Abstract

This work demonstrates photo alignment and electrical tuning effects in photonic liquid crystal fiber (PLCF). Applying voltages of 0~130V and 250~400V shifts the short and long wavelength edges of the transmission bands by about 45nm and 74nm toward longer wavelengths, respectively. An electro-tunble notch filter is formed in the PLCF without the use of gratings. The range of tunability of the notch filter is around 180nm with an applied voltage of 140~240V. This photo-induced alignment yields a permanently tilted LC structure in PCF, which reduces the threshold voltage, and can be further modulated by electric fields. The polarization dependent loss and fast response time of photo-aligned PLCF is also demonstrated. The finite-difference frequency-domain method is adopted to analyze the shift of the transmission bandgap, and the simulation results are found to correlate well with experimental data.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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2009 (2)

2008 (4)

2007 (6)

2006 (3)

S.-Y. Huang, S.-T. Wu, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Optically switchable twist nematic grating based on a dye-doped liquid crystal film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(4), 041104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T.-H. Lin, H.-C. Jau, S.-Y. Hung, H.-R. Fuh, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Photoaddressable bistable reflective liquid crystal display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(2), 021116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Wolínski, K. Szaniawska, S. Ertman, P. Lesiak, A. W. Domanski, R. Dabrowski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, and J. Wojcik, “Influence of temperature and electrical fields on propagation properties of photonic liquid-crystal fibres,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(5), 985–991 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

J. Li, S.-T. Wu, S. Brugioni, R. Meucci, and S. Faetti, “Infrared refractive indices of liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(7), 073501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Scolari, T. T. Alkeskjold, J. Riishede, A. Bjarklev, D. S. Hermann, A. Anawati, M. Nielsen, and P. Bassi, “Continuously tunable devices based on electrical control of dual-frequency liquid crystal filled photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express 13(19), 7483–7496 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Haakestad, T. T. Alkeskjold, M. D. Nielsen, L. Scolari, J. Riishede, H. E. Engan, and A. Bjarklev, “Electrically Tunable Photonic Bandgap Guidance in a Liquid-Crystal-Filled Photonic Crystal Fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(4), 819–821 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

2003 (2)

Alkeskjold, T. T.

W. Yuan, L. Wei, T. T. Alkeskjold, A. Bjarklev, and O. Bang, “Thermal tunability of photonic bandgaps in liquid crystal infiltrated microstructured polymer optical fibers,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19356–19364 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Wei, L. Eskildsen, J. Weirich, L. Scolari, T. T. Alkeskjold, and A. Bjarklev, “Continuously tunable all-in-fiber devices based on thermal and electrical control of negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibers,” Appl. Opt. 48(3), 497–503 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Noordegraaf, L. Scolari, J. Lægsgaard, L. Rindorf, and T. T. Alkeskjold, “Electrically and mechanically induced long period gratings in liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express 15(13), 7901–7912 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. T. Alkeskjold and A. Bjarklev, “Electrically controlled broadband liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber polarimeter,” Opt. Lett. 32(12), 1707–1709 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Scolari, T. T. Alkeskjold, J. Riishede, A. Bjarklev, D. S. Hermann, A. Anawati, M. Nielsen, and P. Bassi, “Continuously tunable devices based on electrical control of dual-frequency liquid crystal filled photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express 13(19), 7483–7496 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Haakestad, T. T. Alkeskjold, M. D. Nielsen, L. Scolari, J. Riishede, H. E. Engan, and A. Bjarklev, “Electrically Tunable Photonic Bandgap Guidance in a Liquid-Crystal-Filled Photonic Crystal Fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(4), 819–821 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. T. Alkeskjold, J. Lægsgaard, A. Bjarklev, D. S. Hermann, A. Anawati, J. Broeng, J. Li, and S. T. Wu, “All-optical modulation in dye-doped nematic liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express 12(24), 5857–5871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anawati, A.

Bang, O.

Bartelt, H.

Bassi, P.

Bjarklev, A.

