Abstract

We demonstrate an optical hitless bypass switch based on nanomechanical proximity perturbation for high-bitrate transparent networks. Embedded in a single-level π-imbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer, the two nanomechanical-based Δβ-directional couplers permit broadband signal rerouting on-chip, while the selected wavelength remains unaffected at all times for optical filter reconfiguration. The optical hitless switch is implemented in the silicon nanophotonics platform, with experimental measurements matching well with numerical and theoretical modeling.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef]

2009 (4)

H. L. R. Lira, S. Manipatruni, and M. Lipson, “Broadband hitless silicon electro-optic switch for on-chip optical networks,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22271–22280 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Li, W. Pernice, and H. Tang, “Tunable bipolar optical interactions between guided lightwaves,” Nat. Photonics 3(8), 464–468 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, J. Chan, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “A picogram- and nanometre-scale photonic-crystal optomechanical cavity,” Nature 459(7246), 550–555 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Wiederhecker, L. Chen, A. Gondarenko, and M. Lipson, “Controlling photonic structures using optical forces,” Nature 462(7273), 633–636 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

N. Sherwood-Droz, H. Wang, L. Chen, B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, K. Bergman, and M. Lipson, “Optical 4x4 hitless slicon router for optical networks-on-chip (NoC),” Opt. Express 16(20), 15915–15922 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, P. Dong, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “All-Optical Comb Switch for Multiwavelength Message Routing in Silicon Photonic Networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(10), 767–769 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, X. Chen, A. Biberman, X. Liu, I.-W. Hsieh, C.-Y. Chou, J. I. Dadap, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, R. M. Osgood, and K. Bergman, “Ultrahigh-Bandwidth Silicon Photonic Nanowire Waveguides for On-Chip Networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(6), 398–400 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-Y. Ng, M. R. Wang, D. Li, X. Wang, J. Martinez, R. R. Panepucci, and K. Pathak, “4×4 wavelength-reconfigurable photonic switch based on thermally tuned silicon microring resonators,” Opt. Eng. 47(4), 044601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popović, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 57–60 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 65–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (6)

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-Chip Optical Interconnect Roadmap: Challenges and Critical Directions,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1699–1705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. T. Rakich, M. A. Popović, M. R. Watts, T. Barwicz, H. I. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrawide tuning of photonic microcavities via evanescent field perturbation,” Opt. Lett. 31(9), 1241–1243 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Haus, M. A. Popović, and M. R. Watts, “Broadband hitless bypass switch for integrated photonic circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(10), 1137–1139 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Popović, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Universally balanced photonic interferometers,” Opt. Lett. 31(18), 2713–2715 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M.-C. M. Lee and M. C. Wu, “Tunable coupling regimes of silicon microdisk resonators using MEMS actuators,” Opt. Express 14(11), 4703–4712 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

M. W. Pruessner, K. Amarnath, M. Datta, D. P. Kelly, S. Kanakaraju, P.-T. Ho, and R. Ghodssi, “InP-based optical waveguide MEMS switches with evanescent coupling mechanism,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 14(5), 1070–1081 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, D. S. Levy, R. Pafchek, M. Cappuzzo, L. Gomez, A. Wong-Foy, E. Chen, E. Laskowski, G. Bogert, and G. Richards, “Wavelength add-drop node using silica waveguide integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(12), 2755–2762 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

V. Craciun and O. W. W. Yang, “Ring resonator-based sparse reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer. part II: Node level analysis,” Proc. SPIE 5247, 561–568 (2003).

