Abstract

A method for three-dimensional 3-D optical distortion (refraction) correction on anterior segment Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) images has been developed. The method consists of 3-D ray tracing through the different surfaces, following denoising, segmentation of the surfaces, Delaunay representation of the surfaces, and application of fan distortion correction. The correction has been applied theoretically to realistic computer eye models, and experimentally to OCT images of: an artificial eye with a Polymethyl Methacrylate (PMMA) cornea and an intraocular lens (IOL), an enucleated porcine eye, and a human eye in vivo obtained from two OCT laboratory set-ups (time domain and spectral). Data are analyzed in terms of surface radii of curvature and asphericity. Comparisons are established between the reference values for the surfaces (nominal values in the computer model; non-contact profilometric measurements for the artificial eye; Scheimpflug imaging for the real eyes in vivo and vitro). The results from the OCT data were analyzed following the conventional approach of dividing the optical path by the refractive index, after application of 2-D optical correction, and 3-D optical correction (in all cases after fan distortion correction). The application of 3-D optical distortion correction increased significantly both the accuracy of the radius of curvature estimates and particularly asphericity of the surfaces, with respect to conventional methods of OCT image analysis. We found that the discrepancies of the radii of curvature estimates from 3-D optical distortion corrected OCT images are less than 1% with respect to nominal values. Optical distortion correction in 3-D is critical for quantitative analysis of OCT anterior segment imaging, and allows accurate topography of the internal surfaces of the eye.

© 2010 OSA

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    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

A. Pérez-Escudero, C. Dorronsoro, L. Sawides, L. Remón, J. Merayo-Lloves, and S. Marcos, “Minor Influence of Myopic Laser in Situ Keratomileusis on the Posterior Corneal Surface,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(9), 4146–4154 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Grulkowski, M. Gora, M. Szkulmowski, I. Gorczynska, D. Szlag, S. Marcos, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Anterior segment imaging with Spectral OCT system using a high-speed CMOS camera,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4842–4858 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-6-4842 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Rosales and S. Marcos, “Pentacam Scheimpflug Quantative Imaging of the crystalline lens and intraocular lens,” J. Refract. Surg. 25, 421–428 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Ortiz, D. Siedlecki, L. Remon, and S. Marcos, “Optical Coherence Tomography for quantitative surface topography,” Appl. Opt. 48(35), 6708–6715 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Gora, K. Karnowski, M. Szkulmowski, B. J. Kaluzny, R. Huber, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Ultra high-speed swept source OCT imaging of the anterior segment of human eye at 200 kHz with adjustable imaging range,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14880–14894 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-17-14880 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ortiz, D. Siedlecki, L. Remon, and S. Marcos, “Three-dimensional ray tracing on Delaunay-based reconstructed surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 48(20), 3886–3893 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

T. Simpson and D. Fonn, “Optical Coherence Tomography of the Anterior Segment,” Ocul. Surf. 6(3), 117–127 (2008).
[PubMed]

S. Norrby, “Sources of error in intraocular lens power calculation,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 34(3), 368–376 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

A. de Castro, P. Rosales, and S. Marcos, “Tilt and decentration of intraocular lenses in vivo from Purkinje and Scheimpflug imaging. Validation study,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 33(3), 418–429 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Marcos, P. Rosales, L. Llorente, and I. Jiménez-Alfaro, “Change in corneal aberrations after cataract surgery with two types of aspherical intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 33(2), 217–226 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Rosales and S. Marcos, “Customized computer models of eyes with intraocular lenses,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2204–2218 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-5-2204 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

P. Rosales, M. Dubbelman, S. Marcos, and G. L. van der Heijde, “Crystalline lens radii of curvature from Purkinje and Scheimpflug imaging,” J. Vis. 6(10), 1057–1067 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Rosales and S. Marcos, “Phakometry and lens tilt and decentration using a custom-developed Purkinje imaging apparatus: validation and measurements,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(3), 509–520 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Haskell, D. Liao, A. E. Pivonka, T. L. Bell, B. R. Haberle, B. M. Hoeling, and D. C. Petersen, “Role of beat noise in limiting the sensitivity of optical coherence tomography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(11), 2747–2755 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

H. Lim, Y. Jiang, Y. Wang, Y.-C. Huang, Z. Chen, and F. W. Wise, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography with a fiber laser source at 1 µm,” Opt. Lett. 30(10), 1171–1173 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Dubbelman, G. L. Van der Heijde, and H. A. Weeber, “Change in shape of the aging human crystalline lens with accommodation,” Vision Res. 45(1), 117–132 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

A. Podoleanu, I. Charalambous, L. Plesea, A. Dogariu, and R. Rosen, “Correction of distortions in optical coherence tomography imaging of the eye,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(7), 1277–1294 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

G. Smith, “The optical properties of the crystalline lens and their significance,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 86(1), 3–18 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Choma, M. Sarunic, C. Yang, and J. Izatt, “Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(18), 2183–2189 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-18-2183 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, “Performance of Fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(8), 889–894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, T. Bajraszewski, P. Targowski, and A. Kowalczyk, “Real-time in vivo imaging by high-speed spectral optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 28(19), 1745–1747 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Bizheva, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, M. Mei, R. Holzwarth, T. Hoelzenbein, V. Wacheck, and H. Pehamberger, “Compact, broad-bandwidth fiber laser for sub-2-microm axial resolution optical coherence tomography in the 1300-nm wavelength region,” Opt. Lett. 28(9), 707–709 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Unterhuber, B. Považay, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, V. Yakovlev, G. Tempea, C. Schubert, E. M. Anger, P. K. Ahnelt, M. Stur, J. E. Morgan, A. Cowey, G. Jung, T. Le, and A. Stingl, “Compact, low-cost Ti:Al2O3 laser for in vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 28(11), 905–907 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

