Abstract

Multiphoton upconversion (UC) emissions from the high-energy states (4 G 9/2, 4 G 7/2, 2 K 13/2, and 2 P 3/2) of Er3+ ions were observed under 980 nm excitation. These high-energy excited states were populated by a five-photon or a four-photon UC process conditionally, which depended on the near-infrared (NIR) pump density. Experiments exhibited that the power dependence originated from the varied populating routes of intermediated 4 S 3/2 and 4 F 9/2 of Er3+ under different NIR pump power. A mechanism of the power density-dependent multiphoton UC processes was proposed based on experimental data and analysis.

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  1. F. Auzel, “Upconversion processes in coupled ion systems,” J. Lumin. 45(1-6), 341–345 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, “A three-color, solid-state, three-dimensional display,” Science 273(5279), 1185–1189 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. F. Suyver, J. Grimm, K. W. Krämer, and H. U. Güdel, “Highly efficient near-infrared to visible up-conversion process in NaYF4: Er3+, Yb3+,” J. Lumin. 114(1), 53–59 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. Qin, C. Cao, L. Wang, J. Zhang, D. Zhang, K. Zheng, Y. Wang, G. Wei, G. Wang, P. Zhu, and R. Kim, “Ultraviolet upconversion fluorescence from 6D(J) of Gd3+ induced by 980 nm excitation,” Opt. Lett. 33(19), 2167–2169 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. T. Hebert, R. Wannemacher, W. Lenth, and R. Macfarlane, “Blue and green cw upconversion lasing in Er: YLiF,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(17), 1727 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Mita, K. Hirama, N. Ando, H. Yamamoto, and S. Shionoya, “Luminescence processes in Tm3+-and Er3+-ion-activated, Yb3+-ion-sensitized infrared upconversion devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 74(7), 4703 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Hehlen, K. Krämer, H. Güdel, R. McFarlane, and R. Schwartz, “Upconversion in Er3+-dimer systems: Trends within the series Cs3Er2X9 (X= Cl, Br, I),” Phys. Rev. B 49(18), 12475–12484 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. Aarts, B. van der Ende, and A. Meijerink, “Downconversion for solar cells in NaYF4: Er, Yb,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023522 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. Qin, W. Qin, C. Wu, S. Huang, J. Zhang, S. Lu, D. Zhao, and H. Liu, “Enhancement of ultraviolet upconversion in Yb3+ and Tm3+ codoped amorphous fluoride film prepared by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(7), 4328 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. Wang, W. Qin, L. Wang, G. Wei, P. Zhu, and R. Kim, “Intense ultraviolet upconversion luminescence from hexagonal NaYF4:Yb3+/Tm3+ microcrystals,” Opt. Express 16(16), 11907–11914 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-16-11907 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Y. Wang and J. Ohwaki, “New transparent vitroceramics codoped with Er and Yb for efficient frequency upconversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(24), 3268 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  12. F. Vetrone, J. Boyer, J. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Significance of Yb concentration on the upconversion mechanisms in codoped Y2O3: Er3+, Yb3+ nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 96, 661 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. Wang, W. Qin, J. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Cao, L. Wang, G. Wei, P. Zhu, and R. Kim, “Enhancement of violet and ultraviolet upconversion emissions in Yb3+/Er3+-codoped YF3 nanocrystals,” Opt. Mater. 31(2), 296–299 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Song, B. Sun, T. Wang, S. Lu, L. Yang, B. Chen, X. Wang, and X. Kong, “Three-photon upconversion luminescence phenomenon for the green levels in Er3+/Yb3+ codoped cubic nanocrystalline yttria,” Solid State Commun. 132(6), 409–413 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. F. Suyver, A. Aebischer, S. García-Revilla, P. Gerner, and H. Güdel, “Anomalous power dependence of sensitized upconversion luminescence,” Phys. Rev. B 71(12), 125123 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. X. Bai, H. Song, G. Pan, Y. Lei, T. Wang, X. Ren, S. Lu, B. Dong, Q. Dai, and L. Fan, “Size-Dependent Upconversion Luminescence in Er3+/Yb3+-Codoped Nanocrystalline Yttria: Saturation and Thermal Effects,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(36), 13611–13617 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  17. X. Qu, H. Song, X. Bai, G. Pan, B. Dong, H. Zhao, F. Wang, and R. Qin, “Preparation and upconversion luminescence of three-dimensionally ordered macroporous ZrO2: Er3+, Yb3+.,” Inorg. Chem. 47(20), 9654–9659 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Electronic Energy Levels in the Trivalent Lanthanide Aquo Ions. I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 49(10), 4424 (1968).
    [CrossRef]

2009

L. Aarts, B. van der Ende, and A. Meijerink, “Downconversion for solar cells in NaYF4: Er, Yb,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023522 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

