Abstract

For the first time, four different noise sources, which are amplified quantum noise, Raman phonon seeded excess noise, pump transferred noise (PTN), and pump residual noise, are considered simultaneously to model the wavelength-dependent noise figure in a single-pumped fiber optical parametric amplifier. An asymmetric signal NF spectrum induced by both Raman phonon seeded excess noise and Raman gain modified PTN is measured in the electrical domain. Theoretical results agree very well with the experimental data. The idler NF spectrum is also analyzed and measured, which shows a more symmetric profile.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, Jie Li, and P.-O. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(3), 506–520 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Yamamoto and K. Inoue, “Noise in amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(11), 2895–2915 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. Kylemark, P.-O. Hedekvist, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Noise characteristics of fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(2), 409–416 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. L. Voss and P. Kumar, “Raman-noise-induced noise-figure limit for χ(3) parametric amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 29(5), 445–447 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. P. L. Voss and P. Kumar, “Raman-effect induced noise limits on χ(3) parametric amplifiers and wavelength converters,” J. Opt. B Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 6(8), S762–S770 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Tang, P. L. Voss, J. Lasri, P. Devgan, and P. Kumar, “Noise-figure limit of fiber-optical parametric amplifiers and wavelength converters: experimental investigation,” Opt. Lett. 29(20), 2372–2374 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. Durécu-Legrand, C. Simonneau, D. Bayart, A. Mussot, T. Sylvestre, E. Lantz, and H. Maillotte, “Impact of pump OSNR on noise figure for fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1178–1180 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. Kylemark, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Gain and wavelength dependence of the noise-figure in fiber optical parametric amplification,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(11), 1255–1257 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, P. Kylemark, and P. A. Andrekson, “Noise characteristics of dual-pump fiber-optic parametric amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(9), 2788–2795 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. L. Blows and S. E. French, “Low-noise-figure optical parametric amplifier with a continuous-wave frequency-modulated pump,” Opt. Lett. 27(7), 491–493 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. Kylemark, and M. Marhic, “Quantum-limited amplification in a fiber optical parametric amplifier,” in European Conference on Optical Communications, paper Tu. 3.B.3 (2008).
  12. R. H. Stolen, J. P. Gordon, W. J. Tomlinson, and H. A. Haus, “Raman response function of silicon-core fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6(6), 1159–1166 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear fiber optics (Academic, 1995), Chap. 8.
  14. N. A. Olsson, “Lightwave systems with optical amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7(7), 1071–1082 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. J. McKinstrie, M. Yu, M. G. Raymer, and S. Radic, “Quantum noise properties of parametric processes,” Opt. Express 13(13), 4986–5012 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-13-4986 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. L. Boivin, F. X. Kärtner, and H. A. Haus, “Analytical solution to the quantum field theory of self-phase modulation with a finite response time,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73(2), 240–243 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. Z. Tong, A. Bogris, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Raman induced asymmetric pump noise transfer in fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” to appear in IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. .
  18. G. P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communications Systems (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2002), Chap. 6.
  19. M. E. Marhic, G. Kalogerakis, K. K. Y. Wong, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Pump-to-signal transfer of low-frequency intensity modulation in fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(3), 1049–1055 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. Movassaghi, M. K. Jackson, V. M. Smith, and W. J. Hallam, “Noise figure of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers in saturated operation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16(5), 812 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  21. P. Velanas, A. Bogris, and D. Syvridis, “Impact of dispersion fluctuations on the noise properties of fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(5), 2171–2178 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2006 (2)

P. Kylemark, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Gain and wavelength dependence of the noise-figure in fiber optical parametric amplification,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(11), 1255–1257 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Velanas, A. Bogris, and D. Syvridis, “Impact of dispersion fluctuations on the noise properties of fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(5), 2171–2178 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

A. Durécu-Legrand, C. Simonneau, D. Bayart, A. Mussot, T. Sylvestre, E. Lantz, and H. Maillotte, “Impact of pump OSNR on noise figure for fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1178–1180 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Marhic, G. Kalogerakis, K. K. Y. Wong, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Pump-to-signal transfer of low-frequency intensity modulation in fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(3), 1049–1055 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. J. McKinstrie, M. Yu, M. G. Raymer, and S. Radic, “Quantum noise properties of parametric processes,” Opt. Express 13(13), 4986–5012 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-13-4986 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, P. Kylemark, and P. A. Andrekson, “Noise characteristics of dual-pump fiber-optic parametric amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(9), 2788–2795 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

