Abstract

GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) grown on c-plane vicinal sapphire substrates are fabricated and characterized. Based on the material quality and electrical properties, the LED with a 0.2° tilt sapphire substrate (device A) exhibits the lowest defect density and high performance, while the LED with a 1.0° tilt sapphire (device D) exhibits the highest one. At 2 mA, the extremely enhanced output power of 23.3% indicates of the reduction of defect-related nonradiative recombination centers in active layers for the device A. At 60 mA, the improved value is up to 45.7%. This is primarily caused by the formation of indium quantum dots in MQW which provides an increased quantum efficiency.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. N. C. Chen, C. M. Lin, Y. K. Yang, C. Shen, T. W. Wang, and M. C. Wu, “Measurement of junction temperature in a nitride light-emitting diode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(12), 8779–8782 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. A. Mastro, J. D. Caldwell, R. T. Holm, R. L. Henry, and C. R. Eddy., “Design of Gallium Nitride Resonant Cavity Light-Emitting Diodes on Si Substrates,” Adv. Mater. 20(1), 115–118 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. X. A. Cao, J. A. Teetsov, F. Shahedipour-Sandvik, and S. D. Arthur, “Microstructural origin of leakage current in GaN/InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Cryst. Growth 264(1-3), 172–177 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Lei, K. F. Ludwig, and T. D. Moustakas, “Heteroepitaxy, polymorphism, and faulting in gain thin-films on silicon and sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 74(7), 4430–4437 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. W. Kim, H. Aida, and T. Suzuki, “The effect of a slight mis-orientation angle of c-plane sapphire substrate on surface and crystal quality of MOCVD grown GaN thin films,” Phys. Status Solidi 1(10), 2483–2486 (2004).
  6. D. Lu, D. I. Florescu, D. S. Lee, V. Merai, J. C. Ramer, A. Parekh, and E. A. Armour, “Sapphire substrate misorientation effects on GaN nucleation layer properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 272(1-4), 353–359 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Z. Y. Li, M. H. Lo, C. H. Chiu, P. C. Lin, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Carrier localization degree of In0.2Ga0.8N/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on vicinal sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(1), 013103 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. X. Q. Shen, M. Shimizu, T. Yamamoto, Y. Honda, and H. Okumura, “Characterizations of GaN films and GaN/AlN super-lattice structures grown on vicinal sapphire (0 0 0 1) substrates by RF-MBE,” J. Cryst. Growth 278(1-4), 378–382 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. W. Chuang, C. L. Yu, S. J. Chang, P. C. Chang, J. C. Lin, and T. M. Kuan, “Crystal growth and characterization of AlGaN/GaN heterostructures prepared on vicinal-cut sapphire (0 0 0 1) substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 308(2), 252–257 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Nakamura, N. Yanagita, T. Murata, K. Hoshino, and K. Tadatomo, “Effects of sapphire substrate misorientation on the GaN-based light emitting diode grown by metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy,” Phys. Status Solidi 5(6c), 2007–2009 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. X. Q. Shen, H. Matsuhata, and H. Okumura, “Reduction of the threading dislocation density in GaN films grown on vicinal sapphire (0001) substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(2), 021912 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. X. L. Tong, L. Li, D. S. Zhang, Y. T. Dai, D. J. Lv, K. Ling, Z. X. Liu, P. X. Lu, G. Yang, Z. Y. Yang, and H. Long, “The influences of laser scanning speed on the structural and optical properties of thin GaN films separated from sapphire substrates by excimer laser lift-off,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(4), 045414 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. O. Pursiainen, N. Linder, A. Jaeger, R. Oberschmid, and K. Streubel, “Identification of aging mechanisms in the optical and electrical characteristics of light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(18), 2895–2897 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. M. Shah, Y. L. Li, Th. Gessmann, and E. F. Schubert, “Experimental analysis and theoretical model for anomalously high ideality factors (n>>2) in AlGaN/GaN p-n junction diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(4), 2627–2630 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Xu, M. F. Schubert, A. N. Noemaun, D. Zhu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, H. J. Chung, S. Yoon, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Reduction in efficiency droop, forward voltage, ideality factor, and wavelength shift in polarization-matched GaInN/GaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011113 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. Zhu, J. Xu, A. N. Noemaun, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, and D. D. Koleske, “The origin of the high diode-ideality factors in GaInN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 081113 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  17. F. Rossi, M. Pavesi, M. Meneghini, G. Salviati, M. Manfredi, G. Meneghesso, A. Castaldini, A. Cavallini, L. Rigutti, U. Strass, U. Zehnder, and E. Zanoni, “Influence of short-term low current dc aging on the electrical and optical properties of InGaN blue light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(5), 053104 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. L. Lucia, J. L. Hernandez-Rojas, C. Leon, and I. Martil, “Capacitance measurements of p-n junctions: depletion layer and diffusion capacitance contributions,” Eur. J. Phys. 14, 86–89 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  19. X. M. Zhang, M. Y. Lu, Y. Zhang, L. J. Chen, and Z. L. Wang, “Fabrication of a high-brightness blue-light-emitting diode using a ZnO-nanowire array grown on p-GaN thin film,” Adv. Mater. 21(27), 2767–2770 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  20. C. Y. Zhu, L. F. Feng, C. D. Wang, H. X. Cong, G. Y. Zhang, Z. J. Yang, and Z. Z. Chen, “Negative capacitance in light-emitting devices,” Solid-State Electron. 53(3), 324–328 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. Meneghini, L. R. Trevisanello, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “A review on the reliability of GaN-based LEDs,” IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 8(2), 323–331 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  22. K. S. Ramaiah, Y. K. Su, S. J. Chang, and C. H. Chen, “A comparative study of blue, green and yellow light emitting diode structures grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Solid-State Electron. 50(2), 119–124 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  23. A. F. Phillips, S. J. Sweeney, A. R. Adams, and P. J. A. Thijs, “The temperature dependence of 1.3- and 1.5- m compressively strained InGaAs(P) MQW semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(3), 401–412 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  24. C. H. Yen, Y. J. Liu, K. K. Yu, P. L. Lin, T. P. Chen, L. Y. Chen, T. H. Tsai, and W. C. Liu, “On an AlGaInP-based light-emitting diode with an ITO direct Ohmic contact structure,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(4), 359–361 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  25. A. F. Jarjour, R. A. Oliver, A. Tahraoui, M. J. Kappers, R. A. Taylor, and C. J. Humphreys, “Experimental and theoretical study of the quantum-confined Stark effect in a single InGaN/GaN quantum dot under applied vertical electric field,” Superlattices Microstruct. 43(5-6), 431–435 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (7)