W. Qin, C. Cao, L. Wang, J. Zhang, D. Zhang, K. Zheng, Y. Wang, G. Wei, G. Wang, P. Zhu, and R. Kim, “Ultraviolet upconversion fluorescence from 6D(J) of Gd3+ induced by 980 nm excitation,” Opt. Lett. 33(19), 2167–2169 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Wang, W. Qin, L. Wang, G. Wei, P. Zhu, and R. Kim, “Intense ultraviolet upconversion luminescence from hexagonal NaYF4:Yb3+/Tm3+ microcrystals,” Opt. Express 16(16), 11907–11914 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-16-11907 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Wang, W. Qin, J. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Cao, L. Wang, G. Wei, P. Zhu, and R. Kim, “Enhancement of violet and ultraviolet upconversion emissions in Yb3+/Er3+-codoped YF3 nanocrystals,” Opt. Mater. 31(2), 296–299 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Qu, H. Song, X. Bai, G. Pan, B. Dong, H. Zhao, F. Wang, and R. Qin, “Preparation and upconversion luminescence of three-dimensionally ordered macroporous ZrO2: Er3+, Yb3+.,” Inorg. Chem. 47(20), 9654–9659 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

X. Bai, H. Song, G. Pan, Y. Lei, T. Wang, X. Ren, S. Lu, B. Dong, Q. Dai, and L. Fan, “Size-Dependent Upconversion Luminescence in Er3+/Yb3+-Codoped Nanocrystalline Yttria: Saturation and Thermal Effects,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(36), 13611–13617 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

J. F. Suyver, A. Aebischer, S. García-Revilla, P. Gerner, and H. Güdel, “Anomalous power dependence of sensitized upconversion luminescence,” Phys. Rev. B 71(12), 125123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Suyver, J. Grimm, K. W. Krämer, and H. U. Güdel, “Highly efficient near-infrared to visible up-conversion process in NaYF4: Er3+, Yb3+,” J. Lumin. 114(1), 53–59 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

H. Song, B. Sun, T. Wang, S. Lu, L. Yang, B. Chen, X. Wang, and X. Kong, “Three-photon upconversion luminescence phenomenon for the green levels in Er3+/Yb3+ codoped cubic nanocrystalline yttria,” Solid State Commun. 132(6), 409–413 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Vetrone, J. Boyer, J. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Significance of Yb concentration on the upconversion mechanisms in codoped Y2O3: Er3+, Yb3+ nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 96, 661 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

G. Qin, W. Qin, C. Wu, S. Huang, J. Zhang, S. Lu, D. Zhao, and H. Liu, “Enhancement of ultraviolet upconversion in Yb3+ and Tm3+ codoped amorphous fluoride film prepared by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(7), 4328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1996

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, “A three-color, solid-state, three-dimensional display,” Science 273(5279), 1185–1189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

M. Hehlen, K. Krämer, H. Güdel, R. McFarlane, and R. Schwartz, “Upconversion in Er3+-dimer systems: Trends within the series Cs3Er2X9 (X= Cl, Br, I),” Phys. Rev. B 49(18), 12475–12484 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

Y. Wang and J. Ohwaki, “New transparent vitroceramics codoped with Er and Yb for efficient frequency upconversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(24), 3268 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Y. Mita, K. Hirama, N. Ando, H. Yamamoto, and S. Shionoya, “Luminescence processes in Tm3+-and Er3+-ion-activated, Yb3+-ion-sensitized infrared upconversion devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 74(7), 4703 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990

F. Auzel, “Upconversion processes in coupled ion systems,” J. Lumin. 45(1-6), 341–345 (1990).
[CrossRef]

T. Hebert, R. Wannemacher, W. Lenth, and R. Macfarlane, “Blue and green cw upconversion lasing in Er: YLiF,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(17), 1727 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1968

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Electronic Energy Levels in the Trivalent Lanthanide Aquo Ions. I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 49(10), 4424 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Aarts, L.

L. Aarts, B. van der Ende, and A. Meijerink, “Downconversion for solar cells in NaYF4: Er, Yb,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023522 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Aebischer, A.

J. F. Suyver, A. Aebischer, S. García-Revilla, P. Gerner, and H. Güdel, “Anomalous power dependence of sensitized upconversion luminescence,” Phys. Rev. B 71(12), 125123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ando, N.

Y. Mita, K. Hirama, N. Ando, H. Yamamoto, and S. Shionoya, “Luminescence processes in Tm3+-and Er3+-ion-activated, Yb3+-ion-sensitized infrared upconversion devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 74(7), 4703 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Auzel, F.

F. Auzel, “Upconversion processes in coupled ion systems,” J. Lumin. 45(1-6), 341–345 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bai, X.

X. Qu, H. Song, X. Bai, G. Pan, B. Dong, H. Zhao, F. Wang, and R. Qin, “Preparation and upconversion luminescence of three-dimensionally ordered macroporous ZrO2: Er3+, Yb3+.,” Inorg. Chem. 47(20), 9654–9659 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Bai, H. Song, G. Pan, Y. Lei, T. Wang, X. Ren, S. Lu, B. Dong, Q. Dai, and L. Fan, “Size-Dependent Upconversion Luminescence in Er3+/Yb3+-Codoped Nanocrystalline Yttria: Saturation and Thermal Effects,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(36), 13611–13617 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bettinelli, M.

