Abstract

We have spatially and spectrally resolved the high order harmonic emission from an argon gas target. Under proper phase matching conditions we were able to observe for the first time the spatial fine structure originating from the interference of the two shortest quantum paths in the harmonic beam. The structure can be explained by the intensity-dependent harmonic phase of the contributions from the two paths. The spatially and spectrally resolved measurements are consistent with previous spatially integrated results. Our measurement method represents a new tool to clearly distinguish between different interference effects and to potentially observe higher order trajectories in the future with improved detection sensitivity. Here, we demonstrate additional experimental evidence that the observed interference pattern is only due to quantum-path interferences and cannot be explained by a phase modulation effect. Our experimental results are fully supported by simulations using the strong field approximation and including propagation.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. A. McPherson, G. Gibson, H. Jara, U. Johann, T. S. Luk, I. A. McIntyre, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Studies of multiphoton production of vacuum-ultraviolet radiation in the rare gases,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4(4), 595 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Ferray, A. L'Huillier, X. F. Li, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases,” J. Phys. B 21(3), 001 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  3. X. F. Li, A. L’Huillier, M. Ferray, L. A. Lompré, and G. Mainfray, “Multiple-harmonic generation in rare gases at high laser intensity,” Phys. Rev. A 39(11), 5751–5761 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(13), 1994–1997 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. K. C. Kulander, K. J. Schafer, and J. L. Krause, “Dynamics of short-pulse excitation, ionization and harmonic Conversion,” NATO Advanced Research Workshop on SILAP (Super-Intense Laser-Atom Physics), (1993).
  6. M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. K. Schiessl, K. L. Ishikawa, E. Persson, and J. Burgdorfer, “Wavelength dependence of high-harmonic generation from ultrashort pulses,” J. Mod. Opt. 55(16), 2617–2630 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, and A. L’Huillier, “Phase of the atomic polarization in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 52(6), 4747–4754 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. Zaïr, M. Holler, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, U. Keller, A. S. Wyatt, A. Monmayrant, I. A. Walmsley, E. Cormier, T. Auguste, J. P. Caumes, and P. Salières, “Quantum path interferences in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(14), 143902 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. Holler, A. Zaïr, F. Schapper, T. Auguste, E. Cormier, A. Wyatt, A. Monmayrant, I. A. Walmsley, L. Gallmann, P. Salières, and U. Keller, “Ionization effects on spectral signatures of quantum-path interference in high-harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5716–5722 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. P. Salières, B. Carré, L. Le Déroff, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Kopold, W. Becker, D. B. Milosević, A. Sanpera, and M. Lewenstein, “Feynman’s path-integral approach for intense-laser-atom interactions,” Science 292(5518), 902–905 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Ph. Balcou, P. Salières, A. L'Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Generalized phase-matching conditions for high harmonics: The role of field-gradient forces,” Phys. Rev. A 55(4), 3204–3210 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Ph. Balcou, A. S. Dederichs, M. B. Gaarde, and A. L'Huillier, “Quantum-path analysis and phase matching of high-order harmonic generation and high-order frequency mixing processes in strong laser fields,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 32(12), 2973–2989 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, Ph. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, and A. L’Huillier, “Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components,” Phys. Rev. A 59(2), 1367–1373 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  15. T. Auguste, P. Salières, A. S. Wyatt, A. Monmayrant, I. A. Walmsley, E. Cormier, A. Zair, M. Holler, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Theoretical and experimental analysis of quantum path interferences in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 80(3), 033817 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Bellini, C. Lyngå, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L'Huillier, and C. G. Wahlström, “Temporal coherence of ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(2), 297–300 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  17. C. Corsi, A. Pirri, E. Sali, A. Tortora, and M. Bellini, “Direct interferometric measurement of the atomic dipole phase in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(2), 023901 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

M. Holler, A. Zaïr, F. Schapper, T. Auguste, E. Cormier, A. Wyatt, A. Monmayrant, I. A. Walmsley, L. Gallmann, P. Salières, and U. Keller, “Ionization effects on spectral signatures of quantum-path interference in high-harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5716–5722 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Auguste, P. Salières, A. S. Wyatt, A. Monmayrant, I. A. Walmsley, E. Cormier, A. Zair, M. Holler, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Theoretical and experimental analysis of quantum path interferences in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 80(3), 033817 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