M. Dubbelman, H. A. Weeber, R. G. van der Heijde, and H. J. Völker-Dieben, “Radius and asphericity of the posterior corneal surface determined by corrected Scheimpflug photography,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 80(4), 379–383 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A. Moffat, D. A. Atchison, and J. M. Pope, “Age-related changes in refractive index distribution and power of the human lens as measured by magnetic resonance micro-imaging in vitro,” Vision Res. 42(13), 1683–1693 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Rogowska and M. E. Brezinski, “Image processing techniques for noise removal, enhancement and segmentation of cartilage OCT images,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(4), 641–655 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Westphal, A. M. Rollins, S. Radhakrishnan, and J. A. Izatt, “Correction of geometric and refractive image distortions in optical coherence tomography applying Fermat’s principle,” Opt. Express 10(9), 397–404 (2002), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-10-9-397 .
[PubMed]

X. Wang, C. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. Xue, and J. Tian, “Simultaneous refractive index and thickness measurements of bio tissue by optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(4), 628–632 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Povazay, K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, A. Apolonski, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, M. Vetterlein, and E. Scherzer, “Submicrometer axial resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 27(20), 1800–1802 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

S. Radhakrishnan, A. M. Rollins, J. E. Roth, S. Yazdanfar, V. Westphal, D. S. Bardenstein, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-Time Optical Coherence Tomography of the Anterior Segment at 1310 nm,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 119(8), 1179–1185 (2001).
[PubMed]

E. Moreno-Barriuso, J. M. Lloves, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, L. Llorente, and S. Barbero, “Ocular aberrations before and after myopic corneal refractive surgery: LASIK-induced changes measured with Laser Ray Tracing,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 42(6), 1396–1403 (2001).
[PubMed]

2000

A. G. Podoleanu, “Unbalanced versus Balanced Operation in an Optical Coherence Tomography System,” Appl. Opt. 39(1), 173–182 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

I. Takada, “Noise in Optical Low-Coherence Reflectrometry,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(7), 1098–1108 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1992

C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, and A. F. Fercher, “Measurement of corneal thickness by laser Doppler interferometry,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 33(1), 98–103 (1992).
[PubMed]

1991

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1950

J. B. Keller and H. B. Keller, “Determination of reflected and transmitted fields by geometrical optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 40(1), 48–52 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Ahnelt, P. K.

A. Unterhuber, B. Považay, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, V. Yakovlev, G. Tempea, C. Schubert, E. M. Anger, P. K. Ahnelt, M. Stur, J. E. Morgan, A. Cowey, G. Jung, T. Le, and A. Stingl, “Compact, low-cost Ti:Al2O3 laser for in vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 28(11), 905–907 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anger, E. M.

A. Unterhuber, B. Považay, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, V. Yakovlev, G. Tempea, C. Schubert, E. M. Anger, P. K. Ahnelt, M. Stur, J. E. Morgan, A. Cowey, G. Jung, T. Le, and A. Stingl, “Compact, low-cost Ti:Al2O3 laser for in vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 28(11), 905–907 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Apolonski, A.

B. Povazay, K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, A. Apolonski, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, M. Vetterlein, and E. Scherzer, “Submicrometer axial resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 27(20), 1800–1802 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Atchison, D. A.

B. A. Moffat, D. A. Atchison, and J. M. Pope, “Age-related changes in refractive index distribution and power of the human lens as measured by magnetic resonance micro-imaging in vitro,” Vision Res. 42(13), 1683–1693 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bajraszewski, T.

M. Wojtkowski, T. Bajraszewski, P. Targowski, and A. Kowalczyk, “Real-time in vivo imaging by high-speed spectral optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 28(19), 1745–1747 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barbero, S.

E. Moreno-Barriuso, J. M. Lloves, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, L. Llorente, and S. Barbero, “Ocular aberrations before and after myopic corneal refractive surgery: LASIK-induced changes measured with Laser Ray Tracing,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 42(6), 1396–1403 (2001).
[PubMed]

Bardenstein, D. S.

S. Radhakrishnan, A. M. Rollins, J. E. Roth, S. Yazdanfar, V. Westphal, D. S. Bardenstein, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-Time Optical Coherence Tomography of the Anterior Segment at 1310 nm,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 119(8), 1179–1185 (2001).
[PubMed]

Bell, T. L.

R. C. Haskell, D. Liao, A. E. Pivonka, T. L. Bell, B. R. Haberle, B. M. Hoeling, and D. C. Petersen, “Role of beat noise in limiting the sensitivity of optical coherence tomography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(11), 2747–2755 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bizheva, K.

K. Bizheva, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, M. Mei, R. Holzwarth, T. Hoelzenbein, V. Wacheck, and H. Pehamberger, “Compact, broad-bandwidth fiber laser for sub-2-microm axial resolution optical coherence tomography in the 1300-nm wavelength region,” Opt. Lett. 28(9), 707–709 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Povazay, K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, A. Apolonski, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, M. Vetterlein, and E. Scherzer, “Submicrometer axial resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 27(20), 1800–1802 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Brezinski, M. E.

J. Rogowska and M. E. Brezinski, “Image processing techniques for noise removal, enhancement and segmentation of cartilage OCT images,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(4), 641–655 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Charalambous, I.

A. Podoleanu, I. Charalambous, L. Plesea, A. Dogariu, and R. Rosen, “Correction of distortions in optical coherence tomography imaging of the eye,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(7), 1277–1294 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

H. Lim, Y. Jiang, Y. Wang, Y.-C. Huang, Z. Chen, and F. W. Wise, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography with a fiber laser source at 1 µm,” Opt. Lett. 30(10), 1171–1173 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choma, M.

M. Choma, M. Sarunic, C. Yang, and J. Izatt, “Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(18), 2183–2189 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-18-2183 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cowey, A.

