Abstract

We report the first sub-picojoule per bit (400fJ/bit) operation of a silicon modulator intimately integrated with a driver circuit and embedded in a clocked digital transmitter. We show a wall-plug power efficiency below 400µW/Gbps for a 130nm SOI CMOS carrier-depletion ring modulator flip-chip integrated to a 90nm bulk Si CMOS driver circuit. We also demonstrate stable error-free transmission of over 1.5 petabits of data at 5Gbps over 3.5 days using the integrated modulator without closed-loop ring resonance tuning. Small signal measurements of the CMOS ring modulator, sans circuit, showed a 3dB bandwidth in excess of 15GHz at 1V of reverse bias, indicating that further increases in transmission rate and reductions of energy-per-bit is possible while retaining compatibility with CMOS drive voltages.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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2009 (3)

D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to Silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1166–1185 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, G. Rasigade, J.-M. Fedeli, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, P. Crozat, S. Maine, A. Lupu, P. Lyan, P. Rivallin, M. Halbwax, and S. Laval, “Recent progress in high-speed silicon-based optical modulators,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1199–1215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

Y. H. Kuo, H. W. Chen, and J. E. Bowers, “High speed hybrid silicon evanescent electroabsorption modulator,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9936–9941 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. Holzwarth, H. Li, H. Smith, J. Hoyt, F. Kartner, R. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, “Building manycore processor-to-DRAM network with monolithic silicon photonics,” HOTI 2008, 21–30 (2008).

2007 (3)

L. Liao, A. Liu, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, M. Paniccia, D. Rubin, Y. Chetrit, R. Cohen, and N. Izhaky, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. M. J. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 15(25), 17106–17113 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, R. K. Schaevitz, Y. H. Kuo, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Optical modulator on silicon employing germanium quantum wells,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5851–5859 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, L. M. F. Chirovsky, R. G. Rozier, P. Chandramani, W. S. Hobson, S. P. Hui, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, and L. A. D’Asaro, “16x16 vcsel array flip-chip bonded to CMOS VLSI circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(8), 1073–1075 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Ford, F. E. Kiamilev, R. G. Rozier, S. Hunsche, K. W. Goossen, B. Tseng, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, and M. C. Nuss, “The AMOEBA switch: an optoelectronic switch for multiprocessor networking using dense WDM,” lEEE J,” Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(2), 261–275 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

T. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, B. Tseng, J. Lothian, S. Hui, and R. Leibenguth, “Modulator-driver circuits for optoelectronic VLSI,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(6), 839–841 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, T. K. Woodward, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, and W. Y. Jan, “Operation of a single-ended 550Mbit/s, 41fJ, hybrid CMOS/MQW receiver-transmitter,” Electron. Lett. 32(8), 764–765 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J.-M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, and D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed Optoelectronic VLSI Switching Chip with >4000 Optical I/O Based on Flip-Chip Bonding of MQW Modulators and Detectors to Silicon CMOS,” lEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(1), 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

K. W. Goossen, J. E. Cunningham, and W. Y. Jan, “GaAs 850 nm modulators solder-bonded to silicon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5(7), 776–778 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Asanovic, K.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. Holzwarth, H. Li, H. Smith, J. Hoyt, F. Kartner, R. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, “Building manycore processor-to-DRAM network with monolithic silicon photonics,” HOTI 2008, 21–30 (2008).

Bacon, D. D.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J.-M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, and D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed Optoelectronic VLSI Switching Chip with >4000 Optical I/O Based on Flip-Chip Bonding of MQW Modulators and Detectors to Silicon CMOS,” lEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(1), 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Basak, J.

L. Liao, A. Liu, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, M. Paniccia, D. Rubin, Y. Chetrit, R. Cohen, and N. Izhaky, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Batten, C.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. Holzwarth, H. Li, H. Smith, J. Hoyt, F. Kartner, R. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, “Building manycore processor-to-DRAM network with monolithic silicon photonics,” HOTI 2008, 21–30 (2008).

Bowers, J. E.

Y. H. Kuo, H. W. Chen, and J. E. Bowers, “High speed hybrid silicon evanescent electroabsorption modulator,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9936–9941 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buchholz, D. B.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J.-M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, and D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed Optoelectronic VLSI Switching Chip with >4000 Optical I/O Based on Flip-Chip Bonding of MQW Modulators and Detectors to Silicon CMOS,” lEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(1), 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cassan, E.