K. Schiessl, K. L. Ishikawa, E. Persson, and J. Burgdorfer, “Wavelength dependence of high-harmonic generation from ultrashort pulses,” J. Mod. Opt. 55(16), 2617–2630 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Zaïr, M. Holler, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, U. Keller, A. S. Wyatt, A. Monmayrant, I. A. Walmsley, E. Cormier, T. Auguste, J. P. Caumes, and P. Salières, “Quantum path interferences in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(14), 143902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

C. Corsi, A. Pirri, E. Sali, A. Tortora, and M. Bellini, “Direct interferometric measurement of the atomic dipole phase in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(2), 023901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

P. Salières, B. Carré, L. Le Déroff, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Kopold, W. Becker, D. B. Milosević, A. Sanpera, and M. Lewenstein, “Feynman’s path-integral approach for intense-laser-atom interactions,” Science 292(5518), 902–905 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

Ph. Balcou, A. S. Dederichs, M. B. Gaarde, and A. L'Huillier, “Quantum-path analysis and phase matching of high-order harmonic generation and high-order frequency mixing processes in strong laser fields,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 32(12), 2973–2989 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, Ph. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, and A. L’Huillier, “Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components,” Phys. Rev. A 59(2), 1367–1373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

M. Bellini, C. Lyngå, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L'Huillier, and C. G. Wahlström, “Temporal coherence of ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(2), 297–300 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

Ph. Balcou, P. Salières, A. L'Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Generalized phase-matching conditions for high harmonics: The role of field-gradient forces,” Phys. Rev. A 55(4), 3204–3210 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, and A. L’Huillier, “Phase of the atomic polarization in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 52(6), 4747–4754 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(13), 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

X. F. Li, A. L’Huillier, M. Ferray, L. A. Lompré, and G. Mainfray, “Multiple-harmonic generation in rare gases at high laser intensity,” Phys. Rev. A 39(11), 5751–5761 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

M. Ferray, A. L'Huillier, X. F. Li, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases,” J. Phys. B 21(3), 001 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

A. McPherson, G. Gibson, H. Jara, U. Johann, T. S. Luk, I. A. McIntyre, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Studies of multiphoton production of vacuum-ultraviolet radiation in the rare gases,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4(4), 595 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Auguste, T.

M. Holler, A. Zaïr, F. Schapper, T. Auguste, E. Cormier, A. Wyatt, A. Monmayrant, I. A. Walmsley, L. Gallmann, P. Salières, and U. Keller, “Ionization effects on spectral signatures of quantum-path interference in high-harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5716–5722 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Auguste, P. Salières, A. S. Wyatt, A. Monmayrant, I. A. Walmsley, E. Cormier, A. Zair, M. Holler, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Theoretical and experimental analysis of quantum path interferences in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 80(3), 033817 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Zaïr, M. Holler, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, U. Keller, A. S. Wyatt, A. Monmayrant, I. A. Walmsley, E. Cormier, T. Auguste, J. P. Caumes, and P. Salières, “Quantum path interferences in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(14), 143902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balcou, Ph.

Ph. Balcou, A. S. Dederichs, M. B. Gaarde, and A. L'Huillier, “Quantum-path analysis and phase matching of high-order harmonic generation and high-order frequency mixing processes in strong laser fields,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 32(12), 2973–2989 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, Ph. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, and A. L’Huillier, “Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components,” Phys. Rev. A 59(2), 1367–1373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ph. Balcou, P. Salières, A. L'Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Generalized phase-matching conditions for high harmonics: The role of field-gradient forces,” Phys. Rev. A 55(4), 3204–3210 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Becker, W.

P. Salières, B. Carré, L. Le Déroff, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Kopold, W. Becker, D. B. Milosević, A. Sanpera, and M. Lewenstein, “Feynman’s path-integral approach for intense-laser-atom interactions,” Science 292(5518), 902–905 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bellini, M.

C. Corsi, A. Pirri, E. Sali, A. Tortora, and M. Bellini, “Direct interferometric measurement of the atomic dipole phase in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(2), 023901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bellini, C. Lyngå, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L'Huillier, and C. G. Wahlström, “Temporal coherence of ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(2), 297–300 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Biegert, J.

