Abstract

When a sample being tested is optically opaque or has a high absorption coefficient, a reflective measurement is often more suitable than a transmission measurement. We report the design and evaluation of a reflective terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (R-THz-TDS), using air as THz wave emitter and sensor, together with air-biased-coherent-detection (ABCD) method for the first time. With an 85 fs pulse amplified laser, we demonstrate a usable bandwidth from 0.5 THz to 12 THz, together with a peak dynamic range (DR) better than 2000:1 and a peak THz electrical field greater than 30 kV/cm. With a 32 fs pulse amplified laser, the usable bandwidth is remarkably expanded to a continuous 35 THz. Several far-infrared optical properties in various samples are reported. Furthermore, the time-resolved optical pump-THz probe experiment is performed. Finally, the uniqueness and advantage of this spectrometer are comprehensively compared with traditional THz-TDS and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy.

© 2010 OSA

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  2. D. Grischkowsky, S. Keiding, M. V. Exter, and C. Fattinger, “Far-infrared time-domain spectroscopy with terahertz beams of dielectrics and semiconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7(10), 2006–2015 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
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  6. A. G. Stepanov, J. Hebling, and J. Kuhl, “Efficient generation of subpicosecond terahertz radiation by phase-matched optical rectification using ultrashort laser pulses with tilted pulse fronts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(15), 3000–3002 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of 10 µJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(17), 171121 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. V. McLaughlin, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, S. Huang, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Wideband 15 THz response using organic electro-optic polymer emitter-sensor pairs at telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(15), 151107 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  27. M. Naftaly and R. Dudley, “Methodologies for determining the dynamic ranges and signal-to-noise ratios of terahertz time-domain spectrometers,” Opt. Lett. 34(8), 1213–1215 (2009).
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  30. V. B. Podobedov, D. F. Plusquellica, K. E. Siegrist, G. T. Fraser, Q. Ma, and R. H. Tipping, “New measurements of the water vapor continuum in the region from 0.3 to 2.7 THz,” JQSRT 109, 458–467 (2008).
  31. R. A. Cheville and D. Grischkowsky, “Far-infrared terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of flames,” Opt. Lett. 20(15), 1646–1648 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. J. Liu and X. C. Zhang, “Birefringence and absorption coefficients of alpha barium borate in terahertz range,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023107 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  33. S. Akturk, A. Couairon, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Spectrogram representation of pulse self compression by filamentation,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17626–17636 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-22-17626 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. L. J. Bignell and R. A. Lewis, “Reflectance studies of candidate THz emitters,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 20(S1), S326–S331 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  35. Q. Wu, F. G. Sun, P. Campbell, and X.-C. Zhang, “Dynamic range of an electro-optic field sensor and its imaging applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(23), 3224–3226 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  36. P. Y. Han, M. Tani, M. Usami, S. Kono, R. Kersting, and X.-C. Zhang, “A direct comparison between terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and far-infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(4), 2357–2359 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (5)

N. Karpowicz and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent terahertz echo of tunnel ionization in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(9), 093001 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Lu, N. Karpowicz, and X.-C. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz detection with selected gases,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(9), A66–A73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Naftaly and R. Dudley, “Methodologies for determining the dynamic ranges and signal-to-noise ratios of terahertz time-domain spectrometers,” Opt. Lett. 34(8), 1213–1215 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liu and X. C. Zhang, “Birefringence and absorption coefficients of alpha barium borate in terahertz range,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Bignell and R. A. Lewis, “Reflectance studies of candidate THz emitters,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 20(S1), S326–S331 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (6)

S. Akturk, A. Couairon, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Spectrogram representation of pulse self compression by filamentation,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17626–17636 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-22-17626 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. B. Podobedov, D. F. Plusquellica, K. E. Siegrist, G. T. Fraser, Q. Ma, and R. H. Tipping, “New measurements of the water vapor continuum in the region from 0.3 to 2.7 THz,” JQSRT 109, 458–467 (2008).

