wedges in a temperature controlled bath with super-perfusion flow. B) Gross pathology of ablative lesions on the endocardial surface of swine right ventricle. (Pins demarcate ends of ablative lesions) C) Optical coherence tomography (OCT) system. D) Representative OCT image of a seven millimeter image of ablative lesion and adjacent tissue. E) TTC stain of ablative lesion shown in panel (D). White necrotic tissue of ablative lesion and red viable tissue are demonstrated.

Figure 2.
Figure 2.

Dark band due to tissue birefringence a-b) OCT images of an untreated site obtained with different polarization states of the sample arm light. . Location of band moves as the polarization state in the sample arm is changed. Birefringence dependent bands are highlighted with green arrows. (Media 1) c) Representative OCT image of an ablation lesion. d-f) Decimated and flattened version of images shown in a-c. Region of interest, 525μm, used in analysis shown in panel e as white horizontal lines. g-j) Representative averaged axial scans from the sites indicated in e-h, shows change in location of the band within axial scans of untreated site (g and h). No band in OCT image of ablation lesion. Images acquired with time domain (TDOCT) system.

Figure 3.
Figure 3.

A) Temperature duration curve. Catheter-tissue temperature increased monotonically over time, up to a maximal temperature of 70 degrees Celsius. B) Impedance measurements during RF ablation. Impedance measured at the catheter tissue interface decreased during RF applications, consistent with formation of lesions. C) Strength duration curve. Power was consistent throughout the RF applications at 25 Watts. D). Lesion development over time. The depth of the lesion created by RF increased with longer duration of RF application. Results +/- 95% CI

Figure 4.
Figure 4.

Representative OCT images of untreated ventricular endocardium. Birefringence band is visible within images of untreated tissue (indicated by green arrows in panel A). Right ventricle (A,B), left ventricle (C,D), and right ventricular septum (E,F). Images acquired with time domain (TDOCT) system.

Figure 5.
Figure 5.

Representative OCT images of endocardial radiofrequency ablation lesions. Pins are placed along the ends of the lesion and are visible within OCT images. Yellow dotted lines indicate the area of the RFA lesion. Ablation lesions are characterized by increased signal intensity and absence of polarization artifact. Right ventricle (A,B), left ventricle (C,D), and right ventricular septum (E,F). Images acquired with time domain (TDOCT) system.

Figure 6.
Figure 6.

Distinguishing ablation lesions and untreated tissue using gradient strength. a) Scatter plot for each image within the TDOCT dataset, with gradient strength on the x-axis and intensity on the y-axis. Ablation lesions (open shapes), untreated tissue (filled shapes). Left ventricle - circle, right ventricle - square, ventricular septum - triangle B) Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve for gradient strength to distinguish ablation lesions from untreated tissue. Lesions can be distinguished from untreated samples within all sites using gradient strength as a discriminating factor, with a 0.94 area under curve (AUC). C) ROC curve for intensity. Intensity had a low classification power to distinguish ablation lesions from untreated tissue, with a 0.72 AUC.

Figure 7.
Figure 7.

Gap of untreated tissue within linear ablation line characterized by band due to polarization artifact. a) The gap of untreated tissue was characterized by a strong birefringence dependent band. b) TTC vital staining of ablation two ablation lesions with gap of untreated tissue. c) OCT image decimated to 512 × 13 pixels. d-f) Representative averaged axial scans from decimated image within areas with lesion (d,f) and untreated tissue (e). Band is observed within area of treated tissue and not ablation lesions. Images acquired with microscope integrated Fourier Domain (FDOCT) system.

Figure 8.
Figure 8.

Representative OCT images of the endocardium with visualization of “over treated” RFA lesions. Disruptions within the endocardium and myocardium are visible, and may be precursors to steam pops and crater formation. Yellow dotted lines circumscribe each lesion. Images acquired with time domain (TDOCT) system.

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