W. Yuan, L. Wei, T. T. Alkeskjold, A. Bjarklev, and O. Bang, “Thermal tunability of photonic bandgaps in liquid crystal infiltrated microstructured polymer optical fibers,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19356–19364 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Wei, L. Eskildsen, J. Weirich, L. Scolari, T. T. Alkeskjold, and A. Bjarklev, “Continuously tunable all-in-fiber devices based on thermal and electrical control of negative dielectric anisotropy liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibers,” Appl. Opt. 48(3), 497–503 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. T. Alkeskjold and A. Bjarklev, “Electrically controlled broadband liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber polarimeter,” Opt. Lett. 32(12), 1707–1709 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Scolari, T. T. Alkeskjold, J. Riishede, A. Bjarklev, D. S. Hermann, A. Anawati, M. Nielsen, and P. Bassi, “Continuously tunable devices based on electrical control of dual-frequency liquid crystal filled photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express 13(19), 7483–7496 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Haakestad, T. T. Alkeskjold, M. D. Nielsen, L. Scolari, J. Riishede, H. E. Engan, and A. Bjarklev, “Electrically Tunable Photonic Bandgap Guidance in a Liquid-Crystal-Filled Photonic Crystal Fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(4), 819–821 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. T. Alkeskjold, J. Lægsgaard, A. Bjarklev, D. S. Hermann, A. Anawati, J. Broeng, J. Li, and S. T. Wu, “All-optical modulation in dye-doped nematic liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express 12(24), 5857–5871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. T. Larsen, A. Bjarklev, D. S. Hermann, and J. Broeng, “Optical devices based on liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibres,” Opt. Express 11(20), 2589–2596 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borelli, E.

Broeng, J.

Brugioni, S.

J. Li, S.-T. Wu, S. Brugioni, R. Meucci, and S. Faetti, “Infrared refractive indices of liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(7), 073501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chang, H. C.

Czapla, A.

T. R. Woliński, S. Ertman, A. Czapla, P. Lesiak, K. Nowecka, A. W. Dománski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, R. Dabrowski, and J. Wójcik, “Polarization effects in photonic liquid crystal fibers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(10), 3061–3069 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dabrowski, R.

T. R. Woliński, S. Ertman, A. Czapla, P. Lesiak, K. Nowecka, A. W. Dománski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, R. Dabrowski, and J. Wójcik, “Polarization effects in photonic liquid crystal fibers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(10), 3061–3069 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Wolínski, K. Szaniawska, S. Ertman, P. Lesiak, A. W. Domanski, R. Dabrowski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, and J. Wojcik, “Influence of temperature and electrical fields on propagation properties of photonic liquid-crystal fibres,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(5), 985–991 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Demokan, M. S.

Domanski, A. W.

T. R. Wolínski, K. Szaniawska, S. Ertman, P. Lesiak, A. W. Domanski, R. Dabrowski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, and J. Wojcik, “Influence of temperature and electrical fields on propagation properties of photonic liquid-crystal fibres,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(5), 985–991 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dománski, A. W.

T. R. Woliński, S. Ertman, A. Czapla, P. Lesiak, K. Nowecka, A. W. Dománski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, R. Dabrowski, and J. Wójcik, “Polarization effects in photonic liquid crystal fibers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(10), 3061–3069 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dong, X.

Du, F.

F. Du, Y.-Q. Lu, and S.-T. Wu, “Electrically tunable liquid-crystal photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(12), 2181–2183 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Du, J.

Engan, H. E.

M. W. Haakestad, T. T. Alkeskjold, M. D. Nielsen, L. Scolari, J. Riishede, H. E. Engan, and A. Bjarklev, “Electrically Tunable Photonic Bandgap Guidance in a Liquid-Crystal-Filled Photonic Crystal Fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(4), 819–821 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ertman, S.

T. R. Woliński, S. Ertman, A. Czapla, P. Lesiak, K. Nowecka, A. W. Dománski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, R. Dabrowski, and J. Wójcik, “Polarization effects in photonic liquid crystal fibers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(10), 3061–3069 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Wolínski, K. Szaniawska, S. Ertman, P. Lesiak, A. W. Domanski, R. Dabrowski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, and J. Wojcik, “Influence of temperature and electrical fields on propagation properties of photonic liquid-crystal fibres,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(5), 985–991 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Eskildsen, L.

Faetti, S.

J. Li, S.-T. Wu, S. Brugioni, R. Meucci, and S. Faetti, “Infrared refractive indices of liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(7), 073501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fuh, A. Y.-G.