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A. de Castro, P. Rosales, and S. Marcos, “Tilt and decentration of intraocular lenses in vivo from Purkinje and Scheimpflug imaging. Validation study,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 33(3), 418–429 (2007).
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K. Bizheva, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, M. Mei, R. Holzwarth, T. Hoelzenbein, V. Wacheck, and H. Pehamberger, “Compact, broad-bandwidth fiber laser for sub-2-microm axial resolution optical coherence tomography in the 1300-nm wavelength region,” Opt. Lett. 28(9), 707–709 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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P. Rosales, M. Dubbelman, S. Marcos, and G. L. van der Heijde, “Crystalline lens radii of curvature from Purkinje and Scheimpflug imaging,” J. Vis. 6(10), 1057–1067 (2006).
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R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, “Performance of Fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(8), 889–894 (2003).
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B. Povazay, K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, A. Apolonski, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, M. Vetterlein, and E. Scherzer, “Submicrometer axial resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 27(20), 1800–1802 (2002).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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M. Gora, K. Karnowski, M. Szkulmowski, B. J. Kaluzny, R. Huber, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Ultra high-speed swept source OCT imaging of the anterior segment of human eye at 200 kHz with adjustable imaging range,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14880–14894 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-17-14880 .
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I. Grulkowski, M. Gora, M. Szkulmowski, I. Gorczynska, D. Szlag, S. Marcos, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Anterior segment imaging with Spectral OCT system using a high-speed CMOS camera,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4842–4858 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-6-4842 .
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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I. Grulkowski, M. Gora, M. Szkulmowski, I. Gorczynska, D. Szlag, S. Marcos, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Anterior segment imaging with Spectral OCT system using a high-speed CMOS camera,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4842–4858 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-6-4842 .
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R. C. Haskell, D. Liao, A. E. Pivonka, T. L. Bell, B. R. Haberle, B. M. Hoeling, and D. C. Petersen, “Role of beat noise in limiting the sensitivity of optical coherence tomography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(11), 2747–2755 (2006).
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R. C. Haskell, D. Liao, A. E. Pivonka, T. L. Bell, B. R. Haberle, B. M. Hoeling, and D. C. Petersen, “Role of beat noise in limiting the sensitivity of optical coherence tomography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(11), 2747–2755 (2006).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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A. Unterhuber, B. Považay, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, V. Yakovlev, G. Tempea, C. Schubert, E. M. Anger, P. K. Ahnelt, M. Stur, J. E. Morgan, A. Cowey, G. Jung, T. Le, and A. Stingl, “Compact, low-cost Ti:Al2O3 laser for in vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 28(11), 905–907 (2003).
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K. Bizheva, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, M. Mei, R. Holzwarth, T. Hoelzenbein, V. Wacheck, and H. Pehamberger, “Compact, broad-bandwidth fiber laser for sub-2-microm axial resolution optical coherence tomography in the 1300-nm wavelength region,” Opt. Lett. 28(9), 707–709 (2003).
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B. Povazay, K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, A. Apolonski, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, M. Vetterlein, and E. Scherzer, “Submicrometer axial resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 27(20), 1800–1802 (2002).
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R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, “Performance of Fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(8), 889–894 (2003).
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C. K. Hitzenberger, W. Drexler, and A. F. Fercher, “Measurement of corneal thickness by laser Doppler interferometry,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 33(1), 98–103 (1992).
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R. C. Haskell, D. Liao, A. E. Pivonka, T. L. Bell, B. R. Haberle, B. M. Hoeling, and D. C. Petersen, “Role of beat noise in limiting the sensitivity of optical coherence tomography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(11), 2747–2755 (2006).
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K. Bizheva, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, M. Mei, R. Holzwarth, T. Hoelzenbein, V. Wacheck, and H. Pehamberger, “Compact, broad-bandwidth fiber laser for sub-2-microm axial resolution optical coherence tomography in the 1300-nm wavelength region,” Opt. Lett. 28(9), 707–709 (2003).
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K. Bizheva, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, M. Mei, R. Holzwarth, T. Hoelzenbein, V. Wacheck, and H. Pehamberger, “Compact, broad-bandwidth fiber laser for sub-2-microm axial resolution optical coherence tomography in the 1300-nm wavelength region,” Opt. Lett. 28(9), 707–709 (2003).
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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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H. Lim, Y. Jiang, Y. Wang, Y.-C. Huang, Z. Chen, and F. W. Wise, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography with a fiber laser source at 1 µm,” Opt. Lett. 30(10), 1171–1173 (2005).
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M. Gora, K. Karnowski, M. Szkulmowski, B. J. Kaluzny, R. Huber, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Ultra high-speed swept source OCT imaging of the anterior segment of human eye at 200 kHz with adjustable imaging range,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14880–14894 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-17-14880 .
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M. Choma, M. Sarunic, C. Yang, and J. Izatt, “Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(18), 2183–2189 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-18-2183 .
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H. Lim, Y. Jiang, Y. Wang, Y.-C. Huang, Z. Chen, and F. W. Wise, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography with a fiber laser source at 1 µm,” Opt. Lett. 30(10), 1171–1173 (2005).