P. Kylemark, P.-O. Hedekvist, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Noise characteristics of fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(2), 409–416 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Voss and P. Kumar, “Raman-noise-induced noise-figure limit for χ(3) parametric amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 29(5), 445–447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. L. Voss and P. Kumar, “Raman-effect induced noise limits on χ(3) parametric amplifiers and wavelength converters,” J. Opt. B Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 6(8), S762–S770 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Tang, P. L. Voss, J. Lasri, P. Devgan, and P. Kumar, “Noise-figure limit of fiber-optical parametric amplifiers and wavelength converters: experimental investigation,” Opt. Lett. 29(20), 2372–2374 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

Y. Yamamoto and K. Inoue, “Noise in amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(11), 2895–2915 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, Jie Li, and P.-O. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(3), 506–520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Blows and S. E. French, “Low-noise-figure optical parametric amplifier with a continuous-wave frequency-modulated pump,” Opt. Lett. 27(7), 491–493 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

M. Movassaghi, M. K. Jackson, V. M. Smith, and W. J. Hallam, “Noise figure of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers in saturated operation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16(5), 812 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

L. Boivin, F. X. Kärtner, and H. A. Haus, “Analytical solution to the quantum field theory of self-phase modulation with a finite response time,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73(2), 240–243 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (2)

R. H. Stolen, J. P. Gordon, W. J. Tomlinson, and H. A. Haus, “Raman response function of silicon-core fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6(6), 1159–1166 (1989).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Olsson, “Lightwave systems with optical amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7(7), 1071–1082 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Andrekson, P. A.

P. Kylemark, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Gain and wavelength dependence of the noise-figure in fiber optical parametric amplification,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(11), 1255–1257 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, P. Kylemark, and P. A. Andrekson, “Noise characteristics of dual-pump fiber-optic parametric amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(9), 2788–2795 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Kylemark, P.-O. Hedekvist, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Noise characteristics of fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(2), 409–416 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, Jie Li, and P.-O. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(3), 506–520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tong, A. Bogris, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Raman induced asymmetric pump noise transfer in fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” to appear in IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. .

Bayart, D.

A. Durécu-Legrand, C. Simonneau, D. Bayart, A. Mussot, T. Sylvestre, E. Lantz, and H. Maillotte, “Impact of pump OSNR on noise figure for fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1178–1180 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Blows, J. L.

J. L. Blows and S. E. French, “Low-noise-figure optical parametric amplifier with a continuous-wave frequency-modulated pump,” Opt. Lett. 27(7), 491–493 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bogris, A.

P. Velanas, A. Bogris, and D. Syvridis, “Impact of dispersion fluctuations on the noise properties of fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(5), 2171–2178 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, P. Kylemark, and P. A. Andrekson, “Noise characteristics of dual-pump fiber-optic parametric amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(9), 2788–2795 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tong, A. Bogris, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Raman induced asymmetric pump noise transfer in fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” to appear in IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. .

Boivin, L.

L. Boivin, F. X. Kärtner, and H. A. Haus, “Analytical solution to the quantum field theory of self-phase modulation with a finite response time,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73(2), 240–243 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Devgan, P.

R. Tang, P. L. Voss, J. Lasri, P. Devgan, and P. Kumar, “Noise-figure limit of fiber-optical parametric amplifiers and wavelength converters: experimental investigation,” Opt. Lett. 29(20), 2372–2374 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Durécu-Legrand, A.

A. Durécu-Legrand, C. Simonneau, D. Bayart, A. Mussot, T. Sylvestre, E. Lantz, and H. Maillotte, “Impact of pump OSNR on noise figure for fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1178–1180 (2005).
[CrossRef]

French, S. E.

J. L. Blows and S. E. French, “Low-noise-figure optical parametric amplifier with a continuous-wave frequency-modulated pump,” Opt. Lett. 27(7), 491–493 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, J. P.

R. H. Stolen, J. P. Gordon, W. J. Tomlinson, and H. A. Haus, “Raman response function of silicon-core fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6(6), 1159–1166 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hallam, W. J.