C.-H. Shon, W.-Y. Chong, S.-G. Jeon, G.-J. Kim, J.-I. Kim, and Y.-S. Jin, “High Speed Terahertz Pulse Imaging in the Reflection Geometry and Image Quality Enhancement by Digital Image Processing,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 29(1), 79–88 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Watanabe, R. Kondo, S. Kagoshima, and R. Shimano, “Spin-density-wave gap in (TMTSF)2PF6 probed by reflection-type terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Phys. Stat. Sol. (b) 245(12), 2688–2691 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. V. McLaughlin, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, S. Huang, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Wideband 15 THz response using organic electro-optic polymer emitter-sensor pairs at telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(15), 151107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire “terahertz gap”,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of 10 µJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(17), 171121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, “Terahertz emission from ultrafast ionizing air in symmetry-broken laser fields,” Opt. Express 15(8), 4577–4584 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent control of THz wave generation in ambient air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(7), 075005 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Dai, X. Xie, and X.-C. Zhang, “Detection of broadband terahertz waves with a laser-induced plasma in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(10), 103903 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

T. Bartel, P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, “Generation of single-cycle THz transients with high electric-field amplitudes,” Opt. Lett. 30(20), 2805–2807 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (4)

T.-R. Tsai, C.-Y. Chen, C.-L. Pan, R.-P. Pan, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy studies of the optical constants of the nematic liquid crystal 5CB,” Appl. Opt. 42(13), 2372–2376 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Stepanov, J. Hebling, and J. Kuhl, “Efficient generation of subpicosecond terahertz radiation by phase-matched optical rectification using ultrashort laser pulses with tilted pulse fronts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(15), 3000–3002 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Pashkin, M. Kempa, H. Němec, F. Kadlec, and P. Kužel, “Phase-sensitive time-domain terahertz reflection spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(11), 4711–4717 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Hase, M. Kitajima, A. M. Constantinescu, and H. Petek, “The birth of a quasiparticle in silicon observed in time-frequency space,” Nature 426(6962), 51–54 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (4)

S. Nashima, O. Morikawa, K. Takata, and M. Hangyo, “Measurement of optical properties of highly doped silicon by terahertz time domain reflection spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(24), 3923–3925 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. Hashimshony, I. Geltner, G. Cohen, Y. Avitzour, A. Zigler, and C. Smith, “Characterization of the electrical properties and thickness of thin epitaxial semiconductor layers by THz reflection spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(11), 5778–5781 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Khazan, R. Meissner, and I. Wilke, “Convertible transmission-reflection time-domain terahertz spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72(8), 3427–3430 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Han, M. Tani, M. Usami, S. Kono, R. Kersting, and X.-C. Zhang, “A direct comparison between terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and far-infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(4), 2357–2359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

D. J. Cook and R. M. Hochstrasser, “Intense terahertz pulses by four-wave rectification in air,” Opt. Lett. 25(16), 1210–1212 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

T.-I. Jeon and D. Grischkowsky, “Characterization of optically dense, doped semiconductors by reflection THz time domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(23), 3032–3034 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

C. Rønne, L. Thrane, P.-O. Åstrand, A. Wallqvist, K. V. Mikkelsen, and S. R. Keiding, “Investigation of the temperature dependence of dielectric relaxation in liquid water by THz reflection spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation,” J. Chem. Phys. 107(14), 5319–5331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, and M. C. Nuss, “T-ray imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 679–692 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wu, F. G. Sun, P. Campbell, and X.-C. Zhang, “Dynamic range of an electro-optic field sensor and its imaging applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(23), 3224–3226 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

R. A. Cheville and D. Grischkowsky, “Far-infrared terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of flames,” Opt. Lett. 20(15), 1646–1648 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. B. Hu and M. C. Nuss, “Imaging with terahertz waves,” Opt. Lett. 20(16), 1716–1718 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

H. Hamster, A. Sullivan, S. Gordon, W. White, and R. W. Falcone, “Subpicosecond, electromagnetic pulses from intense laser-plasma interaction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(17), 2725–2728 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

D. Grischkowsky, S. Keiding, M. V. Exter, and C. Fattinger, “Far-infrared time-domain spectroscopy with terahertz beams of dielectrics and semiconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7(10), 2006–2015 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

M. C. Nuss, D. H. Auston, and F. Capasso, “Direct subpicosecond measurement of carrier mobility of photoexcited electrons in gallium arsenide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(22), 2355–2358 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

P. R. Griffiths, “Fourier transform infrared spectrometry,” Science 222(4621), 297–302 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akturk, S.

S. Akturk, A. Couairon, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Spectrogram representation of pulse self compression by filamentation,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17626–17636 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-22-17626 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Åstrand, P.-O.