T. Auguste, P. Salières, A. S. Wyatt, A. Monmayrant, I. A. Walmsley, E. Cormier, A. Zair, M. Holler, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Theoretical and experimental analysis of quantum path interferences in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 80(3), 033817 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Zaïr, M. Holler, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, U. Keller, A. S. Wyatt, A. Monmayrant, I. A. Walmsley, E. Cormier, T. Auguste, J. P. Caumes, and P. Salières, “Quantum path interferences in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(14), 143902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boyer, K.

A. McPherson, G. Gibson, H. Jara, U. Johann, T. S. Luk, I. A. McIntyre, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Studies of multiphoton production of vacuum-ultraviolet radiation in the rare gases,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4(4), 595 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Burgdorfer, J.

K. Schiessl, K. L. Ishikawa, E. Persson, and J. Burgdorfer, “Wavelength dependence of high-harmonic generation from ultrashort pulses,” J. Mod. Opt. 55(16), 2617–2630 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Carré, B.

P. Salières, B. Carré, L. Le Déroff, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Kopold, W. Becker, D. B. Milosević, A. Sanpera, and M. Lewenstein, “Feynman’s path-integral approach for intense-laser-atom interactions,” Science 292(5518), 902–905 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caumes, J. P.

A. Zaïr, M. Holler, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, U. Keller, A. S. Wyatt, A. Monmayrant, I. A. Walmsley, E. Cormier, T. Auguste, J. P. Caumes, and P. Salières, “Quantum path interferences in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(14), 143902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Constant, E.

M. B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, Ph. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, and A. L’Huillier, “Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components,” Phys. Rev. A 59(2), 1367–1373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(13), 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cormier, E.

M. Holler, A. Zaïr, F. Schapper, T. Auguste, E. Cormier, A. Wyatt, A. Monmayrant, I. A. Walmsley, L. Gallmann, P. Salières, and U. Keller, “Ionization effects on spectral signatures of quantum-path interference in high-harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5716–5722 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Auguste, P. Salières, A. S. Wyatt, A. Monmayrant, I. A. Walmsley, E. Cormier, A. Zair, M. Holler, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Theoretical and experimental analysis of quantum path interferences in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 80(3), 033817 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Zaïr, M. Holler, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, U. Keller, A. S. Wyatt, A. Monmayrant, I. A. Walmsley, E. Cormier, T. Auguste, J. P. Caumes, and P. Salières, “Quantum path interferences in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(14), 143902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corsi, C.

C. Corsi, A. Pirri, E. Sali, A. Tortora, and M. Bellini, “Direct interferometric measurement of the atomic dipole phase in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(2), 023901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dederichs, A. S.

Ph. Balcou, A. S. Dederichs, M. B. Gaarde, and A. L'Huillier, “Quantum-path analysis and phase matching of high-order harmonic generation and high-order frequency mixing processes in strong laser fields,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 32(12), 2973–2989 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ferray, M.

X. F. Li, A. L’Huillier, M. Ferray, L. A. Lompré, and G. Mainfray, “Multiple-harmonic generation in rare gases at high laser intensity,” Phys. Rev. A 39(11), 5751–5761 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ferray, A. L'Huillier, X. F. Li, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases,” J. Phys. B 21(3), 001 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Gaarde, M. B.

Ph. Balcou, A. S. Dederichs, M. B. Gaarde, and A. L'Huillier, “Quantum-path analysis and phase matching of high-order harmonic generation and high-order frequency mixing processes in strong laser fields,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 32(12), 2973–2989 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, Ph. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, and A. L’Huillier, “Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components,” Phys. Rev. A 59(2), 1367–1373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Bellini, C. Lyngå, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L'Huillier, and C. G. Wahlström, “Temporal coherence of ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(2), 297–300 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gallmann, L.

T. Auguste, P. Salières, A. S. Wyatt, A. Monmayrant, I. A. Walmsley, E. Cormier, A. Zair, M. Holler, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Theoretical and experimental analysis of quantum path interferences in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 80(3), 033817 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Holler, A. Zaïr, F. Schapper, T. Auguste, E. Cormier, A. Wyatt, A. Monmayrant, I. A. Walmsley, L. Gallmann, P. Salières, and U. Keller, “Ionization effects on spectral signatures of quantum-path interference in high-harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5716–5722 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Zaïr, M. Holler, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, U. Keller, A. S. Wyatt, A. Monmayrant, I. A. Walmsley, E. Cormier, T. Auguste, J. P. Caumes, and P. Salières, “Quantum path interferences in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(14), 143902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gibson, G.