M. Movassaghi, M. K. Jackson, V. M. Smith, and W. J. Hallam, “Noise figure of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers in saturated operation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16(5), 812 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hansryd, J.

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, Jie Li, and P.-O. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(3), 506–520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

L. Boivin, F. X. Kärtner, and H. A. Haus, “Analytical solution to the quantum field theory of self-phase modulation with a finite response time,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73(2), 240–243 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. Stolen, J. P. Gordon, W. J. Tomlinson, and H. A. Haus, “Raman response function of silicon-core fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6(6), 1159–1166 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hedekvist, P.-O.

P. Kylemark, P.-O. Hedekvist, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Noise characteristics of fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(2), 409–416 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, Jie Li, and P.-O. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(3), 506–520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, K.

Y. Yamamoto and K. Inoue, “Noise in amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(11), 2895–2915 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, M. K.

M. Movassaghi, M. K. Jackson, V. M. Smith, and W. J. Hallam, “Noise figure of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers in saturated operation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16(5), 812 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jie Li,

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, Jie Li, and P.-O. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(3), 506–520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kalogerakis, G.

M. E. Marhic, G. Kalogerakis, K. K. Y. Wong, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Pump-to-signal transfer of low-frequency intensity modulation in fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(3), 1049–1055 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Karlsson, M.

P. Kylemark, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Gain and wavelength dependence of the noise-figure in fiber optical parametric amplification,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(11), 1255–1257 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Kylemark, P.-O. Hedekvist, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Noise characteristics of fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(2), 409–416 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tong, A. Bogris, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Raman induced asymmetric pump noise transfer in fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” to appear in IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. .

Kärtner, F. X.

L. Boivin, F. X. Kärtner, and H. A. Haus, “Analytical solution to the quantum field theory of self-phase modulation with a finite response time,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73(2), 240–243 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kazovsky, L. G.

M. E. Marhic, G. Kalogerakis, K. K. Y. Wong, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Pump-to-signal transfer of low-frequency intensity modulation in fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(3), 1049–1055 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, P.

R. Tang, P. L. Voss, J. Lasri, P. Devgan, and P. Kumar, “Noise-figure limit of fiber-optical parametric amplifiers and wavelength converters: experimental investigation,” Opt. Lett. 29(20), 2372–2374 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. L. Voss and P. Kumar, “Raman-effect induced noise limits on χ(3) parametric amplifiers and wavelength converters,” J. Opt. B Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 6(8), S762–S770 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Voss and P. Kumar, “Raman-noise-induced noise-figure limit for χ(3) parametric amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 29(5), 445–447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kylemark, P.

P. Kylemark, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Gain and wavelength dependence of the noise-figure in fiber optical parametric amplification,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(11), 1255–1257 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, P. Kylemark, and P. A. Andrekson, “Noise characteristics of dual-pump fiber-optic parametric amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(9), 2788–2795 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Kylemark, P.-O. Hedekvist, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Noise characteristics of fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(2), 409–416 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lantz, E.

A. Durécu-Legrand, C. Simonneau, D. Bayart, A. Mussot, T. Sylvestre, E. Lantz, and H. Maillotte, “Impact of pump OSNR on noise figure for fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1178–1180 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lasri, J.

R. Tang, P. L. Voss, J. Lasri, P. Devgan, and P. Kumar, “Noise-figure limit of fiber-optical parametric amplifiers and wavelength converters: experimental investigation,” Opt. Lett. 29(20), 2372–2374 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maillotte, H.

A. Durécu-Legrand, C. Simonneau, D. Bayart, A. Mussot, T. Sylvestre, E. Lantz, and H. Maillotte, “Impact of pump OSNR on noise figure for fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1178–1180 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Marhic, M. E.

M. E. Marhic, G. Kalogerakis, K. K. Y. Wong, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Pump-to-signal transfer of low-frequency intensity modulation in fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(3), 1049–1055 (2005).
[CrossRef]

McKinstrie, C. J.

C. J. McKinstrie, M. Yu, M. G. Raymer, and S. Radic, “Quantum noise properties of parametric processes,” Opt. Express 13(13), 4986–5012 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-13-4986 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Movassaghi, M.

M. Movassaghi, M. K. Jackson, V. M. Smith, and W. J. Hallam, “Noise figure of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers in saturated operation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16(5), 812 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mussot, A.