C. Rønne, L. Thrane, P.-O. Åstrand, A. Wallqvist, K. V. Mikkelsen, and S. R. Keiding, “Investigation of the temperature dependence of dielectric relaxation in liquid water by THz reflection spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation,” J. Chem. Phys. 107(14), 5319–5331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Auston, D. H.

M. C. Nuss, D. H. Auston, and F. Capasso, “Direct subpicosecond measurement of carrier mobility of photoexcited electrons in gallium arsenide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(22), 2355–2358 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Avitzour, Y.

D. Hashimshony, I. Geltner, G. Cohen, Y. Avitzour, A. Zigler, and C. Smith, “Characterization of the electrical properties and thickness of thin epitaxial semiconductor layers by THz reflection spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(11), 5778–5781 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bartel, T.

T. Bartel, P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, “Generation of single-cycle THz transients with high electric-field amplitudes,” Opt. Lett. 30(20), 2805–2807 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bignell, L. J.

L. J. Bignell and R. A. Lewis, “Reflectance studies of candidate THz emitters,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 20(S1), S326–S331 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, P.

Q. Wu, F. G. Sun, P. Campbell, and X.-C. Zhang, “Dynamic range of an electro-optic field sensor and its imaging applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(23), 3224–3226 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

M. C. Nuss, D. H. Auston, and F. Capasso, “Direct subpicosecond measurement of carrier mobility of photoexcited electrons in gallium arsenide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(22), 2355–2358 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, C.-Y.

T.-R. Tsai, C.-Y. Chen, C.-L. Pan, R.-P. Pan, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy studies of the optical constants of the nematic liquid crystal 5CB,” Appl. Opt. 42(13), 2372–2376 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire “terahertz gap”,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cheville, R. A.

R. A. Cheville and D. Grischkowsky, “Far-infrared terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of flames,” Opt. Lett. 20(15), 1646–1648 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chong, W.-Y.

C.-H. Shon, W.-Y. Chong, S.-G. Jeon, G.-J. Kim, J.-I. Kim, and Y.-S. Jin, “High Speed Terahertz Pulse Imaging in the Reflection Geometry and Image Quality Enhancement by Digital Image Processing,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 29(1), 79–88 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, G.

D. Hashimshony, I. Geltner, G. Cohen, Y. Avitzour, A. Zigler, and C. Smith, “Characterization of the electrical properties and thickness of thin epitaxial semiconductor layers by THz reflection spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(11), 5778–5781 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Constantinescu, A. M.

M. Hase, M. Kitajima, A. M. Constantinescu, and H. Petek, “The birth of a quasiparticle in silicon observed in time-frequency space,” Nature 426(6962), 51–54 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cook, D. J.

D. J. Cook and R. M. Hochstrasser, “Intense terahertz pulses by four-wave rectification in air,” Opt. Lett. 25(16), 1210–1212 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Couairon, A.

S. Akturk, A. Couairon, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Spectrogram representation of pulse self compression by filamentation,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17626–17636 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-22-17626 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dai, J.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire “terahertz gap”,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Dai, X. Xie, and X.-C. Zhang, “Detection of broadband terahertz waves with a laser-induced plasma in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(10), 103903 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent control of THz wave generation in ambient air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(7), 075005 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dudley, R.

M. Naftaly and R. Dudley, “Methodologies for determining the dynamic ranges and signal-to-noise ratios of terahertz time-domain spectrometers,” Opt. Lett. 34(8), 1213–1215 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elsaesser, T.

T. Bartel, P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, “Generation of single-cycle THz transients with high electric-field amplitudes,” Opt. Lett. 30(20), 2805–2807 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Exter, M. V.

D. Grischkowsky, S. Keiding, M. V. Exter, and C. Fattinger, “Far-infrared time-domain spectroscopy with terahertz beams of dielectrics and semiconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7(10), 2006–2015 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Falcone, R. W.

H. Hamster, A. Sullivan, S. Gordon, W. White, and R. W. Falcone, “Subpicosecond, electromagnetic pulses from intense laser-plasma interaction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(17), 2725–2728 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fattinger, C.

D. Grischkowsky, S. Keiding, M. V. Exter, and C. Fattinger, “Far-infrared time-domain spectroscopy with terahertz beams of dielectrics and semiconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7(10), 2006–2015 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Fletcher, C.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire “terahertz gap”,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Franco, M.