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S. Marcos, P. Rosales, L. Llorente, and I. Jiménez-Alfaro, “Change in corneal aberrations after cataract surgery with two types of aspherical intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 33(2), 217–226 (2007).
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A. Unterhuber, B. Považay, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, V. Yakovlev, G. Tempea, C. Schubert, E. M. Anger, P. K. Ahnelt, M. Stur, J. E. Morgan, A. Cowey, G. Jung, T. Le, and A. Stingl, “Compact, low-cost Ti:Al2O3 laser for in vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 28(11), 905–907 (2003).
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M. Gora, K. Karnowski, M. Szkulmowski, B. J. Kaluzny, R. Huber, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Ultra high-speed swept source OCT imaging of the anterior segment of human eye at 200 kHz with adjustable imaging range,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14880–14894 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-17-14880 .
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M. Gora, K. Karnowski, M. Szkulmowski, B. J. Kaluzny, R. Huber, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Ultra high-speed swept source OCT imaging of the anterior segment of human eye at 200 kHz with adjustable imaging range,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14880–14894 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-17-14880 .
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B. Povazay, K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, A. Apolonski, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, M. Vetterlein, and E. Scherzer, “Submicrometer axial resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 27(20), 1800–1802 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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M. Gora, K. Karnowski, M. Szkulmowski, B. J. Kaluzny, R. Huber, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Ultra high-speed swept source OCT imaging of the anterior segment of human eye at 200 kHz with adjustable imaging range,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14880–14894 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-17-14880 .
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I. Grulkowski, M. Gora, M. Szkulmowski, I. Gorczynska, D. Szlag, S. Marcos, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Anterior segment imaging with Spectral OCT system using a high-speed CMOS camera,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4842–4858 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-6-4842 .
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A. Unterhuber, B. Považay, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, V. Yakovlev, G. Tempea, C. Schubert, E. M. Anger, P. K. Ahnelt, M. Stur, J. E. Morgan, A. Cowey, G. Jung, T. Le, and A. Stingl, “Compact, low-cost Ti:Al2O3 laser for in vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 28(11), 905–907 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, “Performance of Fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(8), 889–894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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R. C. Haskell, D. Liao, A. E. Pivonka, T. L. Bell, B. R. Haberle, B. M. Hoeling, and D. C. Petersen, “Role of beat noise in limiting the sensitivity of optical coherence tomography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(11), 2747–2755 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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H. Lim, Y. Jiang, Y. Wang, Y.-C. Huang, Z. Chen, and F. W. Wise, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography with a fiber laser source at 1 µm,” Opt. Lett. 30(10), 1171–1173 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
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S. Marcos, P. Rosales, L. Llorente, and I. Jiménez-Alfaro, “Change in corneal aberrations after cataract surgery with two types of aspherical intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 33(2), 217–226 (2007).
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E. Moreno-Barriuso, J. M. Lloves, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, L. Llorente, and S. Barbero, “Ocular aberrations before and after myopic corneal refractive surgery: LASIK-induced changes measured with Laser Ray Tracing,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 42(6), 1396–1403 (2001).
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E. Moreno-Barriuso, J. M. Lloves, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, L. Llorente, and S. Barbero, “Ocular aberrations before and after myopic corneal refractive surgery: LASIK-induced changes measured with Laser Ray Tracing,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 42(6), 1396–1403 (2001).
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S. Ortiz, D. Siedlecki, L. Remon, and S. Marcos, “Three-dimensional ray tracing on Delaunay-based reconstructed surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 48(20), 3886–3893 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pérez-Escudero, C. Dorronsoro, L. Sawides, L. Remón, J. Merayo-Lloves, and S. Marcos, “Minor Influence of Myopic Laser in Situ Keratomileusis on the Posterior Corneal Surface,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(9), 4146–4154 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Grulkowski, M. Gora, M. Szkulmowski, I. Gorczynska, D. Szlag, S. Marcos, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Anterior segment imaging with Spectral OCT system using a high-speed CMOS camera,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4842–4858 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-6-4842 .
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S. Ortiz, D. Siedlecki, L. Remon, and S. Marcos, “Optical Coherence Tomography for quantitative surface topography,” Appl. Opt. 48(35), 6708–6715 (2009).
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A. de Castro, P. Rosales, and S. Marcos, “Tilt and decentration of intraocular lenses in vivo from Purkinje and Scheimpflug imaging. Validation study,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 33(3), 418–429 (2007).
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S. Marcos, P. Rosales, L. Llorente, and I. Jiménez-Alfaro, “Change in corneal aberrations after cataract surgery with two types of aspherical intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 33(2), 217–226 (2007).
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P. Rosales and S. Marcos, “Phakometry and lens tilt and decentration using a custom-developed Purkinje imaging apparatus: validation and measurements,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(3), 509–520 (2006).
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P. Rosales, M. Dubbelman, S. Marcos, and G. L. van der Heijde, “Crystalline lens radii of curvature from Purkinje and Scheimpflug imaging,” J. Vis. 6(10), 1057–1067 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Moreno-Barriuso, J. M. Lloves, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, L. Llorente, and S. Barbero, “Ocular aberrations before and after myopic corneal refractive surgery: LASIK-induced changes measured with Laser Ray Tracing,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 42(6), 1396–1403 (2001).
[PubMed]