R. L. Espinola, M. C. Tsai, J. T. Yardley, and R. M. Osgood., “Fast and low-power thermooptic switch on thin silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(10), 1366–1368 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

E. Ollier, “Optical MEMS devices based on moving waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(1), 155–162 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Bakke, C. P. Tigges, J. J. Lean, C. T. Sullivan, and O. B. Spahn, “Planar microoptomechanical waveguide switches,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(1), 64–72 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

Q. Lai, W. Hunziker, and H. Melchior, “Low-power compact 2×2 thermooptic silica-on-silicon waveguide switch with fast response,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(5), 681–683 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, “Ultra-compact Si-SiO 2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(4), 549–551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

Y.-I. Lee, K.-H. Park, J. Lee, C.-S. Lee, H.-J. Yoo, C.-J. Kim, and Y.-S. Yoon, “Dry release for surface micromachining with HF vapor-phase etching,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 6(3), 226–233 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

M. Offenberg, B. Elsner, and F. Lärmer, “Vapor HF etching for sacrificial oxide removal in surface micromachining,” Electrochemical Society Fall Meet 94, 1056–1057 (1994).

1992 (1)

C. R. Helms and B. E. Deal, “Mechanisms of the HF/H2O vapor phase etching of SiO2,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 10(4), 806–811 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

R. Soref and B. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

H. Kogelnik and R. Schmidt, “Switched directional couplers with alternating Δβ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12(7), 396–401 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

M. Papuchon, Y. Combemale, X. Mathieu, D. Ostrowsky, L. Reiber, A. Roy, B. Sejourne, and M. Werner, “Electrically switched optical directional coupler: Cobra,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11(9), 921–922 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1973 (2)

H. F. Taylor, “Optical switching and modulation in parallel dielectric waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 44(7), 3257–3262 (1973).
[CrossRef]

A. Yariv, “Coupled-wave theory for guided-wave optics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9(9), 919–933 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

P. J. Holmes and J. E. Snell, “Vapour etching technique for photolithography of silicon dioxide,” Microelectron. Reliab. 5(4), 337–341 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Albonesi, D. H.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-Chip Optical Interconnect Roadmap: Challenges and Critical Directions,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1699–1705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Amarnath, K.

M. W. Pruessner, K. Amarnath, M. Datta, D. P. Kelly, S. Kanakaraju, P.-T. Ho, and R. Ghodssi, “InP-based optical waveguide MEMS switches with evanescent coupling mechanism,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 14(5), 1070–1081 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Andersen, K. N.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bakke, T.

T. Bakke, C. P. Tigges, J. J. Lean, C. T. Sullivan, and O. B. Spahn, “Planar microoptomechanical waveguide switches,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(1), 64–72 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Barwicz, T.

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popović, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 57–60 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. T. Rakich, M. A. Popović, M. R. Watts, T. Barwicz, H. I. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrawide tuning of photonic microcavities via evanescent field perturbation,” Opt. Lett. 31(9), 1241–1243 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, B.

R. Soref and B. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bergman, K.

N. Sherwood-Droz, H. Wang, L. Chen, B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, K. Bergman, and M. Lipson, “Optical 4x4 hitless slicon router for optical networks-on-chip (NoC),” Opt. Express 16(20), 15915–15922 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, P. Dong, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “All-Optical Comb Switch for Multiwavelength Message Routing in Silicon Photonic Networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(10), 767–769 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, X. Chen, A. Biberman, X. Liu, I.-W. Hsieh, C.-Y. Chou, J. I. Dadap, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, R. M. Osgood, and K. Bergman, “Ultrahigh-Bandwidth Silicon Photonic Nanowire Waveguides for On-Chip Networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(6), 398–400 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Biberman, A.

B. G. Lee, X. Chen, A. Biberman, X. Liu, I.-W. Hsieh, C.-Y. Chou, J. I. Dadap, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, R. M. Osgood, and K. Bergman, “Ultrahigh-Bandwidth Silicon Photonic Nanowire Waveguides for On-Chip Networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(6), 398–400 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, P. Dong, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “All-Optical Comb Switch for Multiwavelength Message Routing in Silicon Photonic Networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(10), 767–769 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Sherwood-Droz, H. Wang, L. Chen, B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, K. Bergman, and M. Lipson, “Optical 4x4 hitless slicon router for optical networks-on-chip (NoC),” Opt. Express 16(20), 15915–15922 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bjarklev, A.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bogert, G.