S. Akturk, A. Couairon, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Spectrogram representation of pulse self compression by filamentation,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17626–17636 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-22-17626 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fraser, G. T.

V. B. Podobedov, D. F. Plusquellica, K. E. Siegrist, G. T. Fraser, Q. Ma, and R. H. Tipping, “New measurements of the water vapor continuum in the region from 0.3 to 2.7 THz,” JQSRT 109, 458–467 (2008).

Gaal, P.

T. Bartel, P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, “Generation of single-cycle THz transients with high electric-field amplitudes,” Opt. Lett. 30(20), 2805–2807 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geltner, I.

D. Hashimshony, I. Geltner, G. Cohen, Y. Avitzour, A. Zigler, and C. Smith, “Characterization of the electrical properties and thickness of thin epitaxial semiconductor layers by THz reflection spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(11), 5778–5781 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Glownia, J. H.

K. Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, “Terahertz emission from ultrafast ionizing air in symmetry-broken laser fields,” Opt. Express 15(8), 4577–4584 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gordon, S.

H. Hamster, A. Sullivan, S. Gordon, W. White, and R. W. Falcone, “Subpicosecond, electromagnetic pulses from intense laser-plasma interaction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(17), 2725–2728 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Griffiths, P. R.

P. R. Griffiths, “Fourier transform infrared spectrometry,” Science 222(4621), 297–302 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. Nashima, O. Morikawa, K. Takata, and M. Hangyo, “Measurement of optical properties of highly doped silicon by terahertz time domain reflection spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(24), 3923–3925 (2001).
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K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of 10 µJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(17), 171121 (2007).
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A. G. Stepanov, J. Hebling, and J. Kuhl, “Efficient generation of subpicosecond terahertz radiation by phase-matched optical rectification using ultrashort laser pulses with tilted pulse fronts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(15), 3000–3002 (2003).
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C. V. McLaughlin, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, S. Huang, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Wideband 15 THz response using organic electro-optic polymer emitter-sensor pairs at telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(15), 151107 (2008).
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D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, and M. C. Nuss, “T-ray imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 679–692 (1996).
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C. V. McLaughlin, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, S. Huang, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Wideband 15 THz response using organic electro-optic polymer emitter-sensor pairs at telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(15), 151107 (2008).
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C.-H. Shon, W.-Y. Chong, S.-G. Jeon, G.-J. Kim, J.-I. Kim, and Y.-S. Jin, “High Speed Terahertz Pulse Imaging in the Reflection Geometry and Image Quality Enhancement by Digital Image Processing,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 29(1), 79–88 (2008).
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T.-I. Jeon and D. Grischkowsky, “Characterization of optically dense, doped semiconductors by reflection THz time domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(23), 3032–3034 (1998).
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C.-H. Shon, W.-Y. Chong, S.-G. Jeon, G.-J. Kim, J.-I. Kim, and Y.-S. Jin, “High Speed Terahertz Pulse Imaging in the Reflection Geometry and Image Quality Enhancement by Digital Image Processing,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 29(1), 79–88 (2008).
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N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire “terahertz gap”,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011131 (2008).
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A. Pashkin, M. Kempa, H. Němec, F. Kadlec, and P. Kužel, “Phase-sensitive time-domain terahertz reflection spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(11), 4711–4717 (2003).
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S. Watanabe, R. Kondo, S. Kagoshima, and R. Shimano, “Spin-density-wave gap in (TMTSF)2PF6 probed by reflection-type terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Phys. Stat. Sol. (b) 245(12), 2688–2691 (2008).
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N. Karpowicz and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent terahertz echo of tunnel ionization in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(9), 093001 (2009).
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X. Lu, N. Karpowicz, and X.-C. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz detection with selected gases,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(9), A66–A73 (2009).
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N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire “terahertz gap”,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011131 (2008).
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D. Grischkowsky, S. Keiding, M. V. Exter, and C. Fattinger, “Far-infrared time-domain spectroscopy with terahertz beams of dielectrics and semiconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7(10), 2006–2015 (1990).
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C. Rønne, L. Thrane, P.-O. Åstrand, A. Wallqvist, K. V. Mikkelsen, and S. R. Keiding, “Investigation of the temperature dependence of dielectric relaxation in liquid water by THz reflection spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation,” J. Chem. Phys. 107(14), 5319–5331 (1997).
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Kempa, M.