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, G. Rasigade, J.-M. Fedeli, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, P. Crozat, S. Maine, A. Lupu, P. Lyan, P. Rivallin, M. Halbwax, and S. Laval, “Recent progress in high-speed silicon-based optical modulators,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1199–1215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chandramani, P.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, L. M. F. Chirovsky, R. G. Rozier, P. Chandramani, W. S. Hobson, S. P. Hui, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, and L. A. D’Asaro, “16x16 vcsel array flip-chip bonded to CMOS VLSI circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(8), 1073–1075 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. W.

Y. H. Kuo, H. W. Chen, and J. E. Bowers, “High speed hybrid silicon evanescent electroabsorption modulator,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9936–9941 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chetrit, Y.

L. Liao, A. Liu, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, M. Paniccia, D. Rubin, Y. Chetrit, R. Cohen, and N. Izhaky, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chirovsky, L. M. F.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, L. M. F. Chirovsky, R. G. Rozier, P. Chandramani, W. S. Hobson, S. P. Hui, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, and L. A. D’Asaro, “16x16 vcsel array flip-chip bonded to CMOS VLSI circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(8), 1073–1075 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J.-M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, and D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed Optoelectronic VLSI Switching Chip with >4000 Optical I/O Based on Flip-Chip Bonding of MQW Modulators and Detectors to Silicon CMOS,” lEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(1), 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, T. K. Woodward, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, and W. Y. Jan, “Operation of a single-ended 550Mbit/s, 41fJ, hybrid CMOS/MQW receiver-transmitter,” Electron. Lett. 32(8), 764–765 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, R.

L. Liao, A. Liu, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, M. Paniccia, D. Rubin, Y. Chetrit, R. Cohen, and N. Izhaky, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Crozat, P.

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, G. Rasigade, J.-M. Fedeli, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, P. Crozat, S. Maine, A. Lupu, P. Lyan, P. Rivallin, M. Halbwax, and S. Laval, “Recent progress in high-speed silicon-based optical modulators,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1199–1215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, J. E.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Ford, F. E. Kiamilev, R. G. Rozier, S. Hunsche, K. W. Goossen, B. Tseng, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, and M. C. Nuss, “The AMOEBA switch: an optoelectronic switch for multiprocessor networking using dense WDM,” lEEE J,” Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(2), 261–275 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J.-M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, and D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed Optoelectronic VLSI Switching Chip with >4000 Optical I/O Based on Flip-Chip Bonding of MQW Modulators and Detectors to Silicon CMOS,” lEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(1), 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, T. K. Woodward, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, and W. Y. Jan, “Operation of a single-ended 550Mbit/s, 41fJ, hybrid CMOS/MQW receiver-transmitter,” Electron. Lett. 32(8), 764–765 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Goossen, J. E. Cunningham, and W. Y. Jan, “GaAs 850 nm modulators solder-bonded to silicon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5(7), 776–778 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D’Asaro, L. A.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, L. M. F. Chirovsky, R. G. Rozier, P. Chandramani, W. S. Hobson, S. P. Hui, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, and L. A. D’Asaro, “16x16 vcsel array flip-chip bonded to CMOS VLSI circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(8), 1073–1075 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J.-M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, and D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed Optoelectronic VLSI Switching Chip with >4000 Optical I/O Based on Flip-Chip Bonding of MQW Modulators and Detectors to Silicon CMOS,” lEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(1), 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dahringer, D. W.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J.-M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, and D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed Optoelectronic VLSI Switching Chip with >4000 Optical I/O Based on Flip-Chip Bonding of MQW Modulators and Detectors to Silicon CMOS,” lEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(1), 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fedeli, J.-M.

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, G. Rasigade, J.-M. Fedeli, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, P. Crozat, S. Maine, A. Lupu, P. Lyan, P. Rivallin, M. Halbwax, and S. Laval, “Recent progress in high-speed silicon-based optical modulators,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1199–1215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fidaner, O.