F. Vetrone, J. Boyer, J. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Significance of Yb concentration on the upconversion mechanisms in codoped Y2O3: Er3+, Yb3+ nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 96, 661 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Boyer, J.

F. Vetrone, J. Boyer, J. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Significance of Yb concentration on the upconversion mechanisms in codoped Y2O3: Er3+, Yb3+ nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 96, 661 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cao, C.

W. Qin, C. Cao, L. Wang, J. Zhang, D. Zhang, K. Zheng, Y. Wang, G. Wei, G. Wang, P. Zhu, and R. Kim, “Ultraviolet upconversion fluorescence from 6D(J) of Gd3+ induced by 980 nm excitation,” Opt. Lett. 33(19), 2167–2169 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Wang, W. Qin, J. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Cao, L. Wang, G. Wei, P. Zhu, and R. Kim, “Enhancement of violet and ultraviolet upconversion emissions in Yb3+/Er3+-codoped YF3 nanocrystals,” Opt. Mater. 31(2), 296–299 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Capobianco, J.

F. Vetrone, J. Boyer, J. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Significance of Yb concentration on the upconversion mechanisms in codoped Y2O3: Er3+, Yb3+ nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 96, 661 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Carnall, W. T.

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Electronic Energy Levels in the Trivalent Lanthanide Aquo Ions. I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 49(10), 4424 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Chen, B.

H. Song, B. Sun, T. Wang, S. Lu, L. Yang, B. Chen, X. Wang, and X. Kong, “Three-photon upconversion luminescence phenomenon for the green levels in Er3+/Yb3+ codoped cubic nanocrystalline yttria,” Solid State Commun. 132(6), 409–413 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dai, Q.

X. Bai, H. Song, G. Pan, Y. Lei, T. Wang, X. Ren, S. Lu, B. Dong, Q. Dai, and L. Fan, “Size-Dependent Upconversion Luminescence in Er3+/Yb3+-Codoped Nanocrystalline Yttria: Saturation and Thermal Effects,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(36), 13611–13617 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dong, B.

X. Qu, H. Song, X. Bai, G. Pan, B. Dong, H. Zhao, F. Wang, and R. Qin, “Preparation and upconversion luminescence of three-dimensionally ordered macroporous ZrO2: Er3+, Yb3+.,” Inorg. Chem. 47(20), 9654–9659 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Bai, H. Song, G. Pan, Y. Lei, T. Wang, X. Ren, S. Lu, B. Dong, Q. Dai, and L. Fan, “Size-Dependent Upconversion Luminescence in Er3+/Yb3+-Codoped Nanocrystalline Yttria: Saturation and Thermal Effects,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(36), 13611–13617 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Downing, E.

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, “A three-color, solid-state, three-dimensional display,” Science 273(5279), 1185–1189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fan, L.

X. Bai, H. Song, G. Pan, Y. Lei, T. Wang, X. Ren, S. Lu, B. Dong, Q. Dai, and L. Fan, “Size-Dependent Upconversion Luminescence in Er3+/Yb3+-Codoped Nanocrystalline Yttria: Saturation and Thermal Effects,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(36), 13611–13617 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fields, P. R.

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Electronic Energy Levels in the Trivalent Lanthanide Aquo Ions. I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 49(10), 4424 (1968).
[CrossRef]

García-Revilla, S.

J. F. Suyver, A. Aebischer, S. García-Revilla, P. Gerner, and H. Güdel, “Anomalous power dependence of sensitized upconversion luminescence,” Phys. Rev. B 71(12), 125123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gerner, P.

J. F. Suyver, A. Aebischer, S. García-Revilla, P. Gerner, and H. Güdel, “Anomalous power dependence of sensitized upconversion luminescence,” Phys. Rev. B 71(12), 125123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Grimm, J.

J. F. Suyver, J. Grimm, K. W. Krämer, and H. U. Güdel, “Highly efficient near-infrared to visible up-conversion process in NaYF4: Er3+, Yb3+,” J. Lumin. 114(1), 53–59 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Güdel, H.

J. F. Suyver, A. Aebischer, S. García-Revilla, P. Gerner, and H. Güdel, “Anomalous power dependence of sensitized upconversion luminescence,” Phys. Rev. B 71(12), 125123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Hehlen, K. Krämer, H. Güdel, R. McFarlane, and R. Schwartz, “Upconversion in Er3+-dimer systems: Trends within the series Cs3Er2X9 (X= Cl, Br, I),” Phys. Rev. B 49(18), 12475–12484 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Güdel, H. U.

J. F. Suyver, J. Grimm, K. W. Krämer, and H. U. Güdel, “Highly efficient near-infrared to visible up-conversion process in NaYF4: Er3+, Yb3+,” J. Lumin. 114(1), 53–59 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hebert, T.

T. Hebert, R. Wannemacher, W. Lenth, and R. Macfarlane, “Blue and green cw upconversion lasing in Er: YLiF,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(17), 1727 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hehlen, M.

M. Hehlen, K. Krämer, H. Güdel, R. McFarlane, and R. Schwartz, “Upconversion in Er3+-dimer systems: Trends within the series Cs3Er2X9 (X= Cl, Br, I),” Phys. Rev. B 49(18), 12475–12484 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hesselink, L.