A. Pashkin, M. Kempa, H. Němec, F. Kadlec, and P. Kužel, “Phase-sensitive time-domain terahertz reflection spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(11), 4711–4717 (2003).
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Kersting, R.

P. Y. Han, M. Tani, M. Usami, S. Kono, R. Kersting, and X.-C. Zhang, “A direct comparison between terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and far-infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(4), 2357–2359 (2001).
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M. Khazan, R. Meissner, and I. Wilke, “Convertible transmission-reflection time-domain terahertz spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72(8), 3427–3430 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kim, G.-J.

C.-H. Shon, W.-Y. Chong, S.-G. Jeon, G.-J. Kim, J.-I. Kim, and Y.-S. Jin, “High Speed Terahertz Pulse Imaging in the Reflection Geometry and Image Quality Enhancement by Digital Image Processing,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 29(1), 79–88 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.-I.

C.-H. Shon, W.-Y. Chong, S.-G. Jeon, G.-J. Kim, J.-I. Kim, and Y.-S. Jin, “High Speed Terahertz Pulse Imaging in the Reflection Geometry and Image Quality Enhancement by Digital Image Processing,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 29(1), 79–88 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. Y.

K. Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, “Terahertz emission from ultrafast ionizing air in symmetry-broken laser fields,” Opt. Express 15(8), 4577–4584 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, T.-D.

C. V. McLaughlin, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, S. Huang, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Wideband 15 THz response using organic electro-optic polymer emitter-sensor pairs at telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(15), 151107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kitajima, M.

M. Hase, M. Kitajima, A. M. Constantinescu, and H. Petek, “The birth of a quasiparticle in silicon observed in time-frequency space,” Nature 426(6962), 51–54 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kondo, R.

S. Watanabe, R. Kondo, S. Kagoshima, and R. Shimano, “Spin-density-wave gap in (TMTSF)2PF6 probed by reflection-type terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Phys. Stat. Sol. (b) 245(12), 2688–2691 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kono, S.

P. Y. Han, M. Tani, M. Usami, S. Kono, R. Kersting, and X.-C. Zhang, “A direct comparison between terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and far-infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(4), 2357–2359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kuhl, J.

A. G. Stepanov, J. Hebling, and J. Kuhl, “Efficient generation of subpicosecond terahertz radiation by phase-matched optical rectification using ultrashort laser pulses with tilted pulse fronts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(15), 3000–3002 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kužel, P.

A. Pashkin, M. Kempa, H. Němec, F. Kadlec, and P. Kužel, “Phase-sensitive time-domain terahertz reflection spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(11), 4711–4717 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lesimple, A.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire “terahertz gap”,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011131 (2008).
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L. J. Bignell and R. A. Lewis, “Reflectance studies of candidate THz emitters,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 20(S1), S326–S331 (2009).
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J. Liu and X. C. Zhang, “Birefringence and absorption coefficients of alpha barium borate in terahertz range,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023107 (2009).
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X. Lu, N. Karpowicz, and X.-C. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz detection with selected gases,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26(9), A66–A73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire “terahertz gap”,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Luo, J.

C. V. McLaughlin, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, S. Huang, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Wideband 15 THz response using organic electro-optic polymer emitter-sensor pairs at telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(15), 151107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ma, Q.

V. B. Podobedov, D. F. Plusquellica, K. E. Siegrist, G. T. Fraser, Q. Ma, and R. H. Tipping, “New measurements of the water vapor continuum in the region from 0.3 to 2.7 THz,” JQSRT 109, 458–467 (2008).

Mamer, O.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire “terahertz gap”,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

McLaughlin, C. V.

C. V. McLaughlin, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, S. Huang, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Wideband 15 THz response using organic electro-optic polymer emitter-sensor pairs at telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(15), 151107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Meissner, R.

M. Khazan, R. Meissner, and I. Wilke, “Convertible transmission-reflection time-domain terahertz spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72(8), 3427–3430 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mikkelsen, K. V.

C. Rønne, L. Thrane, P.-O. Åstrand, A. Wallqvist, K. V. Mikkelsen, and S. R. Keiding, “Investigation of the temperature dependence of dielectric relaxation in liquid water by THz reflection spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation,” J. Chem. Phys. 107(14), 5319–5331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mittleman, D. M.