A. McPherson, G. Gibson, H. Jara, U. Johann, T. S. Luk, I. A. McIntyre, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Studies of multiphoton production of vacuum-ultraviolet radiation in the rare gases,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4(4), 595 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Grasbon, F.

P. Salières, B. Carré, L. Le Déroff, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Kopold, W. Becker, D. B. Milosević, A. Sanpera, and M. Lewenstein, “Feynman’s path-integral approach for intense-laser-atom interactions,” Science 292(5518), 902–905 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guandalini, A.

T. Auguste, P. Salières, A. S. Wyatt, A. Monmayrant, I. A. Walmsley, E. Cormier, A. Zair, M. Holler, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Theoretical and experimental analysis of quantum path interferences in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 80(3), 033817 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Zaïr, M. Holler, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, U. Keller, A. S. Wyatt, A. Monmayrant, I. A. Walmsley, E. Cormier, T. Auguste, J. P. Caumes, and P. Salières, “Quantum path interferences in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(14), 143902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hänsch, T. W.

M. Bellini, C. Lyngå, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L'Huillier, and C. G. Wahlström, “Temporal coherence of ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(2), 297–300 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Holler, M.

T. Auguste, P. Salières, A. S. Wyatt, A. Monmayrant, I. A. Walmsley, E. Cormier, A. Zair, M. Holler, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Theoretical and experimental analysis of quantum path interferences in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 80(3), 033817 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Holler, A. Zaïr, F. Schapper, T. Auguste, E. Cormier, A. Wyatt, A. Monmayrant, I. A. Walmsley, L. Gallmann, P. Salières, and U. Keller, “Ionization effects on spectral signatures of quantum-path interference in high-harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5716–5722 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Zaïr, M. Holler, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, U. Keller, A. S. Wyatt, A. Monmayrant, I. A. Walmsley, E. Cormier, T. Auguste, J. P. Caumes, and P. Salières, “Quantum path interferences in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(14), 143902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishikawa, K. L.

K. Schiessl, K. L. Ishikawa, E. Persson, and J. Burgdorfer, “Wavelength dependence of high-harmonic generation from ultrashort pulses,” J. Mod. Opt. 55(16), 2617–2630 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, M. Yu.

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jara, H.

A. McPherson, G. Gibson, H. Jara, U. Johann, T. S. Luk, I. A. McIntyre, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Studies of multiphoton production of vacuum-ultraviolet radiation in the rare gases,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4(4), 595 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Johann, U.

A. McPherson, G. Gibson, H. Jara, U. Johann, T. S. Luk, I. A. McIntyre, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Studies of multiphoton production of vacuum-ultraviolet radiation in the rare gases,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4(4), 595 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Keller, U.

M. Holler, A. Zaïr, F. Schapper, T. Auguste, E. Cormier, A. Wyatt, A. Monmayrant, I. A. Walmsley, L. Gallmann, P. Salières, and U. Keller, “Ionization effects on spectral signatures of quantum-path interference in high-harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5716–5722 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Auguste, P. Salières, A. S. Wyatt, A. Monmayrant, I. A. Walmsley, E. Cormier, A. Zair, M. Holler, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Theoretical and experimental analysis of quantum path interferences in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 80(3), 033817 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Zaïr, M. Holler, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, U. Keller, A. S. Wyatt, A. Monmayrant, I. A. Walmsley, E. Cormier, T. Auguste, J. P. Caumes, and P. Salières, “Quantum path interferences in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(14), 143902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kopold, R.

P. Salières, B. Carré, L. Le Déroff, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Kopold, W. Becker, D. B. Milosević, A. Sanpera, and M. Lewenstein, “Feynman’s path-integral approach for intense-laser-atom interactions,” Science 292(5518), 902–905 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kulander, K. C.

M. B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, Ph. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, and A. L’Huillier, “Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components,” Phys. Rev. A 59(2), 1367–1373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L’Huillier, A.

M. B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, Ph. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, and A. L’Huillier, “Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components,” Phys. Rev. A 59(2), 1367–1373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, and A. L’Huillier, “Phase of the atomic polarization in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 52(6), 4747–4754 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. F. Li, A. L’Huillier, M. Ferray, L. A. Lompré, and G. Mainfray, “Multiple-harmonic generation in rare gases at high laser intensity,” Phys. Rev. A 39(11), 5751–5761 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Le Déroff, L.