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, R. K. Schaevitz, Y. H. Kuo, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Optical modulator on silicon employing germanium quantum wells,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5851–5859 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ford, J. E.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Ford, F. E. Kiamilev, R. G. Rozier, S. Hunsche, K. W. Goossen, B. Tseng, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, and M. C. Nuss, “The AMOEBA switch: an optoelectronic switch for multiprocessor networking using dense WDM,” lEEE J,” Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(2), 261–275 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Goossen, K. W.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, L. M. F. Chirovsky, R. G. Rozier, P. Chandramani, W. S. Hobson, S. P. Hui, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, and L. A. D’Asaro, “16x16 vcsel array flip-chip bonded to CMOS VLSI circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(8), 1073–1075 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Ford, F. E. Kiamilev, R. G. Rozier, S. Hunsche, K. W. Goossen, B. Tseng, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, and M. C. Nuss, “The AMOEBA switch: an optoelectronic switch for multiprocessor networking using dense WDM,” lEEE J,” Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(2), 261–275 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, B. Tseng, J. Lothian, S. Hui, and R. Leibenguth, “Modulator-driver circuits for optoelectronic VLSI,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(6), 839–841 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J.-M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, and D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed Optoelectronic VLSI Switching Chip with >4000 Optical I/O Based on Flip-Chip Bonding of MQW Modulators and Detectors to Silicon CMOS,” lEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(1), 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, T. K. Woodward, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, and W. Y. Jan, “Operation of a single-ended 550Mbit/s, 41fJ, hybrid CMOS/MQW receiver-transmitter,” Electron. Lett. 32(8), 764–765 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Goossen, J. E. Cunningham, and W. Y. Jan, “GaAs 850 nm modulators solder-bonded to silicon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5(7), 776–778 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Green, W. M. J.

W. M. J. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 15(25), 17106–17113 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Halbwax, M.

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, G. Rasigade, J.-M. Fedeli, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, P. Crozat, S. Maine, A. Lupu, P. Lyan, P. Rivallin, M. Halbwax, and S. Laval, “Recent progress in high-speed silicon-based optical modulators,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1199–1215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Harris, J. S.

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, R. K. Schaevitz, Y. H. Kuo, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Optical modulator on silicon employing germanium quantum wells,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5851–5859 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ho, R.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hobson, W. S.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, L. M. F. Chirovsky, R. G. Rozier, P. Chandramani, W. S. Hobson, S. P. Hui, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, and L. A. D’Asaro, “16x16 vcsel array flip-chip bonded to CMOS VLSI circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(8), 1073–1075 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Holzwarth, C.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. Holzwarth, H. Li, H. Smith, J. Hoyt, F. Kartner, R. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, “Building manycore processor-to-DRAM network with monolithic silicon photonics,” HOTI 2008, 21–30 (2008).

Hoyt, J.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. Holzwarth, H. Li, H. Smith, J. Hoyt, F. Kartner, R. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, “Building manycore processor-to-DRAM network with monolithic silicon photonics,” HOTI 2008, 21–30 (2008).

Hui, S.

T. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, B. Tseng, J. Lothian, S. Hui, and R. Leibenguth, “Modulator-driver circuits for optoelectronic VLSI,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(6), 839–841 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hui, S. P.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, L. M. F. Chirovsky, R. G. Rozier, P. Chandramani, W. S. Hobson, S. P. Hui, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, and L. A. D’Asaro, “16x16 vcsel array flip-chip bonded to CMOS VLSI circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(8), 1073–1075 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J.-M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, and D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed Optoelectronic VLSI Switching Chip with >4000 Optical I/O Based on Flip-Chip Bonding of MQW Modulators and Detectors to Silicon CMOS,” lEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(1), 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, T. K. Woodward, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, and W. Y. Jan, “Operation of a single-ended 550Mbit/s, 41fJ, hybrid CMOS/MQW receiver-transmitter,” Electron. Lett. 32(8), 764–765 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hunsche, S.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Ford, F. E. Kiamilev, R. G. Rozier, S. Hunsche, K. W. Goossen, B. Tseng, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, and M. C. Nuss, “The AMOEBA switch: an optoelectronic switch for multiprocessor networking using dense WDM,” lEEE J,” Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(2), 261–275 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Izhaky, N.