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, and M. C. Nuss, “T-ray imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 679–692 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Morikawa, O.

S. Nashima, O. Morikawa, K. Takata, and M. Hangyo, “Measurement of optical properties of highly doped silicon by terahertz time domain reflection spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(24), 3923–3925 (2001).
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S. Akturk, A. Couairon, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Spectrogram representation of pulse self compression by filamentation,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17626–17636 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-22-17626 .
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M. Naftaly and R. Dudley, “Methodologies for determining the dynamic ranges and signal-to-noise ratios of terahertz time-domain spectrometers,” Opt. Lett. 34(8), 1213–1215 (2009).
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Nashima, S.

S. Nashima, O. Morikawa, K. Takata, and M. Hangyo, “Measurement of optical properties of highly doped silicon by terahertz time domain reflection spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(24), 3923–3925 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, K. A.

K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of 10 µJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(17), 171121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nemec, H.

A. Pashkin, M. Kempa, H. Němec, F. Kadlec, and P. Kužel, “Phase-sensitive time-domain terahertz reflection spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(11), 4711–4717 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nuss, M. C.

D. M. Mittleman, R. H. Jacobsen, and M. C. Nuss, “T-ray imaging,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 679–692 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. B. Hu and M. C. Nuss, “Imaging with terahertz waves,” Opt. Lett. 20(16), 1716–1718 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Nuss, D. H. Auston, and F. Capasso, “Direct subpicosecond measurement of carrier mobility of photoexcited electrons in gallium arsenide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(22), 2355–2358 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pan, C.-L.

T.-R. Tsai, C.-Y. Chen, C.-L. Pan, R.-P. Pan, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy studies of the optical constants of the nematic liquid crystal 5CB,” Appl. Opt. 42(13), 2372–2376 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pan, R.-P.

T.-R. Tsai, C.-Y. Chen, C.-L. Pan, R.-P. Pan, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy studies of the optical constants of the nematic liquid crystal 5CB,” Appl. Opt. 42(13), 2372–2376 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pashkin, A.

A. Pashkin, M. Kempa, H. Němec, F. Kadlec, and P. Kužel, “Phase-sensitive time-domain terahertz reflection spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(11), 4711–4717 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Petek, H.

M. Hase, M. Kitajima, A. M. Constantinescu, and H. Petek, “The birth of a quasiparticle in silicon observed in time-frequency space,” Nature 426(6962), 51–54 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Plusquellica, D. F.

V. B. Podobedov, D. F. Plusquellica, K. E. Siegrist, G. T. Fraser, Q. Ma, and R. H. Tipping, “New measurements of the water vapor continuum in the region from 0.3 to 2.7 THz,” JQSRT 109, 458–467 (2008).

Podobedov, V. B.

V. B. Podobedov, D. F. Plusquellica, K. E. Siegrist, G. T. Fraser, Q. Ma, and R. H. Tipping, “New measurements of the water vapor continuum in the region from 0.3 to 2.7 THz,” JQSRT 109, 458–467 (2008).

Polishak, B.

C. V. McLaughlin, L. M. Hayden, B. Polishak, S. Huang, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Wideband 15 THz response using organic electro-optic polymer emitter-sensor pairs at telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(15), 151107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Price-Gallagher, M.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire “terahertz gap”,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Reimann, K.

T. Bartel, P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, “Generation of single-cycle THz transients with high electric-field amplitudes,” Opt. Lett. 30(20), 2805–2807 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodriguez, G.

K. Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, “Terahertz emission from ultrafast ionizing air in symmetry-broken laser fields,” Opt. Express 15(8), 4577–4584 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rønne, C.

C. Rønne, L. Thrane, P.-O. Åstrand, A. Wallqvist, K. V. Mikkelsen, and S. R. Keiding, “Investigation of the temperature dependence of dielectric relaxation in liquid water by THz reflection spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation,” J. Chem. Phys. 107(14), 5319–5331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shimano, R.

S. Watanabe, R. Kondo, S. Kagoshima, and R. Shimano, “Spin-density-wave gap in (TMTSF)2PF6 probed by reflection-type terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Phys. Stat. Sol. (b) 245(12), 2688–2691 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shon, C.-H.