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, “A three-color, solid-state, three-dimensional display,” Science 273(5279), 1185–1189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hirama, K.

Y. Mita, K. Hirama, N. Ando, H. Yamamoto, and S. Shionoya, “Luminescence processes in Tm3+-and Er3+-ion-activated, Yb3+-ion-sensitized infrared upconversion devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 74(7), 4703 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S.

G. Qin, W. Qin, C. Wu, S. Huang, J. Zhang, S. Lu, D. Zhao, and H. Liu, “Enhancement of ultraviolet upconversion in Yb3+ and Tm3+ codoped amorphous fluoride film prepared by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(7), 4328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, R.

G. Wang, W. Qin, J. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Cao, L. Wang, G. Wei, P. Zhu, and R. Kim, “Enhancement of violet and ultraviolet upconversion emissions in Yb3+/Er3+-codoped YF3 nanocrystals,” Opt. Mater. 31(2), 296–299 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Qin, C. Cao, L. Wang, J. Zhang, D. Zhang, K. Zheng, Y. Wang, G. Wei, G. Wang, P. Zhu, and R. Kim, “Ultraviolet upconversion fluorescence from 6D(J) of Gd3+ induced by 980 nm excitation,” Opt. Lett. 33(19), 2167–2169 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Wang, W. Qin, L. Wang, G. Wei, P. Zhu, and R. Kim, “Intense ultraviolet upconversion luminescence from hexagonal NaYF4:Yb3+/Tm3+ microcrystals,” Opt. Express 16(16), 11907–11914 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-16-11907 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kong, X.

H. Song, B. Sun, T. Wang, S. Lu, L. Yang, B. Chen, X. Wang, and X. Kong, “Three-photon upconversion luminescence phenomenon for the green levels in Er3+/Yb3+ codoped cubic nanocrystalline yttria,” Solid State Commun. 132(6), 409–413 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Krämer, K.

M. Hehlen, K. Krämer, H. Güdel, R. McFarlane, and R. Schwartz, “Upconversion in Er3+-dimer systems: Trends within the series Cs3Er2X9 (X= Cl, Br, I),” Phys. Rev. B 49(18), 12475–12484 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Krämer, K. W.

J. F. Suyver, J. Grimm, K. W. Krämer, and H. U. Güdel, “Highly efficient near-infrared to visible up-conversion process in NaYF4: Er3+, Yb3+,” J. Lumin. 114(1), 53–59 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lei, Y.

X. Bai, H. Song, G. Pan, Y. Lei, T. Wang, X. Ren, S. Lu, B. Dong, Q. Dai, and L. Fan, “Size-Dependent Upconversion Luminescence in Er3+/Yb3+-Codoped Nanocrystalline Yttria: Saturation and Thermal Effects,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(36), 13611–13617 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lenth, W.

T. Hebert, R. Wannemacher, W. Lenth, and R. Macfarlane, “Blue and green cw upconversion lasing in Er: YLiF,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(17), 1727 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.

G. Qin, W. Qin, C. Wu, S. Huang, J. Zhang, S. Lu, D. Zhao, and H. Liu, “Enhancement of ultraviolet upconversion in Yb3+ and Tm3+ codoped amorphous fluoride film prepared by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(7), 4328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lu, S.

X. Bai, H. Song, G. Pan, Y. Lei, T. Wang, X. Ren, S. Lu, B. Dong, Q. Dai, and L. Fan, “Size-Dependent Upconversion Luminescence in Er3+/Yb3+-Codoped Nanocrystalline Yttria: Saturation and Thermal Effects,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(36), 13611–13617 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Song, B. Sun, T. Wang, S. Lu, L. Yang, B. Chen, X. Wang, and X. Kong, “Three-photon upconversion luminescence phenomenon for the green levels in Er3+/Yb3+ codoped cubic nanocrystalline yttria,” Solid State Commun. 132(6), 409–413 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Qin, W. Qin, C. Wu, S. Huang, J. Zhang, S. Lu, D. Zhao, and H. Liu, “Enhancement of ultraviolet upconversion in Yb3+ and Tm3+ codoped amorphous fluoride film prepared by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(7), 4328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Macfarlane, R.

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, “A three-color, solid-state, three-dimensional display,” Science 273(5279), 1185–1189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Hebert, R. Wannemacher, W. Lenth, and R. Macfarlane, “Blue and green cw upconversion lasing in Er: YLiF,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(17), 1727 (1990).
[CrossRef]

McFarlane, R.

M. Hehlen, K. Krämer, H. Güdel, R. McFarlane, and R. Schwartz, “Upconversion in Er3+-dimer systems: Trends within the series Cs3Er2X9 (X= Cl, Br, I),” Phys. Rev. B 49(18), 12475–12484 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Meijerink, A.

L. Aarts, B. van der Ende, and A. Meijerink, “Downconversion for solar cells in NaYF4: Er, Yb,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023522 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mita, Y.