Mei, M.

K. Bizheva, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, M. Mei, R. Holzwarth, T. Hoelzenbein, V. Wacheck, and H. Pehamberger, “Compact, broad-bandwidth fiber laser for sub-2-microm axial resolution optical coherence tomography in the 1300-nm wavelength region,” Opt. Lett. 28(9), 707–709 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Merayo-Lloves, J.

A. Pérez-Escudero, C. Dorronsoro, L. Sawides, L. Remón, J. Merayo-Lloves, and S. Marcos, “Minor Influence of Myopic Laser in Situ Keratomileusis on the Posterior Corneal Surface,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(9), 4146–4154 (2009).
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B. A. Moffat, D. A. Atchison, and J. M. Pope, “Age-related changes in refractive index distribution and power of the human lens as measured by magnetic resonance micro-imaging in vitro,” Vision Res. 42(13), 1683–1693 (2002).
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E. Moreno-Barriuso, J. M. Lloves, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, L. Llorente, and S. Barbero, “Ocular aberrations before and after myopic corneal refractive surgery: LASIK-induced changes measured with Laser Ray Tracing,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 42(6), 1396–1403 (2001).
[PubMed]

Morgan, J. E.

A. Unterhuber, B. Považay, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, V. Yakovlev, G. Tempea, C. Schubert, E. M. Anger, P. K. Ahnelt, M. Stur, J. E. Morgan, A. Cowey, G. Jung, T. Le, and A. Stingl, “Compact, low-cost Ti:Al2O3 laser for in vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 28(11), 905–907 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Navarro, R.

E. Moreno-Barriuso, J. M. Lloves, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, L. Llorente, and S. Barbero, “Ocular aberrations before and after myopic corneal refractive surgery: LASIK-induced changes measured with Laser Ray Tracing,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 42(6), 1396–1403 (2001).
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S. Norrby, “Sources of error in intraocular lens power calculation,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 34(3), 368–376 (2008).
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S. Ortiz, D. Siedlecki, L. Remon, and S. Marcos, “Three-dimensional ray tracing on Delaunay-based reconstructed surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 48(20), 3886–3893 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ortiz, D. Siedlecki, L. Remon, and S. Marcos, “Optical Coherence Tomography for quantitative surface topography,” Appl. Opt. 48(35), 6708–6715 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pehamberger, H.

K. Bizheva, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, M. Mei, R. Holzwarth, T. Hoelzenbein, V. Wacheck, and H. Pehamberger, “Compact, broad-bandwidth fiber laser for sub-2-microm axial resolution optical coherence tomography in the 1300-nm wavelength region,” Opt. Lett. 28(9), 707–709 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pérez-Escudero, A.

A. Pérez-Escudero, C. Dorronsoro, L. Sawides, L. Remón, J. Merayo-Lloves, and S. Marcos, “Minor Influence of Myopic Laser in Situ Keratomileusis on the Posterior Corneal Surface,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(9), 4146–4154 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petersen, D. C.

R. C. Haskell, D. Liao, A. E. Pivonka, T. L. Bell, B. R. Haberle, B. M. Hoeling, and D. C. Petersen, “Role of beat noise in limiting the sensitivity of optical coherence tomography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(11), 2747–2755 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pivonka, A. E.

R. C. Haskell, D. Liao, A. E. Pivonka, T. L. Bell, B. R. Haberle, B. M. Hoeling, and D. C. Petersen, “Role of beat noise in limiting the sensitivity of optical coherence tomography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(11), 2747–2755 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Plesea, L.

A. Podoleanu, I. Charalambous, L. Plesea, A. Dogariu, and R. Rosen, “Correction of distortions in optical coherence tomography imaging of the eye,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(7), 1277–1294 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Podoleanu, A.

A. Podoleanu, I. Charalambous, L. Plesea, A. Dogariu, and R. Rosen, “Correction of distortions in optical coherence tomography imaging of the eye,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(7), 1277–1294 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Podoleanu, A. G.

A. G. Podoleanu, “Unbalanced versus Balanced Operation in an Optical Coherence Tomography System,” Appl. Opt. 39(1), 173–182 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pope, J. M.

B. A. Moffat, D. A. Atchison, and J. M. Pope, “Age-related changes in refractive index distribution and power of the human lens as measured by magnetic resonance micro-imaging in vitro,” Vision Res. 42(13), 1683–1693 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Povazay, B.

K. Bizheva, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, M. Mei, R. Holzwarth, T. Hoelzenbein, V. Wacheck, and H. Pehamberger, “Compact, broad-bandwidth fiber laser for sub-2-microm axial resolution optical coherence tomography in the 1300-nm wavelength region,” Opt. Lett. 28(9), 707–709 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Povazay, K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, A. Apolonski, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, M. Vetterlein, and E. Scherzer, “Submicrometer axial resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 27(20), 1800–1802 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Považay, B.

A. Unterhuber, B. Považay, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, V. Yakovlev, G. Tempea, C. Schubert, E. M. Anger, P. K. Ahnelt, M. Stur, J. E. Morgan, A. Cowey, G. Jung, T. Le, and A. Stingl, “Compact, low-cost Ti:Al2O3 laser for in vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 28(11), 905–907 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radhakrishnan, S.

V. Westphal, A. M. Rollins, S. Radhakrishnan, and J. A. Izatt, “Correction of geometric and refractive image distortions in optical coherence tomography applying Fermat’s principle,” Opt. Express 10(9), 397–404 (2002), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-10-9-397 .
[PubMed]

S. Radhakrishnan, A. M. Rollins, J. E. Roth, S. Yazdanfar, V. Westphal, D. S. Bardenstein, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-Time Optical Coherence Tomography of the Anterior Segment at 1310 nm,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 119(8), 1179–1185 (2001).
[PubMed]

Remon, L.

S. Ortiz, D. Siedlecki, L. Remon, and S. Marcos, “Three-dimensional ray tracing on Delaunay-based reconstructed surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 48(20), 3886–3893 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ortiz, D. Siedlecki, L. Remon, and S. Marcos, “Optical Coherence Tomography for quantitative surface topography,” Appl. Opt. 48(35), 6708–6715 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Remón, L.

A. Pérez-Escudero, C. Dorronsoro, L. Sawides, L. Remón, J. Merayo-Lloves, and S. Marcos, “Minor Influence of Myopic Laser in Situ Keratomileusis on the Posterior Corneal Surface,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(9), 4146–4154 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rogowska, J.

J. Rogowska and M. E. Brezinski, “Image processing techniques for noise removal, enhancement and segmentation of cartilage OCT images,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(4), 641–655 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rollins, A. M.

V. Westphal, A. M. Rollins, S. Radhakrishnan, and J. A. Izatt, “Correction of geometric and refractive image distortions in optical coherence tomography applying Fermat’s principle,” Opt. Express 10(9), 397–404 (2002), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-10-9-397 .
[PubMed]

S. Radhakrishnan, A. M. Rollins, J. E. Roth, S. Yazdanfar, V. Westphal, D. S. Bardenstein, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-Time Optical Coherence Tomography of the Anterior Segment at 1310 nm,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 119(8), 1179–1185 (2001).
[PubMed]

Rosales, P.