A. Durécu-Legrand, C. Simonneau, D. Bayart, A. Mussot, T. Sylvestre, E. Lantz, and H. Maillotte, “Impact of pump OSNR on noise figure for fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1178–1180 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Olsson, N. A.

N. A. Olsson, “Lightwave systems with optical amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7(7), 1071–1082 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Radic, S.

C. J. McKinstrie, M. Yu, M. G. Raymer, and S. Radic, “Quantum noise properties of parametric processes,” Opt. Express 13(13), 4986–5012 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-13-4986 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raymer, M. G.

C. J. McKinstrie, M. Yu, M. G. Raymer, and S. Radic, “Quantum noise properties of parametric processes,” Opt. Express 13(13), 4986–5012 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-13-4986 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simonneau, C.

A. Durécu-Legrand, C. Simonneau, D. Bayart, A. Mussot, T. Sylvestre, E. Lantz, and H. Maillotte, “Impact of pump OSNR on noise figure for fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1178–1180 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Smith, V. M.

M. Movassaghi, M. K. Jackson, V. M. Smith, and W. J. Hallam, “Noise figure of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers in saturated operation,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16(5), 812 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stolen, R. H.

R. H. Stolen, J. P. Gordon, W. J. Tomlinson, and H. A. Haus, “Raman response function of silicon-core fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6(6), 1159–1166 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sunnerud, H.

P. Kylemark, P.-O. Hedekvist, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Noise characteristics of fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(2), 409–416 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sylvestre, T.

A. Durécu-Legrand, C. Simonneau, D. Bayart, A. Mussot, T. Sylvestre, E. Lantz, and H. Maillotte, “Impact of pump OSNR on noise figure for fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1178–1180 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Syvridis, D.

P. Velanas, A. Bogris, and D. Syvridis, “Impact of dispersion fluctuations on the noise properties of fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(5), 2171–2178 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, P. Kylemark, and P. A. Andrekson, “Noise characteristics of dual-pump fiber-optic parametric amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(9), 2788–2795 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tang, R.

R. Tang, P. L. Voss, J. Lasri, P. Devgan, and P. Kumar, “Noise-figure limit of fiber-optical parametric amplifiers and wavelength converters: experimental investigation,” Opt. Lett. 29(20), 2372–2374 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tomlinson, W. J.

R. H. Stolen, J. P. Gordon, W. J. Tomlinson, and H. A. Haus, “Raman response function of silicon-core fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6(6), 1159–1166 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Tong, Z.

Z. Tong, A. Bogris, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Raman induced asymmetric pump noise transfer in fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” to appear in IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. .

Velanas, P.

P. Velanas, A. Bogris, and D. Syvridis, “Impact of dispersion fluctuations on the noise properties of fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(5), 2171–2178 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Voss, P. L.

R. Tang, P. L. Voss, J. Lasri, P. Devgan, and P. Kumar, “Noise-figure limit of fiber-optical parametric amplifiers and wavelength converters: experimental investigation,” Opt. Lett. 29(20), 2372–2374 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. L. Voss and P. Kumar, “Raman-effect induced noise limits on χ(3) parametric amplifiers and wavelength converters,” J. Opt. B Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 6(8), S762–S770 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Voss and P. Kumar, “Raman-noise-induced noise-figure limit for χ(3) parametric amplifiers,” Opt. Lett. 29(5), 445–447 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Westlund, M.

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, Jie Li, and P.-O. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(3), 506–520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wong, K. K. Y.

M. E. Marhic, G. Kalogerakis, K. K. Y. Wong, and L. G. Kazovsky, “Pump-to-signal transfer of low-frequency intensity modulation in fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(3), 1049–1055 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, Y.

Y. Yamamoto and K. Inoue, “Noise in amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(11), 2895–2915 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yu, M.

C. J. McKinstrie, M. Yu, M. G. Raymer, and S. Radic, “Quantum noise properties of parametric processes,” Opt. Express 13(13), 4986–5012 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-13-4986 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Hansryd, P. A. Andrekson, M. Westlund, Jie Li, and P.-O. Hedekvist, “Fiber-based optical parametric amplifiers and their applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(3), 506–520 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

A. Durécu-Legrand, C. Simonneau, D. Bayart, A. Mussot, T. Sylvestre, E. Lantz, and H. Maillotte, “Impact of pump OSNR on noise figure for fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1178–1180 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Kylemark, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Gain and wavelength dependence of the noise-figure in fiber optical parametric amplification,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(11), 1255–1257 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Tong, A. Bogris, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Raman induced asymmetric pump noise transfer in fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” to appear in IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. .