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, D. S. Levy, R. Pafchek, M. Cappuzzo, L. Gomez, A. Wong-Foy, E. Chen, E. Laskowski, G. Bogert, and G. Richards, “Wavelength add-drop node using silica waveguide integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(12), 2755–2762 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Borel, P. I.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Camacho, R.

M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, J. Chan, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “A picogram- and nanometre-scale photonic-crystal optomechanical cavity,” Nature 459(7246), 550–555 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cappuzzo, M.

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, D. S. Levy, R. Pafchek, M. Cappuzzo, L. Gomez, A. Wong-Foy, E. Chen, E. Laskowski, G. Bogert, and G. Richards, “Wavelength add-drop node using silica waveguide integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(12), 2755–2762 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chan, J.

M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, J. Chan, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “A picogram- and nanometre-scale photonic-crystal optomechanical cavity,” Nature 459(7246), 550–555 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, E.

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, D. S. Levy, R. Pafchek, M. Cappuzzo, L. Gomez, A. Wong-Foy, E. Chen, E. Laskowski, G. Bogert, and G. Richards, “Wavelength add-drop node using silica waveguide integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(12), 2755–2762 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-Chip Optical Interconnect Roadmap: Challenges and Critical Directions,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1699–1705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-Chip Optical Interconnect Roadmap: Challenges and Critical Directions,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1699–1705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

G. S. Wiederhecker, L. Chen, A. Gondarenko, and M. Lipson, “Controlling photonic structures using optical forces,” Nature 462(7273), 633–636 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Sherwood-Droz, H. Wang, L. Chen, B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, K. Bergman, and M. Lipson, “Optical 4x4 hitless slicon router for optical networks-on-chip (NoC),” Opt. Express 16(20), 15915–15922 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Y.-I. Lee, K.-H. Park, J. Lee, C.-S. Lee, H.-J. Yoo, C.-J. Kim, and Y.-S. Yoon, “Dry release for surface micromachining with HF vapor-phase etching,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 6(3), 226–233 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pathak, K.

H.-Y. Ng, M. R. Wang, D. Li, X. Wang, J. Martinez, R. R. Panepucci, and K. Pathak, “4×4 wavelength-reconfigurable photonic switch based on thermally tuned silicon microring resonators,” Opt. Eng. 47(4), 044601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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M. Li, W. Pernice, and H. Tang, “Tunable bipolar optical interactions between guided lightwaves,” Nat. Photonics 3(8), 464–468 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Peucheret, C.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popović, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 57–60 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. T. Rakich, M. A. Popović, M. R. Watts, T. Barwicz, H. I. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrawide tuning of photonic microcavities via evanescent field perturbation,” Opt. Lett. 31(9), 1241–1243 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Haus, M. A. Popović, and M. R. Watts, “Broadband hitless bypass switch for integrated photonic circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(10), 1137–1139 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Popović, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Universally balanced photonic interferometers,” Opt. Lett. 31(18), 2713–2715 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pradhan, S.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pruessner, M. W.

M. W. Pruessner, K. Amarnath, M. Datta, D. P. Kelly, S. Kanakaraju, P.-T. Ho, and R. Ghodssi, “InP-based optical waveguide MEMS switches with evanescent coupling mechanism,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 14(5), 1070–1081 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popović, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 57–60 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. T. Rakich, M. A. Popović, M. R. Watts, T. Barwicz, H. I. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrawide tuning of photonic microcavities via evanescent field perturbation,” Opt. Lett. 31(9), 1241–1243 (2006).
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M. Papuchon, Y. Combemale, X. Mathieu, D. Ostrowsky, L. Reiber, A. Roy, B. Sejourne, and M. Werner, “Electrically switched optical directional coupler: Cobra,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11(9), 921–922 (1975).
[CrossRef]

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C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, D. S. Levy, R. Pafchek, M. Cappuzzo, L. Gomez, A. Wong-Foy, E. Chen, E. Laskowski, G. Bogert, and G. Richards, “Wavelength add-drop node using silica waveguide integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(12), 2755–2762 (2004).
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M. Papuchon, Y. Combemale, X. Mathieu, D. Ostrowsky, L. Reiber, A. Roy, B. Sejourne, and M. Werner, “Electrically switched optical directional coupler: Cobra,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11(9), 921–922 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, B.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, R.