L. Liao, A. Liu, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, M. Paniccia, D. Rubin, Y. Chetrit, R. Cohen, and N. Izhaky, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jan, W. Y.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Ford, F. E. Kiamilev, R. G. Rozier, S. Hunsche, K. W. Goossen, B. Tseng, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, and M. C. Nuss, “The AMOEBA switch: an optoelectronic switch for multiprocessor networking using dense WDM,” lEEE J,” Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(2), 261–275 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J.-M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, and D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed Optoelectronic VLSI Switching Chip with >4000 Optical I/O Based on Flip-Chip Bonding of MQW Modulators and Detectors to Silicon CMOS,” lEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(1), 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, T. K. Woodward, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, and W. Y. Jan, “Operation of a single-ended 550Mbit/s, 41fJ, hybrid CMOS/MQW receiver-transmitter,” Electron. Lett. 32(8), 764–765 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Goossen, J. E. Cunningham, and W. Y. Jan, “GaAs 850 nm modulators solder-bonded to silicon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5(7), 776–778 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Joshi, A.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. Holzwarth, H. Li, H. Smith, J. Hoyt, F. Kartner, R. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, “Building manycore processor-to-DRAM network with monolithic silicon photonics,” HOTI 2008, 21–30 (2008).

Kamins, T. I.

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, R. K. Schaevitz, Y. H. Kuo, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Optical modulator on silicon employing germanium quantum wells,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5851–5859 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kartner, F.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. Holzwarth, H. Li, H. Smith, J. Hoyt, F. Kartner, R. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, “Building manycore processor-to-DRAM network with monolithic silicon photonics,” HOTI 2008, 21–30 (2008).

Khilo, A.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. Holzwarth, H. Li, H. Smith, J. Hoyt, F. Kartner, R. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, “Building manycore processor-to-DRAM network with monolithic silicon photonics,” HOTI 2008, 21–30 (2008).

Kiamilev, F. E.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Ford, F. E. Kiamilev, R. G. Rozier, S. Hunsche, K. W. Goossen, B. Tseng, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, and M. C. Nuss, “The AMOEBA switch: an optoelectronic switch for multiprocessor networking using dense WDM,” lEEE J,” Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(2), 261–275 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Koka, P.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kossives, D. P.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J.-M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, and D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed Optoelectronic VLSI Switching Chip with >4000 Optical I/O Based on Flip-Chip Bonding of MQW Modulators and Detectors to Silicon CMOS,” lEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(1), 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, L. M. F. Chirovsky, R. G. Rozier, P. Chandramani, W. S. Hobson, S. P. Hui, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, and L. A. D’Asaro, “16x16 vcsel array flip-chip bonded to CMOS VLSI circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(8), 1073–1075 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Ford, F. E. Kiamilev, R. G. Rozier, S. Hunsche, K. W. Goossen, B. Tseng, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, and M. C. Nuss, “The AMOEBA switch: an optoelectronic switch for multiprocessor networking using dense WDM,” lEEE J,” Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(2), 261–275 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, B. Tseng, J. Lothian, S. Hui, and R. Leibenguth, “Modulator-driver circuits for optoelectronic VLSI,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(6), 839–841 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, T. K. Woodward, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, and W. Y. Jan, “Operation of a single-ended 550Mbit/s, 41fJ, hybrid CMOS/MQW receiver-transmitter,” Electron. Lett. 32(8), 764–765 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, J.-M.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J.-M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, and D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed Optoelectronic VLSI Switching Chip with >4000 Optical I/O Based on Flip-Chip Bonding of MQW Modulators and Detectors to Silicon CMOS,” lEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(1), 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, Y. H.

Y. H. Kuo, H. W. Chen, and J. E. Bowers, “High speed hybrid silicon evanescent electroabsorption modulator,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9936–9941 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, R. K. Schaevitz, Y. H. Kuo, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Optical modulator on silicon employing germanium quantum wells,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5851–5859 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laval, S.

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, G. Rasigade, J.-M. Fedeli, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, P. Crozat, S. Maine, A. Lupu, P. Lyan, P. Rivallin, M. Halbwax, and S. Laval, “Recent progress in high-speed silicon-based optical modulators,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1199–1215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Le Roux, X.

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, G. Rasigade, J.-M. Fedeli, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, P. Crozat, S. Maine, A. Lupu, P. Lyan, P. Rivallin, M. Halbwax, and S. Laval, “Recent progress in high-speed silicon-based optical modulators,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1199–1215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Leibenguth, R.

T. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, B. Tseng, J. Lothian, S. Hui, and R. Leibenguth, “Modulator-driver circuits for optoelectronic VLSI,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(6), 839–841 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, T. K. Woodward, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, and W. Y. Jan, “Operation of a single-ended 550Mbit/s, 41fJ, hybrid CMOS/MQW receiver-transmitter,” Electron. Lett. 32(8), 764–765 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Leibenguth, R. E.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J.-M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, and D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed Optoelectronic VLSI Switching Chip with >4000 Optical I/O Based on Flip-Chip Bonding of MQW Modulators and Detectors to Silicon CMOS,” lEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(1), 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lentine, A. L.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J.-M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, and D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed Optoelectronic VLSI Switching Chip with >4000 Optical I/O Based on Flip-Chip Bonding of MQW Modulators and Detectors to Silicon CMOS,” lEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(1), 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, T. K. Woodward, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, and W. Y. Jan, “Operation of a single-ended 550Mbit/s, 41fJ, hybrid CMOS/MQW receiver-transmitter,” Electron. Lett. 32(8), 764–765 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lexau, J.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. Holzwarth, H. Li, H. Smith, J. Hoyt, F. Kartner, R. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, “Building manycore processor-to-DRAM network with monolithic silicon photonics,” HOTI 2008, 21–30 (2008).

Liao, L.

L. Liao, A. Liu, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, M. Paniccia, D. Rubin, Y. Chetrit, R. Cohen, and N. Izhaky, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, A.

L. Liao, A. Liu, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, M. Paniccia, D. Rubin, Y. Chetrit, R. Cohen, and N. Izhaky, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Livescu, G.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J.-M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, and D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed Optoelectronic VLSI Switching Chip with >4000 Optical I/O Based on Flip-Chip Bonding of MQW Modulators and Detectors to Silicon CMOS,” lEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(1), 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lopata, J.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, L. M. F. Chirovsky, R. G. Rozier, P. Chandramani, W. S. Hobson, S. P. Hui, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, and L. A. D’Asaro, “16x16 vcsel array flip-chip bonded to CMOS VLSI circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(8), 1073–1075 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lothian, J.

T. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, B. Tseng, J. Lothian, S. Hui, and R. Leibenguth, “Modulator-driver circuits for optoelectronic VLSI,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(6), 839–841 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lupu, A.

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, G. Rasigade, J.-M. Fedeli, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, P. Crozat, S. Maine, A. Lupu, P. Lyan, P. Rivallin, M. Halbwax, and S. Laval, “Recent progress in high-speed silicon-based optical modulators,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1199–1215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lyan, P.

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, G. Rasigade, J.-M. Fedeli, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, P. Crozat, S. Maine, A. Lupu, P. Lyan, P. Rivallin, M. Halbwax, and S. Laval, “Recent progress in high-speed silicon-based optical modulators,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1199–1215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Maine, S.

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, G. Rasigade, J.-M. Fedeli, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, P. Crozat, S. Maine, A. Lupu, P. Lyan, P. Rivallin, M. Halbwax, and S. Laval, “Recent progress in high-speed silicon-based optical modulators,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1199–1215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Marris-Morini, D.

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, G. Rasigade, J.-M. Fedeli, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, P. Crozat, S. Maine, A. Lupu, P. Lyan, P. Rivallin, M. Halbwax, and S. Laval, “Recent progress in high-speed silicon-based optical modulators,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1199–1215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to Silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1166–1185 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, R. K. Schaevitz, Y. H. Kuo, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Optical modulator on silicon employing germanium quantum wells,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5851–5859 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morrison, R. L.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J.-M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, and D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed Optoelectronic VLSI Switching Chip with >4000 Optical I/O Based on Flip-Chip Bonding of MQW Modulators and Detectors to Silicon CMOS,” lEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(1), 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Moss, B.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. Holzwarth, H. Li, H. Smith, J. Hoyt, F. Kartner, R. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, “Building manycore processor-to-DRAM network with monolithic silicon photonics,” HOTI 2008, 21–30 (2008).

Nguyen, H.

L. Liao, A. Liu, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, M. Paniccia, D. Rubin, Y. Chetrit, R. Cohen, and N. Izhaky, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, R. A.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J.-M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, and D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed Optoelectronic VLSI Switching Chip with >4000 Optical I/O Based on Flip-Chip Bonding of MQW Modulators and Detectors to Silicon CMOS,” lEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(1), 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nuss, M. C.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Ford, F. E. Kiamilev, R. G. Rozier, S. Hunsche, K. W. Goossen, B. Tseng, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, and M. C. Nuss, “The AMOEBA switch: an optoelectronic switch for multiprocessor networking using dense WDM,” lEEE J,” Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(2), 261–275 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Orcutt, J.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. Holzwarth, H. Li, H. Smith, J. Hoyt, F. Kartner, R. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, “Building manycore processor-to-DRAM network with monolithic silicon photonics,” HOTI 2008, 21–30 (2008).