P. Salières, B. Carré, L. Le Déroff, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Kopold, W. Becker, D. B. Milosević, A. Sanpera, and M. Lewenstein, “Feynman’s path-integral approach for intense-laser-atom interactions,” Science 292(5518), 902–905 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lewenstein, M.

P. Salières, B. Carré, L. Le Déroff, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Kopold, W. Becker, D. B. Milosević, A. Sanpera, and M. Lewenstein, “Feynman’s path-integral approach for intense-laser-atom interactions,” Science 292(5518), 902–905 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ph. Balcou, P. Salières, A. L'Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Generalized phase-matching conditions for high harmonics: The role of field-gradient forces,” Phys. Rev. A 55(4), 3204–3210 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, and A. L’Huillier, “Phase of the atomic polarization in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 52(6), 4747–4754 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L'Huillier, A.

Ph. Balcou, A. S. Dederichs, M. B. Gaarde, and A. L'Huillier, “Quantum-path analysis and phase matching of high-order harmonic generation and high-order frequency mixing processes in strong laser fields,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 32(12), 2973–2989 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Bellini, C. Lyngå, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L'Huillier, and C. G. Wahlström, “Temporal coherence of ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(2), 297–300 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ph. Balcou, P. Salières, A. L'Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Generalized phase-matching conditions for high harmonics: The role of field-gradient forces,” Phys. Rev. A 55(4), 3204–3210 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Ferray, A. L'Huillier, X. F. Li, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases,” J. Phys. B 21(3), 001 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Li, X. F.

X. F. Li, A. L’Huillier, M. Ferray, L. A. Lompré, and G. Mainfray, “Multiple-harmonic generation in rare gases at high laser intensity,” Phys. Rev. A 39(11), 5751–5761 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ferray, A. L'Huillier, X. F. Li, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases,” J. Phys. B 21(3), 001 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Lompre, L. A.

M. Ferray, A. L'Huillier, X. F. Li, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases,” J. Phys. B 21(3), 001 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Lompré, L. A.

X. F. Li, A. L’Huillier, M. Ferray, L. A. Lompré, and G. Mainfray, “Multiple-harmonic generation in rare gases at high laser intensity,” Phys. Rev. A 39(11), 5751–5761 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luk, T. S.

A. McPherson, G. Gibson, H. Jara, U. Johann, T. S. Luk, I. A. McIntyre, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Studies of multiphoton production of vacuum-ultraviolet radiation in the rare gases,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4(4), 595 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Lyngå, C.

M. Bellini, C. Lyngå, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L'Huillier, and C. G. Wahlström, “Temporal coherence of ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(2), 297–300 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mainfray, G.

X. F. Li, A. L’Huillier, M. Ferray, L. A. Lompré, and G. Mainfray, “Multiple-harmonic generation in rare gases at high laser intensity,” Phys. Rev. A 39(11), 5751–5761 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ferray, A. L'Huillier, X. F. Li, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases,” J. Phys. B 21(3), 001 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Manus, C.

M. Ferray, A. L'Huillier, X. F. Li, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases,” J. Phys. B 21(3), 001 (1988).
[CrossRef]

McIntyre, I. A.

A. McPherson, G. Gibson, H. Jara, U. Johann, T. S. Luk, I. A. McIntyre, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Studies of multiphoton production of vacuum-ultraviolet radiation in the rare gases,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4(4), 595 (1987).
[CrossRef]

McPherson, A.

A. McPherson, G. Gibson, H. Jara, U. Johann, T. S. Luk, I. A. McIntyre, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Studies of multiphoton production of vacuum-ultraviolet radiation in the rare gases,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4(4), 595 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Milosevic, D. B.

P. Salières, B. Carré, L. Le Déroff, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Kopold, W. Becker, D. B. Milosević, A. Sanpera, and M. Lewenstein, “Feynman’s path-integral approach for intense-laser-atom interactions,” Science 292(5518), 902–905 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Monmayrant, A.

M. Holler, A. Zaïr, F. Schapper, T. Auguste, E. Cormier, A. Wyatt, A. Monmayrant, I. A. Walmsley, L. Gallmann, P. Salières, and U. Keller, “Ionization effects on spectral signatures of quantum-path interference in high-harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5716–5722 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Auguste, P. Salières, A. S. Wyatt, A. Monmayrant, I. A. Walmsley, E. Cormier, A. Zair, M. Holler, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Theoretical and experimental analysis of quantum path interferences in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 80(3), 033817 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Zaïr, M. Holler, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, U. Keller, A. S. Wyatt, A. Monmayrant, I. A. Walmsley, E. Cormier, T. Auguste, J. P. Caumes, and P. Salières, “Quantum path interferences in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(14), 143902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paulus, G. G.