H. Kogelnik and R. Schmidt, “Switched directional couplers with alternating Δβ,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12(7), 396–401 (1976).
[CrossRef]

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M. Papuchon, Y. Combemale, X. Mathieu, D. Ostrowsky, L. Reiber, A. Roy, B. Sejourne, and M. Werner, “Electrically switched optical directional coupler: Cobra,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11(9), 921–922 (1975).
[CrossRef]

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B. G. Lee, X. Chen, A. Biberman, X. Liu, I.-W. Hsieh, C.-Y. Chou, J. I. Dadap, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, R. M. Osgood, and K. Bergman, “Ultrahigh-Bandwidth Silicon Photonic Nanowire Waveguides for On-Chip Networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(6), 398–400 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 65–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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N. Sherwood-Droz, H. Wang, L. Chen, B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, K. Bergman, and M. Lipson, “Optical 4x4 hitless slicon router for optical networks-on-chip (NoC),” Opt. Express 16(20), 15915–15922 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Smith, H. I.

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popović, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 57–60 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. T. Rakich, M. A. Popović, M. R. Watts, T. Barwicz, H. I. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrawide tuning of photonic microcavities via evanescent field perturbation,” Opt. Lett. 31(9), 1241–1243 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Snell, J. E.

P. J. Holmes and J. E. Snell, “Vapour etching technique for photolithography of silicon dioxide,” Microelectron. Reliab. 5(4), 337–341 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Socci, L.

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popović, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 57–60 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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R. Soref and B. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
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T. Bakke, C. P. Tigges, J. J. Lean, C. T. Sullivan, and O. B. Spahn, “Planar microoptomechanical waveguide switches,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(1), 64–72 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, “Ultra-compact Si-SiO 2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(4), 549–551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stulz, L. W.

C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, D. S. Levy, R. Pafchek, M. Cappuzzo, L. Gomez, A. Wong-Foy, E. Chen, E. Laskowski, G. Bogert, and G. Richards, “Wavelength add-drop node using silica waveguide integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(12), 2755–2762 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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T. Bakke, C. P. Tigges, J. J. Lean, C. T. Sullivan, and O. B. Spahn, “Planar microoptomechanical waveguide switches,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(1), 64–72 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tang, H.

M. Li, W. Pernice, and H. Tang, “Tunable bipolar optical interactions between guided lightwaves,” Nat. Photonics 3(8), 464–468 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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H. F. Taylor, “Optical switching and modulation in parallel dielectric waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 44(7), 3257–3262 (1973).
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B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, “Ultra-compact Si-SiO 2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(4), 549–551 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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T. Bakke, C. P. Tigges, J. J. Lean, C. T. Sullivan, and O. B. Spahn, “Planar microoptomechanical waveguide switches,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(1), 64–72 (2002).
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Tsai, M. C.

R. L. Espinola, M. C. Tsai, J. T. Yardley, and R. M. Osgood., “Fast and low-power thermooptic switch on thin silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(10), 1366–1368 (2003).
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Vahala, K. J.

M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, J. Chan, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “A picogram- and nanometre-scale photonic-crystal optomechanical cavity,” Nature 459(7246), 550–555 (2009).
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F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 65–71 (2007).
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Vlasov, Y. A.

B. G. Lee, X. Chen, A. Biberman, X. Liu, I.-W. Hsieh, C.-Y. Chou, J. I. Dadap, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, R. M. Osgood, and K. Bergman, “Ultrahigh-Bandwidth Silicon Photonic Nanowire Waveguides for On-Chip Networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(6), 398–400 (2008).
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Wang, H.