P. Rosales and S. Marcos, “Pentacam Scheimpflug Quantative Imaging of the crystalline lens and intraocular lens,” J. Refract. Surg. 25, 421–428 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Rosales and S. Marcos, “Customized computer models of eyes with intraocular lenses,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2204–2218 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-5-2204 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. de Castro, P. Rosales, and S. Marcos, “Tilt and decentration of intraocular lenses in vivo from Purkinje and Scheimpflug imaging. Validation study,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 33(3), 418–429 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Marcos, P. Rosales, L. Llorente, and I. Jiménez-Alfaro, “Change in corneal aberrations after cataract surgery with two types of aspherical intraocular lenses,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 33(2), 217–226 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Rosales and S. Marcos, “Phakometry and lens tilt and decentration using a custom-developed Purkinje imaging apparatus: validation and measurements,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23(3), 509–520 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Rosales, M. Dubbelman, S. Marcos, and G. L. van der Heijde, “Crystalline lens radii of curvature from Purkinje and Scheimpflug imaging,” J. Vis. 6(10), 1057–1067 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosen, R.

A. Podoleanu, I. Charalambous, L. Plesea, A. Dogariu, and R. Rosen, “Correction of distortions in optical coherence tomography imaging of the eye,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49(7), 1277–1294 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roth, J. E.

S. Radhakrishnan, A. M. Rollins, J. E. Roth, S. Yazdanfar, V. Westphal, D. S. Bardenstein, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-Time Optical Coherence Tomography of the Anterior Segment at 1310 nm,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 119(8), 1179–1185 (2001).
[PubMed]

Russell, P. St. J.

B. Povazay, K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, A. Apolonski, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, M. Vetterlein, and E. Scherzer, “Submicrometer axial resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 27(20), 1800–1802 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sarunic, M.

M. Choma, M. Sarunic, C. Yang, and J. Izatt, “Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(18), 2183–2189 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-18-2183 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sattmann, H.

A. Unterhuber, B. Považay, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, V. Yakovlev, G. Tempea, C. Schubert, E. M. Anger, P. K. Ahnelt, M. Stur, J. E. Morgan, A. Cowey, G. Jung, T. Le, and A. Stingl, “Compact, low-cost Ti:Al2O3 laser for in vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 28(11), 905–907 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Bizheva, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, M. Mei, R. Holzwarth, T. Hoelzenbein, V. Wacheck, and H. Pehamberger, “Compact, broad-bandwidth fiber laser for sub-2-microm axial resolution optical coherence tomography in the 1300-nm wavelength region,” Opt. Lett. 28(9), 707–709 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Povazay, K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, A. Apolonski, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, M. Vetterlein, and E. Scherzer, “Submicrometer axial resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 27(20), 1800–1802 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sawides, L.

A. Pérez-Escudero, C. Dorronsoro, L. Sawides, L. Remón, J. Merayo-Lloves, and S. Marcos, “Minor Influence of Myopic Laser in Situ Keratomileusis on the Posterior Corneal Surface,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(9), 4146–4154 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scherzer, E.

B. Povazay, K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, A. Apolonski, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, M. Vetterlein, and E. Scherzer, “Submicrometer axial resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 27(20), 1800–1802 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, C.

A. Unterhuber, B. Považay, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, V. Yakovlev, G. Tempea, C. Schubert, E. M. Anger, P. K. Ahnelt, M. Stur, J. E. Morgan, A. Cowey, G. Jung, T. Le, and A. Stingl, “Compact, low-cost Ti:Al2O3 laser for in vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 28(11), 905–907 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siedlecki, D.

S. Ortiz, D. Siedlecki, L. Remon, and S. Marcos, “Three-dimensional ray tracing on Delaunay-based reconstructed surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 48(20), 3886–3893 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ortiz, D. Siedlecki, L. Remon, and S. Marcos, “Optical Coherence Tomography for quantitative surface topography,” Appl. Opt. 48(35), 6708–6715 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simpson, T.

T. Simpson and D. Fonn, “Optical Coherence Tomography of the Anterior Segment,” Ocul. Surf. 6(3), 117–127 (2008).
[PubMed]

Smith, G.

G. Smith, “The optical properties of the crystalline lens and their significance,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 86(1), 3–18 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stingl, A.

A. Unterhuber, B. Považay, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, V. Yakovlev, G. Tempea, C. Schubert, E. M. Anger, P. K. Ahnelt, M. Stur, J. E. Morgan, A. Cowey, G. Jung, T. Le, and A. Stingl, “Compact, low-cost Ti:Al2O3 laser for in vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 28(11), 905–907 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stur, M.

A. Unterhuber, B. Považay, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, V. Yakovlev, G. Tempea, C. Schubert, E. M. Anger, P. K. Ahnelt, M. Stur, J. E. Morgan, A. Cowey, G. Jung, T. Le, and A. Stingl, “Compact, low-cost Ti:Al2O3 laser for in vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 28(11), 905–907 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szkulmowski, M.

M. Gora, K. Karnowski, M. Szkulmowski, B. J. Kaluzny, R. Huber, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Ultra high-speed swept source OCT imaging of the anterior segment of human eye at 200 kHz with adjustable imaging range,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14880–14894 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-17-14880 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Grulkowski, M. Gora, M. Szkulmowski, I. Gorczynska, D. Szlag, S. Marcos, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Anterior segment imaging with Spectral OCT system using a high-speed CMOS camera,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4842–4858 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-6-4842 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szlag, D.

I. Grulkowski, M. Gora, M. Szkulmowski, I. Gorczynska, D. Szlag, S. Marcos, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Anterior segment imaging with Spectral OCT system using a high-speed CMOS camera,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4842–4858 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-6-4842 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takada, I.