L.-C. Lin, H.-C. Jau, T.-H. Lin, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Highly efficient and polarization-independent Fresnel lens based on dye-doped liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 15(6), 2900–2906 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-Y. Huang, S.-T. Wu, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Optically switchable twist nematic grating based on a dye-doped liquid crystal film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(4), 041104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T.-H. Lin, H.-C. Jau, S.-Y. Hung, H.-R. Fuh, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Photoaddressable bistable reflective liquid crystal display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(2), 021116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fuh, H.-R.

T.-H. Lin, H.-C. Jau, S.-Y. Hung, H.-R. Fuh, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Photoaddressable bistable reflective liquid crystal display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(2), 021116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Haakestad, M. W.

M. W. Haakestad, T. T. Alkeskjold, M. D. Nielsen, L. Scolari, J. Riishede, H. E. Engan, and A. Bjarklev, “Electrically Tunable Photonic Bandgap Guidance in a Liquid-Crystal-Filled Photonic Crystal Fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(4), 819–821 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hermann, D. S.

Hsiao, V. K. S.

V. K. S. Hsiao and C.-Y. Ko, “Light-controllable photoresponsive liquid-crystal photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 17, 12670–12676 (2007).

Huang, S.-Y.

S.-Y. Huang, S.-T. Wu, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Optically switchable twist nematic grating based on a dye-doped liquid crystal film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(4), 041104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hung, S.-Y.

T.-H. Lin, H.-C. Jau, S.-Y. Hung, H.-R. Fuh, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Photoaddressable bistable reflective liquid crystal display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(2), 021116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jau, H.-C.

L.-C. Lin, H.-C. Jau, T.-H. Lin, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Highly efficient and polarization-independent Fresnel lens based on dye-doped liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 15(6), 2900–2906 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.-H. Lin, H.-C. Jau, S.-Y. Hung, H.-R. Fuh, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Photoaddressable bistable reflective liquid crystal display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(2), 021116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jin, W.

Kitzerow, H.-S.

Ko, C.-Y.

V. K. S. Hsiao and C.-Y. Ko, “Light-controllable photoresponsive liquid-crystal photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 17, 12670–12676 (2007).

Kobelke, J.

Laegsgaard, J.

Lægsgaard, J.

Larsen, T. T.

Lesiak, P.

T. R. Woliński, S. Ertman, A. Czapla, P. Lesiak, K. Nowecka, A. W. Dománski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, R. Dabrowski, and J. Wójcik, “Polarization effects in photonic liquid crystal fibers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(10), 3061–3069 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Wolínski, K. Szaniawska, S. Ertman, P. Lesiak, A. W. Domanski, R. Dabrowski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, and J. Wojcik, “Influence of temperature and electrical fields on propagation properties of photonic liquid-crystal fibres,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(5), 985–991 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

Lin, L.-C.

Lin, T.-H.

L.-C. Lin, H.-C. Jau, T.-H. Lin, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Highly efficient and polarization-independent Fresnel lens based on dye-doped liquid crystal,” Opt. Express 15(6), 2900–2906 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.-H. Lin, H.-C. Jau, S.-Y. Hung, H.-R. Fuh, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Photoaddressable bistable reflective liquid crystal display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(2), 021116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, B.

Liu, Y.

Lorenz, A.

Lu, Y.-Q.

F. Du, Y.-Q. Lu, and S.-T. Wu, “Electrically tunable liquid-crystal photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(12), 2181–2183 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Meucci, R.

J. Li, S.-T. Wu, S. Brugioni, R. Meucci, and S. Faetti, “Infrared refractive indices of liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(7), 073501 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, M.

Nielsen, M. D.

M. W. Haakestad, T. T. Alkeskjold, M. D. Nielsen, L. Scolari, J. Riishede, H. E. Engan, and A. Bjarklev, “Electrically Tunable Photonic Bandgap Guidance in a Liquid-Crystal-Filled Photonic Crystal Fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(4), 819–821 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Noordegraaf, D.

Nowecka, K.

T. R. Woliński, S. Ertman, A. Czapla, P. Lesiak, K. Nowecka, A. W. Dománski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, R. Dabrowski, and J. Wójcik, “Polarization effects in photonic liquid crystal fibers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(10), 3061–3069 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, E.