N. Sherwood-Droz, H. Wang, L. Chen, B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, K. Bergman, and M. Lipson, “Optical 4x4 hitless slicon router for optical networks-on-chip (NoC),” Opt. Express 16(20), 15915–15922 (2008).
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Wang, M. R.

H.-Y. Ng, M. R. Wang, D. Li, X. Wang, J. Martinez, R. R. Panepucci, and K. Pathak, “4×4 wavelength-reconfigurable photonic switch based on thermally tuned silicon microring resonators,” Opt. Eng. 47(4), 044601 (2008).
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Wang, X.

H.-Y. Ng, M. R. Wang, D. Li, X. Wang, J. Martinez, R. R. Panepucci, and K. Pathak, “4×4 wavelength-reconfigurable photonic switch based on thermally tuned silicon microring resonators,” Opt. Eng. 47(4), 044601 (2008).
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T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popović, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 57–60 (2007).
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H. A. Haus, M. A. Popović, and M. R. Watts, “Broadband hitless bypass switch for integrated photonic circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(10), 1137–1139 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. T. Rakich, M. A. Popović, M. R. Watts, T. Barwicz, H. I. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrawide tuning of photonic microcavities via evanescent field perturbation,” Opt. Lett. 31(9), 1241–1243 (2006).
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M. Papuchon, Y. Combemale, X. Mathieu, D. Ostrowsky, L. Reiber, A. Roy, B. Sejourne, and M. Werner, “Electrically switched optical directional coupler: Cobra,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11(9), 921–922 (1975).
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G. S. Wiederhecker, L. Chen, A. Gondarenko, and M. Lipson, “Controlling photonic structures using optical forces,” Nature 462(7273), 633–636 (2009).
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C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, D. S. Levy, R. Pafchek, M. Cappuzzo, L. Gomez, A. Wong-Foy, E. Chen, E. Laskowski, G. Bogert, and G. Richards, “Wavelength add-drop node using silica waveguide integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(12), 2755–2762 (2004).
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M.-C. M. Lee and M. C. Wu, “Tunable coupling regimes of silicon microdisk resonators using MEMS actuators,” Opt. Express 14(11), 4703–4712 (2006).
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B. G. Lee, X. Chen, A. Biberman, X. Liu, I.-W. Hsieh, C.-Y. Chou, J. I. Dadap, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, R. M. Osgood, and K. Bergman, “Ultrahigh-Bandwidth Silicon Photonic Nanowire Waveguides for On-Chip Networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(6), 398–400 (2008).
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F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 65–71 (2007).
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Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
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V. Craciun and O. W. W. Yang, “Ring resonator-based sparse reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer. part II: Node level analysis,” Proc. SPIE 5247, 561–568 (2003).

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R. L. Espinola, M. C. Tsai, J. T. Yardley, and R. M. Osgood., “Fast and low-power thermooptic switch on thin silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(10), 1366–1368 (2003).
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Y.-I. Lee, K.-H. Park, J. Lee, C.-S. Lee, H.-J. Yoo, C.-J. Kim, and Y.-S. Yoon, “Dry release for surface micromachining with HF vapor-phase etching,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 6(3), 226–233 (1997).
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Y.-I. Lee, K.-H. Park, J. Lee, C.-S. Lee, H.-J. Yoo, C.-J. Kim, and Y.-S. Yoon, “Dry release for surface micromachining with HF vapor-phase etching,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 6(3), 226–233 (1997).
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M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-Chip Optical Interconnect Roadmap: Challenges and Critical Directions,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1699–1705 (2006).
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R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
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M. Papuchon, Y. Combemale, X. Mathieu, D. Ostrowsky, L. Reiber, A. Roy, B. Sejourne, and M. Werner, “Electrically switched optical directional coupler: Cobra,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11(9), 921–922 (1975).
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A. Yariv, “Coupled-wave theory for guided-wave optics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9(9), 919–933 (1973).
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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