Y. Mita, K. Hirama, N. Ando, H. Yamamoto, and S. Shionoya, “Luminescence processes in Tm3+-and Er3+-ion-activated, Yb3+-ion-sensitized infrared upconversion devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 74(7), 4703 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ohwaki, J.

Y. Wang and J. Ohwaki, “New transparent vitroceramics codoped with Er and Yb for efficient frequency upconversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(24), 3268 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pan, G.

X. Qu, H. Song, X. Bai, G. Pan, B. Dong, H. Zhao, F. Wang, and R. Qin, “Preparation and upconversion luminescence of three-dimensionally ordered macroporous ZrO2: Er3+, Yb3+.,” Inorg. Chem. 47(20), 9654–9659 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Bai, H. Song, G. Pan, Y. Lei, T. Wang, X. Ren, S. Lu, B. Dong, Q. Dai, and L. Fan, “Size-Dependent Upconversion Luminescence in Er3+/Yb3+-Codoped Nanocrystalline Yttria: Saturation and Thermal Effects,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(36), 13611–13617 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Qin, G.

G. Qin, W. Qin, C. Wu, S. Huang, J. Zhang, S. Lu, D. Zhao, and H. Liu, “Enhancement of ultraviolet upconversion in Yb3+ and Tm3+ codoped amorphous fluoride film prepared by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(7), 4328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Qin, R.

X. Qu, H. Song, X. Bai, G. Pan, B. Dong, H. Zhao, F. Wang, and R. Qin, “Preparation and upconversion luminescence of three-dimensionally ordered macroporous ZrO2: Er3+, Yb3+.,” Inorg. Chem. 47(20), 9654–9659 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qin, W.

G. Wang, W. Qin, L. Wang, G. Wei, P. Zhu, and R. Kim, “Intense ultraviolet upconversion luminescence from hexagonal NaYF4:Yb3+/Tm3+ microcrystals,” Opt. Express 16(16), 11907–11914 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-16-11907 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Wang, W. Qin, J. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Cao, L. Wang, G. Wei, P. Zhu, and R. Kim, “Enhancement of violet and ultraviolet upconversion emissions in Yb3+/Er3+-codoped YF3 nanocrystals,” Opt. Mater. 31(2), 296–299 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Qin, C. Cao, L. Wang, J. Zhang, D. Zhang, K. Zheng, Y. Wang, G. Wei, G. Wang, P. Zhu, and R. Kim, “Ultraviolet upconversion fluorescence from 6D(J) of Gd3+ induced by 980 nm excitation,” Opt. Lett. 33(19), 2167–2169 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Qin, W. Qin, C. Wu, S. Huang, J. Zhang, S. Lu, D. Zhao, and H. Liu, “Enhancement of ultraviolet upconversion in Yb3+ and Tm3+ codoped amorphous fluoride film prepared by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(7), 4328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Qu, X.

X. Qu, H. Song, X. Bai, G. Pan, B. Dong, H. Zhao, F. Wang, and R. Qin, “Preparation and upconversion luminescence of three-dimensionally ordered macroporous ZrO2: Er3+, Yb3+.,” Inorg. Chem. 47(20), 9654–9659 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rajnak, K.

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Electronic Energy Levels in the Trivalent Lanthanide Aquo Ions. I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 49(10), 4424 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Ralston, J.

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, “A three-color, solid-state, three-dimensional display,” Science 273(5279), 1185–1189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ren, X.

X. Bai, H. Song, G. Pan, Y. Lei, T. Wang, X. Ren, S. Lu, B. Dong, Q. Dai, and L. Fan, “Size-Dependent Upconversion Luminescence in Er3+/Yb3+-Codoped Nanocrystalline Yttria: Saturation and Thermal Effects,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(36), 13611–13617 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, R.

M. Hehlen, K. Krämer, H. Güdel, R. McFarlane, and R. Schwartz, “Upconversion in Er3+-dimer systems: Trends within the series Cs3Er2X9 (X= Cl, Br, I),” Phys. Rev. B 49(18), 12475–12484 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shionoya, S.

Y. Mita, K. Hirama, N. Ando, H. Yamamoto, and S. Shionoya, “Luminescence processes in Tm3+-and Er3+-ion-activated, Yb3+-ion-sensitized infrared upconversion devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 74(7), 4703 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Song, H.

X. Qu, H. Song, X. Bai, G. Pan, B. Dong, H. Zhao, F. Wang, and R. Qin, “Preparation and upconversion luminescence of three-dimensionally ordered macroporous ZrO2: Er3+, Yb3+.,” Inorg. Chem. 47(20), 9654–9659 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Bai, H. Song, G. Pan, Y. Lei, T. Wang, X. Ren, S. Lu, B. Dong, Q. Dai, and L. Fan, “Size-Dependent Upconversion Luminescence in Er3+/Yb3+-Codoped Nanocrystalline Yttria: Saturation and Thermal Effects,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(36), 13611–13617 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Song, B. Sun, T. Wang, S. Lu, L. Yang, B. Chen, X. Wang, and X. Kong, “Three-photon upconversion luminescence phenomenon for the green levels in Er3+/Yb3+ codoped cubic nanocrystalline yttria,” Solid State Commun. 132(6), 409–413 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Speghini, A.