C.-H. Shon, W.-Y. Chong, S.-G. Jeon, G.-J. Kim, J.-I. Kim, and Y.-S. Jin, “High Speed Terahertz Pulse Imaging in the Reflection Geometry and Image Quality Enhancement by Digital Image Processing,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 29(1), 79–88 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Siegrist, K. E.

V. B. Podobedov, D. F. Plusquellica, K. E. Siegrist, G. T. Fraser, Q. Ma, and R. H. Tipping, “New measurements of the water vapor continuum in the region from 0.3 to 2.7 THz,” JQSRT 109, 458–467 (2008).

Smith, C.

D. Hashimshony, I. Geltner, G. Cohen, Y. Avitzour, A. Zigler, and C. Smith, “Characterization of the electrical properties and thickness of thin epitaxial semiconductor layers by THz reflection spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(11), 5778–5781 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stepanov, A. G.

A. G. Stepanov, J. Hebling, and J. Kuhl, “Efficient generation of subpicosecond terahertz radiation by phase-matched optical rectification using ultrashort laser pulses with tilted pulse fronts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(15), 3000–3002 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, A.

H. Hamster, A. Sullivan, S. Gordon, W. White, and R. W. Falcone, “Subpicosecond, electromagnetic pulses from intense laser-plasma interaction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(17), 2725–2728 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, F. G.

Q. Wu, F. G. Sun, P. Campbell, and X.-C. Zhang, “Dynamic range of an electro-optic field sensor and its imaging applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(23), 3224–3226 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Takata, K.

S. Nashima, O. Morikawa, K. Takata, and M. Hangyo, “Measurement of optical properties of highly doped silicon by terahertz time domain reflection spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(24), 3923–3925 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tani, M.

P. Y. Han, M. Tani, M. Usami, S. Kono, R. Kersting, and X.-C. Zhang, “A direct comparison between terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and far-infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(4), 2357–2359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A. J.

K. Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, and G. Rodriguez, “Terahertz emission from ultrafast ionizing air in symmetry-broken laser fields,” Opt. Express 15(8), 4577–4584 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thrane, L.

C. Rønne, L. Thrane, P.-O. Åstrand, A. Wallqvist, K. V. Mikkelsen, and S. R. Keiding, “Investigation of the temperature dependence of dielectric relaxation in liquid water by THz reflection spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation,” J. Chem. Phys. 107(14), 5319–5331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tipping, R. H.

V. B. Podobedov, D. F. Plusquellica, K. E. Siegrist, G. T. Fraser, Q. Ma, and R. H. Tipping, “New measurements of the water vapor continuum in the region from 0.3 to 2.7 THz,” JQSRT 109, 458–467 (2008).

Tsai, T.-R.

T.-R. Tsai, C.-Y. Chen, C.-L. Pan, R.-P. Pan, and X.-C. Zhang, “Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy studies of the optical constants of the nematic liquid crystal 5CB,” Appl. Opt. 42(13), 2372–2376 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Usami, M.

P. Y. Han, M. Tani, M. Usami, S. Kono, R. Kersting, and X.-C. Zhang, “A direct comparison between terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and far-infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(4), 2357–2359 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wallqvist, A.

C. Rønne, L. Thrane, P.-O. Åstrand, A. Wallqvist, K. V. Mikkelsen, and S. R. Keiding, “Investigation of the temperature dependence of dielectric relaxation in liquid water by THz reflection spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation,” J. Chem. Phys. 107(14), 5319–5331 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, S.

S. Watanabe, R. Kondo, S. Kagoshima, and R. Shimano, “Spin-density-wave gap in (TMTSF)2PF6 probed by reflection-type terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Phys. Stat. Sol. (b) 245(12), 2688–2691 (2008).
[CrossRef]

White, W.

H. Hamster, A. Sullivan, S. Gordon, W. White, and R. W. Falcone, “Subpicosecond, electromagnetic pulses from intense laser-plasma interaction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(17), 2725–2728 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilke, I.

M. Khazan, R. Meissner, and I. Wilke, “Convertible transmission-reflection time-domain terahertz spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72(8), 3427–3430 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Woerner, M.

T. Bartel, P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, “Generation of single-cycle THz transients with high electric-field amplitudes,” Opt. Lett. 30(20), 2805–2807 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, Q.