E. Ollier, “Optical MEMS devices based on moving waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(1), 155–162 (2002).
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T. Bakke, C. P. Tigges, J. J. Lean, C. T. Sullivan, and O. B. Spahn, “Planar microoptomechanical waveguide switches,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(1), 64–72 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (6)

R. L. Espinola, M. C. Tsai, J. T. Yardley, and R. M. Osgood., “Fast and low-power thermooptic switch on thin silicon-on-insulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(10), 1366–1368 (2003).
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B. G. Lee, X. Chen, A. Biberman, X. Liu, I.-W. Hsieh, C.-Y. Chou, J. I. Dadap, F. Xia, W. M. J. Green, L. Sekaric, Y. A. Vlasov, R. M. Osgood, and K. Bergman, “Ultrahigh-Bandwidth Silicon Photonic Nanowire Waveguides for On-Chip Networks,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(6), 398–400 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Little, J. S. Foresi, G. Steinmeyer, E. R. Thoen, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, L. C. Kimerling, and W. Greene, “Ultra-compact Si-SiO 2 microring resonator optical channel dropping filters,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(4), 549–551 (1998).
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H. A. Haus, M. A. Popović, and M. R. Watts, “Broadband hitless bypass switch for integrated photonic circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(10), 1137–1139 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-Chip Optical Interconnect Roadmap: Challenges and Critical Directions,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1699–1705 (2006).
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H. F. Taylor, “Optical switching and modulation in parallel dielectric waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 44(7), 3257–3262 (1973).
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C. R. Doerr, L. W. Stulz, D. S. Levy, R. Pafchek, M. Cappuzzo, L. Gomez, A. Wong-Foy, E. Chen, E. Laskowski, G. Bogert, and G. Richards, “Wavelength add-drop node using silica waveguide integration,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(12), 2755–2762 (2004).
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M. W. Pruessner, K. Amarnath, M. Datta, D. P. Kelly, S. Kanakaraju, P.-T. Ho, and R. Ghodssi, “InP-based optical waveguide MEMS switches with evanescent coupling mechanism,” J. Microelectromech. Syst. 14(5), 1070–1081 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Nat. Photonics (3)

T. Barwicz, M. R. Watts, M. A. Popović, P. T. Rakich, L. Socci, F. X. Kärtner, E. P. Ippen, and H. I. Smith, “Polarization-transparent microphotonic devices in the strong confinement limit,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 57–60 (2007).
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F. Xia, L. Sekaric, and Y. Vlasov, “Ultracompact optical buffers on a silicon chip,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 65–71 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Li, W. Pernice, and H. Tang, “Tunable bipolar optical interactions between guided lightwaves,” Nat. Photonics 3(8), 464–468 (2009).
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Nature (4)

M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, J. Chan, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “A picogram- and nanometre-scale photonic-crystal optomechanical cavity,” Nature 459(7246), 550–555 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Wiederhecker, L. Chen, A. Gondarenko, and M. Lipson, “Controlling photonic structures using optical forces,” Nature 462(7273), 633–636 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
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Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
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Opt. Eng. (1)

H.-Y. Ng, M. R. Wang, D. Li, X. Wang, J. Martinez, R. R. Panepucci, and K. Pathak, “4×4 wavelength-reconfigurable photonic switch based on thermally tuned silicon microring resonators,” Opt. Eng. 47(4), 044601 (2008).
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M.-C. M. Lee and M. C. Wu, “Tunable coupling regimes of silicon microdisk resonators using MEMS actuators,” Opt. Express 14(11), 4703–4712 (2006).
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P. T. Rakich, M. A. Popović, M. R. Watts, T. Barwicz, H. I. Smith, and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrawide tuning of photonic microcavities via evanescent field perturbation,” Opt. Lett. 31(9), 1241–1243 (2006).
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V. Craciun and O. W. W. Yang, “Ring resonator-based sparse reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer. part II: Node level analysis,” Proc. SPIE 5247, 561–568 (2003).

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