F. Vetrone, J. Boyer, J. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Significance of Yb concentration on the upconversion mechanisms in codoped Y2O3: Er3+, Yb3+ nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 96, 661 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sun, B.

H. Song, B. Sun, T. Wang, S. Lu, L. Yang, B. Chen, X. Wang, and X. Kong, “Three-photon upconversion luminescence phenomenon for the green levels in Er3+/Yb3+ codoped cubic nanocrystalline yttria,” Solid State Commun. 132(6), 409–413 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Suyver, J. F.

J. F. Suyver, J. Grimm, K. W. Krämer, and H. U. Güdel, “Highly efficient near-infrared to visible up-conversion process in NaYF4: Er3+, Yb3+,” J. Lumin. 114(1), 53–59 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Suyver, A. Aebischer, S. García-Revilla, P. Gerner, and H. Güdel, “Anomalous power dependence of sensitized upconversion luminescence,” Phys. Rev. B 71(12), 125123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

van der Ende, B.

L. Aarts, B. van der Ende, and A. Meijerink, “Downconversion for solar cells in NaYF4: Er, Yb,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023522 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vetrone, F.

F. Vetrone, J. Boyer, J. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Significance of Yb concentration on the upconversion mechanisms in codoped Y2O3: Er3+, Yb3+ nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 96, 661 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, F.

X. Qu, H. Song, X. Bai, G. Pan, B. Dong, H. Zhao, F. Wang, and R. Qin, “Preparation and upconversion luminescence of three-dimensionally ordered macroporous ZrO2: Er3+, Yb3+.,” Inorg. Chem. 47(20), 9654–9659 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, G.

G. Wang, W. Qin, L. Wang, G. Wei, P. Zhu, and R. Kim, “Intense ultraviolet upconversion luminescence from hexagonal NaYF4:Yb3+/Tm3+ microcrystals,” Opt. Express 16(16), 11907–11914 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-16-11907 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Qin, C. Cao, L. Wang, J. Zhang, D. Zhang, K. Zheng, Y. Wang, G. Wei, G. Wang, P. Zhu, and R. Kim, “Ultraviolet upconversion fluorescence from 6D(J) of Gd3+ induced by 980 nm excitation,” Opt. Lett. 33(19), 2167–2169 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Wang, W. Qin, J. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Cao, L. Wang, G. Wei, P. Zhu, and R. Kim, “Enhancement of violet and ultraviolet upconversion emissions in Yb3+/Er3+-codoped YF3 nanocrystals,” Opt. Mater. 31(2), 296–299 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

G. Wang, W. Qin, J. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Cao, L. Wang, G. Wei, P. Zhu, and R. Kim, “Enhancement of violet and ultraviolet upconversion emissions in Yb3+/Er3+-codoped YF3 nanocrystals,” Opt. Mater. 31(2), 296–299 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Qin, C. Cao, L. Wang, J. Zhang, D. Zhang, K. Zheng, Y. Wang, G. Wei, G. Wang, P. Zhu, and R. Kim, “Ultraviolet upconversion fluorescence from 6D(J) of Gd3+ induced by 980 nm excitation,” Opt. Lett. 33(19), 2167–2169 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Wang, W. Qin, L. Wang, G. Wei, P. Zhu, and R. Kim, “Intense ultraviolet upconversion luminescence from hexagonal NaYF4:Yb3+/Tm3+ microcrystals,” Opt. Express 16(16), 11907–11914 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-16-11907 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, T.

X. Bai, H. Song, G. Pan, Y. Lei, T. Wang, X. Ren, S. Lu, B. Dong, Q. Dai, and L. Fan, “Size-Dependent Upconversion Luminescence in Er3+/Yb3+-Codoped Nanocrystalline Yttria: Saturation and Thermal Effects,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(36), 13611–13617 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Song, B. Sun, T. Wang, S. Lu, L. Yang, B. Chen, X. Wang, and X. Kong, “Three-photon upconversion luminescence phenomenon for the green levels in Er3+/Yb3+ codoped cubic nanocrystalline yttria,” Solid State Commun. 132(6), 409–413 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

H. Song, B. Sun, T. Wang, S. Lu, L. Yang, B. Chen, X. Wang, and X. Kong, “Three-photon upconversion luminescence phenomenon for the green levels in Er3+/Yb3+ codoped cubic nanocrystalline yttria,” Solid State Commun. 132(6), 409–413 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

W. Qin, C. Cao, L. Wang, J. Zhang, D. Zhang, K. Zheng, Y. Wang, G. Wei, G. Wang, P. Zhu, and R. Kim, “Ultraviolet upconversion fluorescence from 6D(J) of Gd3+ induced by 980 nm excitation,” Opt. Lett. 33(19), 2167–2169 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Wang, W. Qin, J. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Cao, L. Wang, G. Wei, P. Zhu, and R. Kim, “Enhancement of violet and ultraviolet upconversion emissions in Yb3+/Er3+-codoped YF3 nanocrystals,” Opt. Mater. 31(2), 296–299 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang and J. Ohwaki, “New transparent vitroceramics codoped with Er and Yb for efficient frequency upconversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(24), 3268 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wannemacher, R.