Z. Y. Li, M. H. Lo, C. H. Chiu, P. C. Lin, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Carrier localization degree of In0.2Ga0.8N/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on vicinal sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(1), 013103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. L. Tong, L. Li, D. S. Zhang, Y. T. Dai, D. J. Lv, K. Ling, Z. X. Liu, P. X. Lu, G. Yang, Z. Y. Yang, and H. Long, “The influences of laser scanning speed on the structural and optical properties of thin GaN films separated from sapphire substrates by excimer laser lift-off,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(4), 045414 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Xu, M. F. Schubert, A. N. Noemaun, D. Zhu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, H. J. Chung, S. Yoon, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Reduction in efficiency droop, forward voltage, ideality factor, and wavelength shift in polarization-matched GaInN/GaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhu, J. Xu, A. N. Noemaun, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, and D. D. Koleske, “The origin of the high diode-ideality factors in GaInN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 081113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. M. Zhang, M. Y. Lu, Y. Zhang, L. J. Chen, and Z. L. Wang, “Fabrication of a high-brightness blue-light-emitting diode using a ZnO-nanowire array grown on p-GaN thin film,” Adv. Mater. 21(27), 2767–2770 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Zhu, L. F. Feng, C. D. Wang, H. X. Cong, G. Y. Zhang, Z. J. Yang, and Z. Z. Chen, “Negative capacitance in light-emitting devices,” Solid-State Electron. 53(3), 324–328 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Yen, Y. J. Liu, K. K. Yu, P. L. Lin, T. P. Chen, L. Y. Chen, T. H. Tsai, and W. C. Liu, “On an AlGaInP-based light-emitting diode with an ITO direct Ohmic contact structure,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(4), 359–361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (5)

A. F. Jarjour, R. A. Oliver, A. Tahraoui, M. J. Kappers, R. A. Taylor, and C. J. Humphreys, “Experimental and theoretical study of the quantum-confined Stark effect in a single InGaN/GaN quantum dot under applied vertical electric field,” Superlattices Microstruct. 43(5-6), 431–435 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Meneghini, L. R. Trevisanello, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “A review on the reliability of GaN-based LEDs,” IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 8(2), 323–331 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Nakamura, N. Yanagita, T. Murata, K. Hoshino, and K. Tadatomo, “Effects of sapphire substrate misorientation on the GaN-based light emitting diode grown by metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy,” Phys. Status Solidi 5(6c), 2007–2009 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. C. Chen, C. M. Lin, Y. K. Yang, C. Shen, T. W. Wang, and M. C. Wu, “Measurement of junction temperature in a nitride light-emitting diode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(12), 8779–8782 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Mastro, J. D. Caldwell, R. T. Holm, R. L. Henry, and C. R. Eddy., “Design of Gallium Nitride Resonant Cavity Light-Emitting Diodes on Si Substrates,” Adv. Mater. 20(1), 115–118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

R. W. Chuang, C. L. Yu, S. J. Chang, P. C. Chang, J. C. Lin, and T. M. Kuan, “Crystal growth and characterization of AlGaN/GaN heterostructures prepared on vicinal-cut sapphire (0 0 0 1) substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 308(2), 252–257 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

K. S. Ramaiah, Y. K. Su, S. J. Chang, and C. H. Chen, “A comparative study of blue, green and yellow light emitting diode structures grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Solid-State Electron. 50(2), 119–124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Rossi, M. Pavesi, M. Meneghini, G. Salviati, M. Manfredi, G. Meneghesso, A. Castaldini, A. Cavallini, L. Rigutti, U. Strass, U. Zehnder, and E. Zanoni, “Influence of short-term low current dc aging on the electrical and optical properties of InGaN blue light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(5), 053104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