Paniccia, M.

L. Liao, A. Liu, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, M. Paniccia, D. Rubin, Y. Chetrit, R. Cohen, and N. Izhaky, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ram, R.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. Holzwarth, H. Li, H. Smith, J. Hoyt, F. Kartner, R. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, “Building manycore processor-to-DRAM network with monolithic silicon photonics,” HOTI 2008, 21–30 (2008).

Rasigade, G.

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, G. Rasigade, J.-M. Fedeli, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, P. Crozat, S. Maine, A. Lupu, P. Lyan, P. Rivallin, M. Halbwax, and S. Laval, “Recent progress in high-speed silicon-based optical modulators,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1199–1215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rivallin, P.

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, G. Rasigade, J.-M. Fedeli, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, P. Crozat, S. Maine, A. Lupu, P. Lyan, P. Rivallin, M. Halbwax, and S. Laval, “Recent progress in high-speed silicon-based optical modulators,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1199–1215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rooks, M. J.

W. M. J. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 15(25), 17106–17113 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roth, J. E.

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, R. K. Schaevitz, Y. H. Kuo, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Optical modulator on silicon employing germanium quantum wells,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5851–5859 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rozier, R. G.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, L. M. F. Chirovsky, R. G. Rozier, P. Chandramani, W. S. Hobson, S. P. Hui, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, and L. A. D’Asaro, “16x16 vcsel array flip-chip bonded to CMOS VLSI circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(8), 1073–1075 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Ford, F. E. Kiamilev, R. G. Rozier, S. Hunsche, K. W. Goossen, B. Tseng, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, and M. C. Nuss, “The AMOEBA switch: an optoelectronic switch for multiprocessor networking using dense WDM,” lEEE J,” Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(2), 261–275 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rubin, D.

L. Liao, A. Liu, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, M. Paniccia, D. Rubin, Y. Chetrit, R. Cohen, and N. Izhaky, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schaevitz, R. K.

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, R. K. Schaevitz, Y. H. Kuo, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Optical modulator on silicon employing germanium quantum wells,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5851–5859 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwetman, H.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sekaric, L.

W. M. J. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 15(25), 17106–17113 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shubin, I.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Smith, H.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. Holzwarth, H. Li, H. Smith, J. Hoyt, F. Kartner, R. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, “Building manycore processor-to-DRAM network with monolithic silicon photonics,” HOTI 2008, 21–30 (2008).

Stojanovic, V.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. Holzwarth, H. Li, H. Smith, J. Hoyt, F. Kartner, R. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, “Building manycore processor-to-DRAM network with monolithic silicon photonics,” HOTI 2008, 21–30 (2008).

Tseng, B.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Ford, F. E. Kiamilev, R. G. Rozier, S. Hunsche, K. W. Goossen, B. Tseng, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, and M. C. Nuss, “The AMOEBA switch: an optoelectronic switch for multiprocessor networking using dense WDM,” lEEE J,” Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(2), 261–275 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, B. Tseng, J. Lothian, S. Hui, and R. Leibenguth, “Modulator-driver circuits for optoelectronic VLSI,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(6), 839–841 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, T. K. Woodward, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, and W. Y. Jan, “Operation of a single-ended 550Mbit/s, 41fJ, hybrid CMOS/MQW receiver-transmitter,” Electron. Lett. 32(8), 764–765 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tseng, B. J.

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J.-M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, and D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed Optoelectronic VLSI Switching Chip with >4000 Optical I/O Based on Flip-Chip Bonding of MQW Modulators and Detectors to Silicon CMOS,” lEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(1), 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vivien, L.

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, G. Rasigade, J.-M. Fedeli, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, P. Crozat, S. Maine, A. Lupu, P. Lyan, P. Rivallin, M. Halbwax, and S. Laval, “Recent progress in high-speed silicon-based optical modulators,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1199–1215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y. A.