I. Takada, “Noise in Optical Low-Coherence Reflectrometry,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(7), 1098–1108 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Targowski, P.

M. Wojtkowski, T. Bajraszewski, P. Targowski, and A. Kowalczyk, “Real-time in vivo imaging by high-speed spectral optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 28(19), 1745–1747 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tempea, G.

A. Unterhuber, B. Považay, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, V. Yakovlev, G. Tempea, C. Schubert, E. M. Anger, P. K. Ahnelt, M. Stur, J. E. Morgan, A. Cowey, G. Jung, T. Le, and A. Stingl, “Compact, low-cost Ti:Al2O3 laser for in vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 28(11), 905–907 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tian, J.

X. Wang, C. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. Xue, and J. Tian, “Simultaneous refractive index and thickness measurements of bio tissue by optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(4), 628–632 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Unterhuber, A.

A. Unterhuber, B. Považay, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, V. Yakovlev, G. Tempea, C. Schubert, E. M. Anger, P. K. Ahnelt, M. Stur, J. E. Morgan, A. Cowey, G. Jung, T. Le, and A. Stingl, “Compact, low-cost Ti:Al2O3 laser for in vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 28(11), 905–907 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Povazay, K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, A. Apolonski, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, M. Vetterlein, and E. Scherzer, “Submicrometer axial resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 27(20), 1800–1802 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Van der Heijde, G. L.

M. Dubbelman, G. L. Van der Heijde, and H. A. Weeber, “Change in shape of the aging human crystalline lens with accommodation,” Vision Res. 45(1), 117–132 (2005).
[CrossRef]

van der Heijde, G.L.

P. Rosales, M. Dubbelman, S. Marcos, and G. L. van der Heijde, “Crystalline lens radii of curvature from Purkinje and Scheimpflug imaging,” J. Vis. 6(10), 1057–1067 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Heijde, R. G.

M. Dubbelman, H. A. Weeber, R. G. van der Heijde, and H. J. Völker-Dieben, “Radius and asphericity of the posterior corneal surface determined by corrected Scheimpflug photography,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 80(4), 379–383 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vetterlein, M.

B. Povazay, K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, A. Apolonski, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, M. Vetterlein, and E. Scherzer, “Submicrometer axial resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 27(20), 1800–1802 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Völker-Dieben, H. J.

M. Dubbelman, H. A. Weeber, R. G. van der Heijde, and H. J. Völker-Dieben, “Radius and asphericity of the posterior corneal surface determined by corrected Scheimpflug photography,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 80(4), 379–383 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wacheck, V.

K. Bizheva, B. Povazay, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, M. Mei, R. Holzwarth, T. Hoelzenbein, V. Wacheck, and H. Pehamberger, “Compact, broad-bandwidth fiber laser for sub-2-microm axial resolution optical coherence tomography in the 1300-nm wavelength region,” Opt. Lett. 28(9), 707–709 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wadsworth, W. J.

B. Povazay, K. Bizheva, A. Unterhuber, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, A. Apolonski, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, M. Vetterlein, and E. Scherzer, “Submicrometer axial resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 27(20), 1800–1802 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, C. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. Xue, and J. Tian, “Simultaneous refractive index and thickness measurements of bio tissue by optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(4), 628–632 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

H. Lim, Y. Jiang, Y. Wang, Y.-C. Huang, Z. Chen, and F. W. Wise, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography with a fiber laser source at 1 µm,” Opt. Lett. 30(10), 1171–1173 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weeber, H. A.

M. Dubbelman, G. L. Van der Heijde, and H. A. Weeber, “Change in shape of the aging human crystalline lens with accommodation,” Vision Res. 45(1), 117–132 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Dubbelman, H. A. Weeber, R. G. van der Heijde, and H. J. Völker-Dieben, “Radius and asphericity of the posterior corneal surface determined by corrected Scheimpflug photography,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 80(4), 379–383 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Westphal, V.

V. Westphal, A. M. Rollins, S. Radhakrishnan, and J. A. Izatt, “Correction of geometric and refractive image distortions in optical coherence tomography applying Fermat’s principle,” Opt. Express 10(9), 397–404 (2002), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-10-9-397 .
[PubMed]

S. Radhakrishnan, A. M. Rollins, J. E. Roth, S. Yazdanfar, V. Westphal, D. S. Bardenstein, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-Time Optical Coherence Tomography of the Anterior Segment at 1310 nm,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 119(8), 1179–1185 (2001).
[PubMed]

Wise, F. W.

H. Lim, Y. Jiang, Y. Wang, Y.-C. Huang, Z. Chen, and F. W. Wise, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography with a fiber laser source at 1 µm,” Opt. Lett. 30(10), 1171–1173 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wojtkowski, M.

M. Gora, K. Karnowski, M. Szkulmowski, B. J. Kaluzny, R. Huber, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Ultra high-speed swept source OCT imaging of the anterior segment of human eye at 200 kHz with adjustable imaging range,” Opt. Express 17(17), 14880–14894 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-17-14880 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Grulkowski, M. Gora, M. Szkulmowski, I. Gorczynska, D. Szlag, S. Marcos, A. Kowalczyk, and M. Wojtkowski, “Anterior segment imaging with Spectral OCT system using a high-speed CMOS camera,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4842–4858 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-6-4842 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wojtkowski, T. Bajraszewski, P. Targowski, and A. Kowalczyk, “Real-time in vivo imaging by high-speed spectral optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 28(19), 1745–1747 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xue, L.

X. Wang, C. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. Xue, and J. Tian, “Simultaneous refractive index and thickness measurements of bio tissue by optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(4), 628–632 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yakovlev, V.