T. Hebert, R. Wannemacher, W. Lenth, and R. Macfarlane, “Blue and green cw upconversion lasing in Er: YLiF,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(17), 1727 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wei, G.

W. Qin, C. Cao, L. Wang, J. Zhang, D. Zhang, K. Zheng, Y. Wang, G. Wei, G. Wang, P. Zhu, and R. Kim, “Ultraviolet upconversion fluorescence from 6D(J) of Gd3+ induced by 980 nm excitation,” Opt. Lett. 33(19), 2167–2169 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Wang, W. Qin, J. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Cao, L. Wang, G. Wei, P. Zhu, and R. Kim, “Enhancement of violet and ultraviolet upconversion emissions in Yb3+/Er3+-codoped YF3 nanocrystals,” Opt. Mater. 31(2), 296–299 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Wang, W. Qin, L. Wang, G. Wei, P. Zhu, and R. Kim, “Intense ultraviolet upconversion luminescence from hexagonal NaYF4:Yb3+/Tm3+ microcrystals,” Opt. Express 16(16), 11907–11914 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-16-11907 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, C.

G. Qin, W. Qin, C. Wu, S. Huang, J. Zhang, S. Lu, D. Zhao, and H. Liu, “Enhancement of ultraviolet upconversion in Yb3+ and Tm3+ codoped amorphous fluoride film prepared by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(7), 4328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, H.

Y. Mita, K. Hirama, N. Ando, H. Yamamoto, and S. Shionoya, “Luminescence processes in Tm3+-and Er3+-ion-activated, Yb3+-ion-sensitized infrared upconversion devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 74(7), 4703 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yang, L.

H. Song, B. Sun, T. Wang, S. Lu, L. Yang, B. Chen, X. Wang, and X. Kong, “Three-photon upconversion luminescence phenomenon for the green levels in Er3+/Yb3+ codoped cubic nanocrystalline yttria,” Solid State Commun. 132(6), 409–413 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, D.

W. Qin, C. Cao, L. Wang, J. Zhang, D. Zhang, K. Zheng, Y. Wang, G. Wei, G. Wang, P. Zhu, and R. Kim, “Ultraviolet upconversion fluorescence from 6D(J) of Gd3+ induced by 980 nm excitation,” Opt. Lett. 33(19), 2167–2169 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

W. Qin, C. Cao, L. Wang, J. Zhang, D. Zhang, K. Zheng, Y. Wang, G. Wei, G. Wang, P. Zhu, and R. Kim, “Ultraviolet upconversion fluorescence from 6D(J) of Gd3+ induced by 980 nm excitation,” Opt. Lett. 33(19), 2167–2169 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Wang, W. Qin, J. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Cao, L. Wang, G. Wei, P. Zhu, and R. Kim, “Enhancement of violet and ultraviolet upconversion emissions in Yb3+/Er3+-codoped YF3 nanocrystals,” Opt. Mater. 31(2), 296–299 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Qin, W. Qin, C. Wu, S. Huang, J. Zhang, S. Lu, D. Zhao, and H. Liu, “Enhancement of ultraviolet upconversion in Yb3+ and Tm3+ codoped amorphous fluoride film prepared by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(7), 4328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, D.

G. Qin, W. Qin, C. Wu, S. Huang, J. Zhang, S. Lu, D. Zhao, and H. Liu, “Enhancement of ultraviolet upconversion in Yb3+ and Tm3+ codoped amorphous fluoride film prepared by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(7), 4328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, H.

X. Qu, H. Song, X. Bai, G. Pan, B. Dong, H. Zhao, F. Wang, and R. Qin, “Preparation and upconversion luminescence of three-dimensionally ordered macroporous ZrO2: Er3+, Yb3+.,” Inorg. Chem. 47(20), 9654–9659 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheng, K.

W. Qin, C. Cao, L. Wang, J. Zhang, D. Zhang, K. Zheng, Y. Wang, G. Wei, G. Wang, P. Zhu, and R. Kim, “Ultraviolet upconversion fluorescence from 6D(J) of Gd3+ induced by 980 nm excitation,” Opt. Lett. 33(19), 2167–2169 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, P.

W. Qin, C. Cao, L. Wang, J. Zhang, D. Zhang, K. Zheng, Y. Wang, G. Wei, G. Wang, P. Zhu, and R. Kim, “Ultraviolet upconversion fluorescence from 6D(J) of Gd3+ induced by 980 nm excitation,” Opt. Lett. 33(19), 2167–2169 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Wang, W. Qin, J. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Cao, L. Wang, G. Wei, P. Zhu, and R. Kim, “Enhancement of violet and ultraviolet upconversion emissions in Yb3+/Er3+-codoped YF3 nanocrystals,” Opt. Mater. 31(2), 296–299 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Wang, W. Qin, L. Wang, G. Wei, P. Zhu, and R. Kim, “Intense ultraviolet upconversion luminescence from hexagonal NaYF4:Yb3+/Tm3+ microcrystals,” Opt. Express 16(16), 11907–11914 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-16-11907 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

T. Hebert, R. Wannemacher, W. Lenth, and R. Macfarlane, “Blue and green cw upconversion lasing in Er: YLiF,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(17), 1727 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang and J. Ohwaki, “New transparent vitroceramics codoped with Er and Yb for efficient frequency upconversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(24), 3268 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Inorg. Chem.