P. Salières, B. Carré, L. Le Déroff, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Kopold, W. Becker, D. B. Milosević, A. Sanpera, and M. Lewenstein, “Feynman’s path-integral approach for intense-laser-atom interactions,” Science 292(5518), 902–905 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Persson, E.

K. Schiessl, K. L. Ishikawa, E. Persson, and J. Burgdorfer, “Wavelength dependence of high-harmonic generation from ultrashort pulses,” J. Mod. Opt. 55(16), 2617–2630 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pirri, A.

C. Corsi, A. Pirri, E. Sali, A. Tortora, and M. Bellini, “Direct interferometric measurement of the atomic dipole phase in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(2), 023901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rhodes, C. K.

A. McPherson, G. Gibson, H. Jara, U. Johann, T. S. Luk, I. A. McIntyre, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Studies of multiphoton production of vacuum-ultraviolet radiation in the rare gases,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4(4), 595 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Sali, E.

C. Corsi, A. Pirri, E. Sali, A. Tortora, and M. Bellini, “Direct interferometric measurement of the atomic dipole phase in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(2), 023901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salières, P.

T. Auguste, P. Salières, A. S. Wyatt, A. Monmayrant, I. A. Walmsley, E. Cormier, A. Zair, M. Holler, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Theoretical and experimental analysis of quantum path interferences in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 80(3), 033817 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Holler, A. Zaïr, F. Schapper, T. Auguste, E. Cormier, A. Wyatt, A. Monmayrant, I. A. Walmsley, L. Gallmann, P. Salières, and U. Keller, “Ionization effects on spectral signatures of quantum-path interference in high-harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5716–5722 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Zaïr, M. Holler, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, U. Keller, A. S. Wyatt, A. Monmayrant, I. A. Walmsley, E. Cormier, T. Auguste, J. P. Caumes, and P. Salières, “Quantum path interferences in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(14), 143902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Salières, B. Carré, L. Le Déroff, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Kopold, W. Becker, D. B. Milosević, A. Sanpera, and M. Lewenstein, “Feynman’s path-integral approach for intense-laser-atom interactions,” Science 292(5518), 902–905 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ph. Balcou, P. Salières, A. L'Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Generalized phase-matching conditions for high harmonics: The role of field-gradient forces,” Phys. Rev. A 55(4), 3204–3210 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, and A. L’Huillier, “Phase of the atomic polarization in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 52(6), 4747–4754 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salin, F.

M. B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, Ph. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, and A. L’Huillier, “Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components,” Phys. Rev. A 59(2), 1367–1373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sanpera, A.

P. Salières, B. Carré, L. Le Déroff, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Kopold, W. Becker, D. B. Milosević, A. Sanpera, and M. Lewenstein, “Feynman’s path-integral approach for intense-laser-atom interactions,” Science 292(5518), 902–905 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schafer, K. J.

M. B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, Ph. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, and A. L’Huillier, “Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components,” Phys. Rev. A 59(2), 1367–1373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schapper, F.

T. Auguste, P. Salières, A. S. Wyatt, A. Monmayrant, I. A. Walmsley, E. Cormier, A. Zair, M. Holler, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Theoretical and experimental analysis of quantum path interferences in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 80(3), 033817 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Holler, A. Zaïr, F. Schapper, T. Auguste, E. Cormier, A. Wyatt, A. Monmayrant, I. A. Walmsley, L. Gallmann, P. Salières, and U. Keller, “Ionization effects on spectral signatures of quantum-path interference in high-harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5716–5722 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Zaïr, M. Holler, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, U. Keller, A. S. Wyatt, A. Monmayrant, I. A. Walmsley, E. Cormier, T. Auguste, J. P. Caumes, and P. Salières, “Quantum path interferences in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(14), 143902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schiessl, K.

K. Schiessl, K. L. Ishikawa, E. Persson, and J. Burgdorfer, “Wavelength dependence of high-harmonic generation from ultrashort pulses,” J. Mod. Opt. 55(16), 2617–2630 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tortora, A.