T. R. Woliński, S. Ertman, A. Czapla, P. Lesiak, K. Nowecka, A. W. Dománski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, R. Dabrowski, and J. Wójcik, “Polarization effects in photonic liquid crystal fibers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(10), 3061–3069 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Wolínski, K. Szaniawska, S. Ertman, P. Lesiak, A. W. Domanski, R. Dabrowski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, and J. Wojcik, “Influence of temperature and electrical fields on propagation properties of photonic liquid-crystal fibres,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(5), 985–991 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Riishede, J.

L. Scolari, T. T. Alkeskjold, J. Riishede, A. Bjarklev, D. S. Hermann, A. Anawati, M. Nielsen, and P. Bassi, “Continuously tunable devices based on electrical control of dual-frequency liquid crystal filled photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express 13(19), 7483–7496 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Haakestad, T. T. Alkeskjold, M. D. Nielsen, L. Scolari, J. Riishede, H. E. Engan, and A. Bjarklev, “Electrically Tunable Photonic Bandgap Guidance in a Liquid-Crystal-Filled Photonic Crystal Fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(4), 819–821 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rindorf, L.

Russell, P.

P. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science 299(5605), 358–362 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwuchow, A.

Scolari, L.

Szaniawska, K.

T. R. Wolínski, K. Szaniawska, S. Ertman, P. Lesiak, A. W. Domanski, R. Dabrowski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, and J. Wojcik, “Influence of temperature and electrical fields on propagation properties of photonic liquid-crystal fibres,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(5), 985–991 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tanggaard Alkeskjold, T.

Tartarini, G.

Wang, Y.

Wang, Z.

Wei, L.

Weirich, J.

Wojcik, J.

T. R. Wolínski, K. Szaniawska, S. Ertman, P. Lesiak, A. W. Domanski, R. Dabrowski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, and J. Wojcik, “Influence of temperature and electrical fields on propagation properties of photonic liquid-crystal fibres,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(5), 985–991 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wójcik, J.

T. R. Woliński, S. Ertman, A. Czapla, P. Lesiak, K. Nowecka, A. W. Dománski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, R. Dabrowski, and J. Wójcik, “Polarization effects in photonic liquid crystal fibers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(10), 3061–3069 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wolinski, T. R.

T. R. Woliński, S. Ertman, A. Czapla, P. Lesiak, K. Nowecka, A. W. Dománski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, R. Dabrowski, and J. Wójcik, “Polarization effects in photonic liquid crystal fibers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(10), 3061–3069 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wolínski, T. R.

T. R. Wolínski, K. Szaniawska, S. Ertman, P. Lesiak, A. W. Domanski, R. Dabrowski, E. Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, and J. Wojcik, “Influence of temperature and electrical fields on propagation properties of photonic liquid-crystal fibres,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(5), 985–991 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

F. Du, Y.-Q. Lu, and S.-T. Wu, “Electrically tunable liquid-crystal photonic crystal fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(12), 2181–2183 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

M. W. Haakestad, T. T. Alkeskjold, M. D. Nielsen, L. Scolari, J. Riishede, H. E. Engan, and A. Bjarklev, “Electrically Tunable Photonic Bandgap Guidance in a Liquid-Crystal-Filled Photonic Crystal Fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(4), 819–821 (2005).
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J. Li, S.-T. Wu, S. Brugioni, R. Meucci, and S. Faetti, “Infrared refractive indices of liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(7), 073501 (2005).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for obtaining transmission spectra of PLCFs with an optical and electric field. SMF:single mode fiber, PCF:photonic crystal fiber, PLCF:photonic liquid crystal fiber.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmission spectrum of photonic liquid crystal fibers to which is applied (a) 60 to 130V, (b) 160 to 240V and (c) 250 to 400V; its corresponding band-edge shifts of (d) short wavelength edge, (e) dip, and (f) long wavelength edge.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmission spectrum of photo-aligned photonic liquid crystal fibers to which is applied (a) 60 to 120V, (b) 160 to 200V and (c) 250 to 400V; corresponding band-edge shift of (d) short wavelength edge, (e) dip, and (f) long wavelength edge.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Images of photo-aligned PLCF under crossed POM with illumination for (a) 0 min and (b) 170 min. (c) and (d) show the transmission spectrum and band edge shifting of photo-aligned PLCF. A: analyzer, P: polarizer.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Rise time and (b) fall time of photo-aligned photonic liquid crystal fibers at an applied voltage of 400V, 1kHz.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Polarization-dependence of photo-aligned PLCF (a) without (b) under applied electric field of 400V.

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