W. M. J. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 15(25), 17106–17113 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walker, J. A.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, L. M. F. Chirovsky, R. G. Rozier, P. Chandramani, W. S. Hobson, S. P. Hui, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, and L. A. D’Asaro, “16x16 vcsel array flip-chip bonded to CMOS VLSI circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(8), 1073–1075 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Ford, F. E. Kiamilev, R. G. Rozier, S. Hunsche, K. W. Goossen, B. Tseng, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, and M. C. Nuss, “The AMOEBA switch: an optoelectronic switch for multiprocessor networking using dense WDM,” lEEE J,” Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(2), 261–275 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, B. Tseng, J. Lothian, S. Hui, and R. Leibenguth, “Modulator-driver circuits for optoelectronic VLSI,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(6), 839–841 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J.-M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, and D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed Optoelectronic VLSI Switching Chip with >4000 Optical I/O Based on Flip-Chip Bonding of MQW Modulators and Detectors to Silicon CMOS,” lEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(1), 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, T. K. Woodward, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, and W. Y. Jan, “Operation of a single-ended 550Mbit/s, 41fJ, hybrid CMOS/MQW receiver-transmitter,” Electron. Lett. 32(8), 764–765 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Woodward, T.

T. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, B. Tseng, J. Lothian, S. Hui, and R. Leibenguth, “Modulator-driver circuits for optoelectronic VLSI,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(6), 839–841 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Woodward, T. K.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, T. K. Woodward, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, and W. Y. Jan, “Operation of a single-ended 550Mbit/s, 41fJ, hybrid CMOS/MQW receiver-transmitter,” Electron. Lett. 32(8), 764–765 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, X.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

L. Liao, A. Liu, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, M. Paniccia, D. Rubin, Y. Chetrit, R. Cohen, and N. Izhaky, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, T. K. Woodward, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, A. L. Lentine, L. M. F. Chirovsky, S. P. Hui, B. Tseng, R. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, and W. Y. Jan, “Operation of a single-ended 550Mbit/s, 41fJ, hybrid CMOS/MQW receiver-transmitter,” Electron. Lett. 32(8), 764–765 (1996).
[CrossRef]

HOTI (1)

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. Holzwarth, H. Li, H. Smith, J. Hoyt, F. Kartner, R. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, “Building manycore processor-to-DRAM network with monolithic silicon photonics,” HOTI 2008, 21–30 (2008).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

K. W. Goossen, J. E. Cunningham, and W. Y. Jan, “GaAs 850 nm modulators solder-bonded to silicon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5(7), 776–778 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, L. M. F. Chirovsky, R. G. Rozier, P. Chandramani, W. S. Hobson, S. P. Hui, J. Lopata, J. A. Walker, and L. A. D’Asaro, “16x16 vcsel array flip-chip bonded to CMOS VLSI circuit,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 12(8), 1073–1075 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Woodward, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, B. Tseng, J. Lothian, S. Hui, and R. Leibenguth, “Modulator-driver circuits for optoelectronic VLSI,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(6), 839–841 (1997).
[CrossRef]

lEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. L. Lentine, K. W. Goossen, J. A. Walker, L. M. F. Chirovsky, L. A. D’Asaro, S. P. Hui, B. J. Tseng, R. E. Leibenguth, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, J.-M. Kuo, D. W. Dahringer, D. P. Kossives, D. D. Bacon, G. Livescu, R. L. Morrison, R. A. Novotny, and D. B. Buchholz, “High-speed Optoelectronic VLSI Switching Chip with >4000 Optical I/O Based on Flip-Chip Bonding of MQW Modulators and Detectors to Silicon CMOS,” lEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(1), 77–84 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Y. H. Kuo, H. W. Chen, and J. E. Bowers, “High speed hybrid silicon evanescent electroabsorption modulator,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9936–9941 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. M. J. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 15(25), 17106–17113 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Roth, O. Fidaner, R. K. Schaevitz, Y. H. Kuo, T. I. Kamins, J. S. Harris, and D. A. B. Miller, “Optical modulator on silicon employing germanium quantum wells,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5851–5859 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. IEEE (3)

D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to Silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1166–1185 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, G. Rasigade, J.-M. Fedeli, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, P. Crozat, S. Maine, A. Lupu, P. Lyan, P. Rivallin, M. Halbwax, and S. Laval, “Recent progress in high-speed silicon-based optical modulators,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1199–1215 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, J. E. Ford, F. E. Kiamilev, R. G. Rozier, S. Hunsche, K. W. Goossen, B. Tseng, J. A. Walker, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, and M. C. Nuss, “The AMOEBA switch: an optoelectronic switch for multiprocessor networking using dense WDM,” lEEE J,” Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(2), 261–275 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (9)