C. Corsi, A. Pirri, E. Sali, A. Tortora, and M. Bellini, “Direct interferometric measurement of the atomic dipole phase in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(2), 023901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tozzi, A.

M. Bellini, C. Lyngå, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L'Huillier, and C. G. Wahlström, “Temporal coherence of ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(2), 297–300 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wahlström, C. G.

M. Bellini, C. Lyngå, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L'Huillier, and C. G. Wahlström, “Temporal coherence of ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(2), 297–300 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Walmsley, I. A.

T. Auguste, P. Salières, A. S. Wyatt, A. Monmayrant, I. A. Walmsley, E. Cormier, A. Zair, M. Holler, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Theoretical and experimental analysis of quantum path interferences in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 80(3), 033817 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Holler, A. Zaïr, F. Schapper, T. Auguste, E. Cormier, A. Wyatt, A. Monmayrant, I. A. Walmsley, L. Gallmann, P. Salières, and U. Keller, “Ionization effects on spectral signatures of quantum-path interference in high-harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5716–5722 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Zaïr, M. Holler, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, U. Keller, A. S. Wyatt, A. Monmayrant, I. A. Walmsley, E. Cormier, T. Auguste, J. P. Caumes, and P. Salières, “Quantum path interferences in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(14), 143902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walther, H.

P. Salières, B. Carré, L. Le Déroff, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Kopold, W. Becker, D. B. Milosević, A. Sanpera, and M. Lewenstein, “Feynman’s path-integral approach for intense-laser-atom interactions,” Science 292(5518), 902–905 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wyatt, A.

M. Holler, A. Zaïr, F. Schapper, T. Auguste, E. Cormier, A. Wyatt, A. Monmayrant, I. A. Walmsley, L. Gallmann, P. Salières, and U. Keller, “Ionization effects on spectral signatures of quantum-path interference in high-harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5716–5722 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wyatt, A. S.

T. Auguste, P. Salières, A. S. Wyatt, A. Monmayrant, I. A. Walmsley, E. Cormier, A. Zair, M. Holler, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Theoretical and experimental analysis of quantum path interferences in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 80(3), 033817 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Zaïr, M. Holler, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, U. Keller, A. S. Wyatt, A. Monmayrant, I. A. Walmsley, E. Cormier, T. Auguste, J. P. Caumes, and P. Salières, “Quantum path interferences in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(14), 143902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zair, A.

T. Auguste, P. Salières, A. S. Wyatt, A. Monmayrant, I. A. Walmsley, E. Cormier, A. Zair, M. Holler, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Theoretical and experimental analysis of quantum path interferences in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 80(3), 033817 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zaïr, A.

M. Holler, A. Zaïr, F. Schapper, T. Auguste, E. Cormier, A. Wyatt, A. Monmayrant, I. A. Walmsley, L. Gallmann, P. Salières, and U. Keller, “Ionization effects on spectral signatures of quantum-path interference in high-harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5716–5722 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Zaïr, M. Holler, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, U. Keller, A. S. Wyatt, A. Monmayrant, I. A. Walmsley, E. Cormier, T. Auguste, J. P. Caumes, and P. Salières, “Quantum path interferences in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(14), 143902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

K. Schiessl, K. L. Ishikawa, E. Persson, and J. Burgdorfer, “Wavelength dependence of high-harmonic generation from ultrashort pulses,” J. Mod. Opt. 55(16), 2617–2630 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

A. McPherson, G. Gibson, H. Jara, U. Johann, T. S. Luk, I. A. McIntyre, K. Boyer, and C. K. Rhodes, “Studies of multiphoton production of vacuum-ultraviolet radiation in the rare gases,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4(4), 595 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. (1)

Ph. Balcou, A. S. Dederichs, M. B. Gaarde, and A. L'Huillier, “Quantum-path analysis and phase matching of high-order harmonic generation and high-order frequency mixing processes in strong laser fields,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 32(12), 2973–2989 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. B (1)

M. Ferray, A. L'Huillier, X. F. Li, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiple-harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases,” J. Phys. B 21(3), 001 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

M. Holler, A. Zaïr, F. Schapper, T. Auguste, E. Cormier, A. Wyatt, A. Monmayrant, I. A. Walmsley, L. Gallmann, P. Salières, and U. Keller, “Ionization effects on spectral signatures of quantum-path interference in high-harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5716–5722 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. A (6)