Q. Wu, F. G. Sun, P. Campbell, and X.-C. Zhang, “Dynamic range of an electro-optic field sensor and its imaging applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68(23), 3224–3226 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Xie, X.

X. Xie, J. Dai, and X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent control of THz wave generation in ambient air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(7), 075005 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Dai, X. Xie, and X.-C. Zhang, “Detection of broadband terahertz waves with a laser-induced plasma in gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(10), 103903 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamaguchi, M.

N. Karpowicz, J. Dai, X. Lu, Y. Chen, M. Yamaguchi, H. Zhao, X.-C. Zhang, L. Zhang, C. Zhang, M. Price-Gallagher, C. Fletcher, O. Mamer, A. Lesimple, and K. Johnson, “Coherent heterodyne time-domain spectrometry covering the entire “terahertz gap”,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011131 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, K.-L.

K.-L. Yeh, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Generation of 10 µJ ultrashort terahertz pulses by optical rectification,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(17), 171121 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

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Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: MOV (181 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (343 KB)     

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup. The THz beam is generated by mixing the fundamental pump beam and second harmonic (SH) beam (after a type-I beta BBO crystal) at the air plasma point in front of parabolic mirror P1. A high resistivity silicon wafer acts as a beam splitter which blocks the residual 800 and 400 nm beams, but passes and reflects the THz beams. The sample position is located at the focal point of parabolic mirror P2. The THz beam is detected by measuring the coherent time-resolved SH signal induced by mixing the probe beam, the THz beam, and the AC bias electrical field at the focus point of P3.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) A measured time domain waveform, (b) a Fourier transform spectrum of Fig. (a) with an 85 fs amplified laser; (c) a measured time domain waveform, (d) a Fourier transform spectrum of Fig. (c) with a 32 fs amplified laser through the R-THz-ABCD spectrometer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of water vapor absorption spectra between the R-THz-ABCD and FTIR spectroscopy. The magnification shows the spectra ranging from 2 THz to 2.5 THz. The relative humidity is ~15%.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Measured R-THz-ABCD spectra of a CaCO3 crystal and the reference (solid lines) as well as measured phase responses (dash lines). (b) The measured transmission THz-ABCD spectra of the same crystal. (c) Measured refractive indices of n and k of o axis from 0.8 to 8 THz through R-THz-ABCD. (d) Measured refractive indices of n and k of e axis from 0.8 to 8 THz through R-THz-ABCD.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Media 1: Measured reflective THz-TDS waveforms of the α-BBO crystal. (b) Media 2: The Fourier transform spectra of Fig. (a). The black dash lines in Fig. (b) indicate the spectra dips due to the phonon resonances for 0 degree and blue dash lines for 90 degree.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) The reflectance of an n-type InAs sample. The plasma resonance shows around 3 THz and the phonon resonance shows around 7.2 THz. (b) The reflectance of a p-type InAs sample and the phonon resonance shows around 7.2 THz.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) The beam steepening unit consists of two convex lenses. (b) A Fourier transform spectrum (red curve) with the noise floor (black curve) measured with the R-THz-ABCD spectrometer with the beam steepening unit. (c) The reflectance of a GaAs sample with the phonon resonance around 8.8 THz. (d) The reflectance of a GaP sample with the phonon resonance around 11 THz.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) The experimental principle. (b) Differential amplitudes of peak THz probe pulses are plotted as a function of the pump-probe delay tD . (c) Normalized differential reflective spectra of different pump powers on a GaAs sample. It clearly shows the broaden plasma resonance around 7 THz when pump power is down to 6 uJ as indicated in blue arrow. Δr/r below the dash line shows the negative numbers of differential spectra due to the plasma resonance.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

THz-ABCD performance through fast scan stage (2 second data acquisition).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

The SNR of the R-THz-ABCD spectroscopy (red curve) in a nine time scan average and 100 ms Lock-in amplifier time constant, and the SNR of the FTIR spectroscopy (black curve) in a nine time scan average.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The comparisons of R-THz ABCD, traditional TDS, and FTIR spectroscopy

Equations (2)

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E T H z ( t ) χ ( 3 ) E 2 ω ( t ) E ω * ( t ) E ω * ( t ) cos ( ϕ ) ,
E 2 ω ( t ) χ ( 3 ) E T H z ( t ) E ω * ( t ) E ω * ( t ) .

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