J. S. Orcutt, K. Anatol, M. A. Popovic, C. W. Holzwarth, B. Moss, H. Li, M. S. Dahlem, T. D. Bonifield, F. X. Kartner, E. P. Ippen, and J. L. Hoyt, R. J. Ram, and V. Stojanovic, “Demonstration of an electronic photonic integrated circuit in a commercial scaled bulk cmos process,” in Proc. CLEO/IQEC Conf. Lasers Electro Opt/Intl. Quant. Elec. Conf., March 2008.

M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Ultralow power silicom microdisk modulators and switches,” Proceedings of IEEE conference on Group IV Photonics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2008), pp. 4–6, 2008.

S. Manipatruni, Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “High speed carrier injection 18Gb/s silicon micro-ring electro-optic modulator,” in proceedings of IEEE on the Annual Meeting of the IEEE LEOS (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2007), pp. 537–538, 2007.

T. Pinguet, V. Sadagopan, A. Mekis, B. Analui, D. Kucharski, and S. Gloeckner, “A 1550 nm, 10 Gbps optical modulator with integrated driver in 130 nm CMOS,” Proceedings of IEEE conference on Group IV Photonics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2007), pp.1–3, 2007.

D. Vantrease, R. Schreiber, M. Monchiero, M. McLarenz, N. P. Jouupi, M. Fiorentino, A. Davis, N. Binkert, R. G. Beausolei, and J. H. Ahn, “Corona: System Implications of Emerging Nanophotonic Technology,” ISCA '08, pp. 153–164, June 2008.

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, “On the Design of a Photonic Network-on-Chip,” Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Networks-on-Chip (NOCS) 2007, pp. 53–64, 2007.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Chen, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ultralow energy, Integrated GeSi electroabsorption modulators on SOI,” in Proceedings of IEEE conference on Group IV Photonics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2008), pp.10–12, 2008.

S. Palermo, and M. Horowitz, “High-speed transmitters in 90nm CMOS for high-density optical interconnects,” in Proceedings of IEEE on European Solid-State Circuits Conference (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2006), pp. 508–511, 2006.

R. Ho, J. Lexau, F. Liu, D. Patil, R. Hopkins, E. Alon, N. Pinckney, P. Amberg, X. Zheng, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Circuits for silicon photonics on a ‘macrochip’, ” IEEE Asian Solid-State Circuits Conference 2009, Industry Session 1–3, Nov. 2009.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Flip-chip integrated chip-on-board silicon photonic all CMOS driver integrated modulator. The blow-up picture shows a 3-port CMOS ring modulator with GSG bonding pads.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Resonance spectrum at different bias voltages of a CMOS carrier depletion ring modulator.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Ring modulator device performance: (a) measured ring modulator EO frequency response at 1V reverse bias; (b) 5Gbps “eye” diagram of the modulator driven by un-terminated RF probe, showing an extinction ratio of 3dB with a 2V swing at the device.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Carrier depletion CMOS ring modulator small-signal circuit model.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Curve fitting for measured S11 of the ring modulator at 1V reverse bias using the circuit model in Fig. 4.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Cascode modulator driver circuits with 2V voltage swing.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Schematic view of the insertion of the integrated transmitter into a clocked digital link.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

90nm CMOS driver chip with 330 digitally clocked low power modulator drivers, high speed digital I/Os and other test circuitry.The blow-up shows the GSG pads of one modulator driver with under-bump metallization.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Schematic of hybrid modulator and driver chip integration using micro bumps.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Photos of the hybrid chip assembly, with VLSI driver chip facing up in (a) and down in (b). (c) is a photo of the integrated transmitter, showing hybrid bonded VLSI driver chip (facing up) and modulator chip (facing down) wire bonded on a test PCB.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Driver-integrated modulator thermal stability measurement results indicating stable operation possible with simple passive thermal management.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

The high speed performance characterization results of the integrated “all” CMOS silicon photonic modulator. (a)“Eye” diagram of the modulator output at 5Gbps; (b) 10dB power penalty compared to commercial LiNbO3 modulator.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Circuit parameters extracted for the depletion ring modulator at different bias voltages.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Measured ring resonance wavelength in 2 hours.

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