M. Lewenstein, P. Salières, and A. L’Huillier, “Phase of the atomic polarization in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 52(6), 4747–4754 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. F. Li, A. L’Huillier, M. Ferray, L. A. Lompré, and G. Mainfray, “Multiple-harmonic generation in rare gases at high laser intensity,” Phys. Rev. A 39(11), 5751–5761 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Gaarde, F. Salin, E. Constant, Ph. Balcou, K. J. Schafer, K. C. Kulander, and A. L’Huillier, “Spatiotemporal separation of high harmonic radiation into two quantum path components,” Phys. Rev. A 59(2), 1367–1373 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Auguste, P. Salières, A. S. Wyatt, A. Monmayrant, I. A. Walmsley, E. Cormier, A. Zair, M. Holler, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, and U. Keller, “Theoretical and experimental analysis of quantum path interferences in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 80(3), 033817 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49(3), 2117–2132 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ph. Balcou, P. Salières, A. L'Huillier, and M. Lewenstein, “Generalized phase-matching conditions for high harmonics: The role of field-gradient forces,” Phys. Rev. A 55(4), 3204–3210 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

M. Bellini, C. Lyngå, A. Tozzi, M. B. Gaarde, T. W. Hänsch, A. L'Huillier, and C. G. Wahlström, “Temporal coherence of ultrashort high-order harmonic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(2), 297–300 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Corsi, A. Pirri, E. Sali, A. Tortora, and M. Bellini, “Direct interferometric measurement of the atomic dipole phase in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(2), 023901 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(13), 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Zaïr, M. Holler, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, U. Keller, A. S. Wyatt, A. Monmayrant, I. A. Walmsley, E. Cormier, T. Auguste, J. P. Caumes, and P. Salières, “Quantum path interferences in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(14), 143902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

P. Salières, B. Carré, L. Le Déroff, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Kopold, W. Becker, D. B. Milosević, A. Sanpera, and M. Lewenstein, “Feynman’s path-integral approach for intense-laser-atom interactions,” Science 292(5518), 902–905 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

K. C. Kulander, K. J. Schafer, and J. L. Krause, “Dynamics of short-pulse excitation, ionization and harmonic Conversion,” NATO Advanced Research Workshop on SILAP (Super-Intense Laser-Atom Physics), (1993).

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MOV (3918 KB)     

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup: The incoming laser beam passes through an aperture and is focused into a pulsed argon jet. The harmonics propagate through an Al foil that filters out the intense generating laser beam. The strong center part of the harmonic emission is cut by the entrance slit of the spectrometer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Measured [see Media 1 for different laser intensities] and (b) simulated result. Spatially resolved harmonic spectrum (a) measured for harmonic orders 19 and 21 at a fixed intensity of 3.3 10 14  W/cm 2 and (b) simulated for harmonic 21 at a peak intensity of 2.5 10 14  W/cm 2 .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Spatially resolved spectrum of harmonic 21 spectrum for a laser peak intensity of 1.6 10 14  W/cm 2 (left) and 2.0 10 14  W/cm 2 (right); (b) Harmonic signal integrated from 7.5 to 9.2 mrad [area II in (a) and in Fig. 2(a)] along the spatial coordinate.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Harmonic yield versus laser intensity for three different spatial integration windows [marked in Fig. 2(a)] for harmonic order 21 (measured data shown as dots, lines show smoothed data).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) spatially integrated (5.80 – 5.88 mrad) yield for harmonic 19 and 21 and (b) spectral integration over area indicated in (a). The spectrally integrated yield is still modulated with a periodicity of 4 10 13 W/cm 2 which is a clear indication for QPI.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ϕ q ( j ) ( r , t ) U p τ q ( j ) α q ( j ) ( I ( r , t ) ) I ( r , t ) α q ( j ) ( I ) I 0 exp 2 r 2 w 2 exp 2 t 2 τ 2 ,
ϕ q ( j ) ( r ) α q ( j ) I 0 + 2 α q ( j ) I 0 w 2 r 2
Δ ω ( t ) = ϕ q ( j ) ( t ) t = α q ( j ) ( I ( t ) ) I I ( t ) t I ( t ) + α q ( j ) ( I ( t ) ) I ( t ) t α q ( j ) I ( t ) t 4 α q ( j ) I 0 τ 2 t .

Metrics