X. Qu, H. Song, X. Bai, G. Pan, B. Dong, H. Zhao, F. Wang, and R. Qin, “Preparation and upconversion luminescence of three-dimensionally ordered macroporous ZrO2: Er3+, Yb3+.,” Inorg. Chem. 47(20), 9654–9659 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys.

F. Vetrone, J. Boyer, J. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Significance of Yb concentration on the upconversion mechanisms in codoped Y2O3: Er3+, Yb3+ nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 96, 661 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Mita, K. Hirama, N. Ando, H. Yamamoto, and S. Shionoya, “Luminescence processes in Tm3+-and Er3+-ion-activated, Yb3+-ion-sensitized infrared upconversion devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 74(7), 4703 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. Aarts, B. van der Ende, and A. Meijerink, “Downconversion for solar cells in NaYF4: Er, Yb,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023522 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Qin, W. Qin, C. Wu, S. Huang, J. Zhang, S. Lu, D. Zhao, and H. Liu, “Enhancement of ultraviolet upconversion in Yb3+ and Tm3+ codoped amorphous fluoride film prepared by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(7), 4328 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, “Electronic Energy Levels in the Trivalent Lanthanide Aquo Ions. I. Pr3+, Nd3+, Pm3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, Ho3+, Er3+, and Tm3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 49(10), 4424 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin.

F. Auzel, “Upconversion processes in coupled ion systems,” J. Lumin. 45(1-6), 341–345 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Suyver, J. Grimm, K. W. Krämer, and H. U. Güdel, “Highly efficient near-infrared to visible up-conversion process in NaYF4: Er3+, Yb3+,” J. Lumin. 114(1), 53–59 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C

X. Bai, H. Song, G. Pan, Y. Lei, T. Wang, X. Ren, S. Lu, B. Dong, Q. Dai, and L. Fan, “Size-Dependent Upconversion Luminescence in Er3+/Yb3+-Codoped Nanocrystalline Yttria: Saturation and Thermal Effects,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(36), 13611–13617 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

G. Wang, W. Qin, L. Wang, G. Wei, P. Zhu, and R. Kim, “Intense ultraviolet upconversion luminescence from hexagonal NaYF4:Yb3+/Tm3+ microcrystals,” Opt. Express 16(16), 11907–11914 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-16-11907 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

W. Qin, C. Cao, L. Wang, J. Zhang, D. Zhang, K. Zheng, Y. Wang, G. Wei, G. Wang, P. Zhu, and R. Kim, “Ultraviolet upconversion fluorescence from 6D(J) of Gd3+ induced by 980 nm excitation,” Opt. Lett. 33(19), 2167–2169 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Mater.

G. Wang, W. Qin, J. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Cao, L. Wang, G. Wei, P. Zhu, and R. Kim, “Enhancement of violet and ultraviolet upconversion emissions in Yb3+/Er3+-codoped YF3 nanocrystals,” Opt. Mater. 31(2), 296–299 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

J. F. Suyver, A. Aebischer, S. García-Revilla, P. Gerner, and H. Güdel, “Anomalous power dependence of sensitized upconversion luminescence,” Phys. Rev. B 71(12), 125123 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Hehlen, K. Krämer, H. Güdel, R. McFarlane, and R. Schwartz, “Upconversion in Er3+-dimer systems: Trends within the series Cs3Er2X9 (X= Cl, Br, I),” Phys. Rev. B 49(18), 12475–12484 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Science

E. Downing, L. Hesselink, J. Ralston, and R. Macfarlane, “A three-color, solid-state, three-dimensional display,” Science 273(5279), 1185–1189 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Commun.

H. Song, B. Sun, T. Wang, S. Lu, L. Yang, B. Chen, X. Wang, and X. Kong, “Three-photon upconversion luminescence phenomenon for the green levels in Er3+/Yb3+ codoped cubic nanocrystalline yttria,” Solid State Commun. 132(6), 409–413 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

XRD pattern and SEM image of NaYF4:Yb3+/Er3+ microcrystals.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

UC luminescence spectrum of NaYF4:Yb3+/Er3+ microcrystals under 980 nm excitation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Log-log plots of emission intensity versus excitation power in NaYF4:Yb3+/Er3+ microcrystals.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a). (Color online) UC luminescence spectrum of NaYF4:Yb3+/Er3+ microcrystals in the range of 350−750 nm; (b) PL spectrum of NaYF4:Yb3+/Er3+ microcrystals (λex = 408 nm); (c) PL spectrum of NaYF4:Yb3+/Er3+ microcrystals (λex = 520 nm)

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Energy level diagrams of Yb3+ and Er3+ ions, and possible UC processes.

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