A. Unterhuber, B. Považay, B. Hermann, H. Sattmann, W. Drexler, V. Yakovlev, G. Tempea, C. Schubert, E. M. Anger, P. K. Ahnelt, M. Stur, J. E. Morgan, A. Cowey, G. Jung, T. Le, and A. Stingl, “Compact, low-cost Ti:Al2O3 laser for in vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 28(11), 905–907 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, C.

M. Choma, M. Sarunic, C. Yang, and J. Izatt, “Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(18), 2183–2189 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-11-18-2183 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yazdanfar, S.

S. Radhakrishnan, A. M. Rollins, J. E. Roth, S. Yazdanfar, V. Westphal, D. S. Bardenstein, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-Time Optical Coherence Tomography of the Anterior Segment at 1310 nm,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 119(8), 1179–1185 (2001).
[PubMed]

Zhang, C.

X. Wang, C. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. Xue, and J. Tian, “Simultaneous refractive index and thickness measurements of bio tissue by optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(4), 628–632 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, L.

X. Wang, C. Zhang, L. Zhang, L. Xue, and J. Tian, “Simultaneous refractive index and thickness measurements of bio tissue by optical coherence tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 7(4), 628–632 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Acta Ophthalmol. Scand.

M. Dubbelman, H. A. Weeber, R. G. van der Heijde, and H. J. Völker-Dieben, “Radius and asphericity of the posterior corneal surface determined by corrected Scheimpflug photography,” Acta Ophthalmol. Scand. 80(4), 379–383 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

S. Ortiz, D. Siedlecki, L. Remon, and S. Marcos, “Optical Coherence Tomography for quantitative surface topography,” Appl. Opt. 48(35), 6708–6715 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ortiz, D. Siedlecki, L. Remon, and S. Marcos, “Three-dimensional ray tracing on Delaunay-based reconstructed surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 48(20), 3886–3893 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Podoleanu, “Unbalanced versus Balanced Operation in an Optical Coherence Tomography System,” Appl. Opt. 39(1), 173–182 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Arch. Ophthalmol.

S. Radhakrishnan, A. M. Rollins, J. E. Roth, S. Yazdanfar, V. Westphal, D. S. Bardenstein, and J. A. Izatt, “Real-Time Optical Coherence Tomography of the Anterior Segment at 1310 nm,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 119(8), 1179–1185 (2001).
[PubMed]

Clin. Exp. Optom.

G. Smith, “The optical properties of the crystalline lens and their significance,” Clin. Exp. Optom. 86(1), 3–18 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

I. Takada, “Noise in Optical Low-Coherence Reflectrometry,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34(7), 1098–1108 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.

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Supplementary Material (5)

» Media 1: AVI (4087 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (4197 KB)     
» Media 3: AVI (4133 KB)     
» Media 4: AVI (3382 KB)     
» Media 5: AVI (1919 KB)     

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Illustration of a scanning system plus a collimation-condensing lens in an anterior segment OCT system. See text for details.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

a) Original segmented surfaces of a human cornea. b) Anterior surface plus incoming rays in blue c) Normals to the surface the surface in red. d) Refracted rays in red and reconstruction of the second surface.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

a) Cross section of an artificial eye composed by a plastic cornea of PMMA and an IOL obtained by the TD-OCT. b) Resultant image after denoising and contrast enhancement (the additional, lower contrast lines are ghost images and easily removed in the segmentation process).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

a) Movie (Media 3) with the data without filtering with the 3-D neighborhood algorithm. b) Movie (Media 4) showing the data after spurious points removal. c) Movie (Media 5) showing the points and the segmented layers.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

a) 2-D representation of all cross sections obtained from the IOL using the TD-OCT. b) 3-D Representation of the surfaces extracted from the IOL, the anterior and the corrected posterior surfaces are wire represented while the raw data without correction is represented by the red discrete points.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

a) 2-D representation of a cross-section obtained from the porcine cornea using the TD-OCT. b) The same cross section corrected using a 2-D ray tracing algorithm. c) 3-D representation of the anterior and posterior surfaces extracted from the porcine cornea. The raw data are represented by a mesh and the corrected posterior surface by solid color.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

a) Movie (Media 1) of the 3-D cloud of points by correcting by the refractive index, b) (Media 2) Correcting in 3-D.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Nominal data for computer eye model used in computer simulations

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Table 2 Retrieved data from the simulated OCT images, with three different type of data processing

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Table 3 IOL and artificial cornea dimensions: values from manufacturer, and estimates from non-contact profilometry and TD-OCT measurements

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Table 4 Anterior and posterior corneal dimensions of an enucleated porcine cornea: estimates from Scheimpflug imaging and TD-OCT measurements

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Table 5 Posterior cornea dimensions of a human eye in vivo: estimates from Scheimpflug imaging and sOCT.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R ¯ i j + 1 = R ¯ i j + L i j T ^ i j j = 0 , ... , m
D i j = j = 0 m n j L i j
T ^ i j + 1 = ( n j n j + 1 ) T ^ i j { ( n j n j + 1 ) T ^ i j N ^ i j 1 ( n j n j + 1 ) 2 [ 1 ( T ^ i j N ^ i j ) 2 ] } N ^ i j
{ { G x h j , G y h j , G z h j } = M h { X j , Y j , Z j } = ( 1 2 0 1 2 ) { X j , Y j , Z j } { G x v j , G y v j , G z v j } = M v { X j , Y j , Z j } = ( 1 / 2 0 1 / 2 ) { X j , Y j , Z j }
G h j ( i ) = [ G x h j ( m , n ) , G y h j ( m , n ) , G z h j ( m , n ) ] G v j ( i ) = [ G x v j ( m , n ) , G y v j ( m , n ) , G z v j ( m , n ) ]
N ^ i j = G ¯ h j ( i ) × G ¯ v j ( i ) G ¯ h j ( i ) × G ¯ v j ( i )
M T = [ 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 ] × [ 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 ] × [ 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 ]

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