J. Lightwave Technol. (7)

N. A. Olsson, “Lightwave systems with optical amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7(7), 1071–1082 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Bogris, D. Syvridis, P. Kylemark, and P. A. Andrekson, “Noise characteristics of dual-pump fiber-optic parametric amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(9), 2788–2795 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yamamoto and K. Inoue, “Noise in amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(11), 2895–2915 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Kylemark, P.-O. Hedekvist, H. Sunnerud, M. Karlsson, and P. A. Andrekson, “Noise characteristics of fiber optical parametric amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22(2), 409–416 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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P. L. Voss and P. Kumar, “Raman-effect induced noise limits on χ(3) parametric amplifiers and wavelength converters,” J. Opt. B Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 6(8), S762–S770 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

a) Calculated signal gain and NF spectra with or without Raman effect, and b) the real and imaginary parts of the Raman susceptibility of the HNLF used in the experiments. Pump wavelength is 1546.7 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated idler gain and NF spectra with or without the Raman effect.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated a) signal and b) idler gain and NF spectra (AQN + PTN) with or without considering Raman effect.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured output optical spectrum of a single-pumped FOPA with (a) two cascaded pump filters and (b) only one pump filter. The resolution bandwidth is 0.5 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measurement setup. NFA: Noise figure analyzer; ESA: Electrical spectrum analyzer; OSA: Optical spectrum analyzer; PC: Polarization controller; ATT: Variable attenuator.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

a) Comparison of the calculated and measured signal gain and NF spectra with only one pump filter (2 nm 3-dB bandwidth), 0.95 W pump launched power is used in calculation, and b) the filtered ASE spectrum of the booster.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparison of the calculated and the measured signal gain and NF spectra with two cascaded pump filters (1 nm 3-dB bandwidth), with a) 53.2 dB and b) 49.3 dB launched pump ESNR. A 0.95 W pump power was used.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison of the calculated and the measured idler gain and NF spectra with two cascaded pump filters at 53.2 dB launched pump ESNR. A 0.95W pump power was used in calculation.

Equations (8)

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d d z [ A a A s * ] = [ j { [ H ( Ω ) + H * ( Ω ) 2 ] P P Δ β 2 } j H ( Ω ) P P j H * ( Ω ) P P j { [ H ( Ω ) + H * ( Ω ) 2 ] P P Δ β 2 } ] [ A a A s * ] = G [ A a A s * ] .
[ A a ( z ) A s * ( z ) ] = exp ( G z ) [ A a ( 0 ) A s * ( 0 ) ] = T [ A a ( 0 ) A s * ( 0 ) ] ,
T = [ T 11 T 12 T 21 T 22 ] = [ cosh ( g z ) + j k 2 g sinh ( g z ) j H ( Ω ) P P g sinh ( g z ) j H * ( Ω ) P P g sinh ( g z ) cosh ( g z ) j k 2 g sinh ( g z ) ] ,
N F s i g , A Q N = 2 1 / G s i g  and  N F i , A Q N = 2 + 1 / G i ,
Δ N F R a m a n , a = 1 + [ | T 12 | 2 + ( 1 + 2 n t h ) | | T 11 | 2 | T 12 | 2 1 | ] / | T 11 | 2 N F A Q N , a , or Δ N F R a m a n , s = 1 + [ | T 21 | 2 + ( 1 + 2 n t h ) | | T 22 | 2 | T 21 | 2 1 | ] / | T 22 | 2 N F A Q N , s ,
Δ N F PTN,j = P i n ( G j P P ) 2 P P 2 / ( O S N R G j 2 h v Δ v ) ,
Δ N F r e s = 2 ( G s 1 ) ( S A S E _ S i g n a l + S A S E _ I d l e r ) P ( λ ) G s h v s ,
N F t o t a l = N F A Q N + Δ N F R a m a n + Δ N F P T N + Δ N F r e s .

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