X. Q. Shen, H. Matsuhata, and H. Okumura, “Reduction of the threading dislocation density in GaN films grown on vicinal sapphire (0001) substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(2), 021912 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Q. Shen, M. Shimizu, T. Yamamoto, Y. Honda, and H. Okumura, “Characterizations of GaN films and GaN/AlN super-lattice structures grown on vicinal sapphire (0 0 0 1) substrates by RF-MBE,” J. Cryst. Growth 278(1-4), 378–382 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

S. W. Kim, H. Aida, and T. Suzuki, “The effect of a slight mis-orientation angle of c-plane sapphire substrate on surface and crystal quality of MOCVD grown GaN thin films,” Phys. Status Solidi 1(10), 2483–2486 (2004).

D. Lu, D. I. Florescu, D. S. Lee, V. Merai, J. C. Ramer, A. Parekh, and E. A. Armour, “Sapphire substrate misorientation effects on GaN nucleation layer properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 272(1-4), 353–359 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. A. Cao, J. A. Teetsov, F. Shahedipour-Sandvik, and S. D. Arthur, “Microstructural origin of leakage current in GaN/InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Cryst. Growth 264(1-3), 172–177 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

J. M. Shah, Y. L. Li, Th. Gessmann, and E. F. Schubert, “Experimental analysis and theoretical model for anomalously high ideality factors (n>>2) in AlGaN/GaN p-n junction diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(4), 2627–2630 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

O. Pursiainen, N. Linder, A. Jaeger, R. Oberschmid, and K. Streubel, “Identification of aging mechanisms in the optical and electrical characteristics of light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(18), 2895–2897 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

A. F. Phillips, S. J. Sweeney, A. R. Adams, and P. J. A. Thijs, “The temperature dependence of 1.3- and 1.5- m compressively strained InGaAs(P) MQW semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(3), 401–412 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

M. L. Lucia, J. L. Hernandez-Rojas, C. Leon, and I. Martil, “Capacitance measurements of p-n junctions: depletion layer and diffusion capacitance contributions,” Eur. J. Phys. 14, 86–89 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Lei, K. F. Ludwig, and T. D. Moustakas, “Heteroepitaxy, polymorphism, and faulting in gain thin-films on silicon and sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 74(7), 4430–4437 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Adams, A. R.

A. F. Phillips, S. J. Sweeney, A. R. Adams, and P. J. A. Thijs, “The temperature dependence of 1.3- and 1.5- m compressively strained InGaAs(P) MQW semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(3), 401–412 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Aida, H.

S. W. Kim, H. Aida, and T. Suzuki, “The effect of a slight mis-orientation angle of c-plane sapphire substrate on surface and crystal quality of MOCVD grown GaN thin films,” Phys. Status Solidi 1(10), 2483–2486 (2004).

Armour, E. A.

D. Lu, D. I. Florescu, D. S. Lee, V. Merai, J. C. Ramer, A. Parekh, and E. A. Armour, “Sapphire substrate misorientation effects on GaN nucleation layer properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 272(1-4), 353–359 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Arthur, S. D.

X. A. Cao, J. A. Teetsov, F. Shahedipour-Sandvik, and S. D. Arthur, “Microstructural origin of leakage current in GaN/InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Cryst. Growth 264(1-3), 172–177 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Caldwell, J. D.

M. A. Mastro, J. D. Caldwell, R. T. Holm, R. L. Henry, and C. R. Eddy., “Design of Gallium Nitride Resonant Cavity Light-Emitting Diodes on Si Substrates,” Adv. Mater. 20(1), 115–118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cao, X. A.

X. A. Cao, J. A. Teetsov, F. Shahedipour-Sandvik, and S. D. Arthur, “Microstructural origin of leakage current in GaN/InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Cryst. Growth 264(1-3), 172–177 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Castaldini, A.

F. Rossi, M. Pavesi, M. Meneghini, G. Salviati, M. Manfredi, G. Meneghesso, A. Castaldini, A. Cavallini, L. Rigutti, U. Strass, U. Zehnder, and E. Zanoni, “Influence of short-term low current dc aging on the electrical and optical properties of InGaN blue light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(5), 053104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cavallini, A.

F. Rossi, M. Pavesi, M. Meneghini, G. Salviati, M. Manfredi, G. Meneghesso, A. Castaldini, A. Cavallini, L. Rigutti, U. Strass, U. Zehnder, and E. Zanoni, “Influence of short-term low current dc aging on the electrical and optical properties of InGaN blue light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(5), 053104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chang, P. C.

R. W. Chuang, C. L. Yu, S. J. Chang, P. C. Chang, J. C. Lin, and T. M. Kuan, “Crystal growth and characterization of AlGaN/GaN heterostructures prepared on vicinal-cut sapphire (0 0 0 1) substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 308(2), 252–257 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S. J.

R. W. Chuang, C. L. Yu, S. J. Chang, P. C. Chang, J. C. Lin, and T. M. Kuan, “Crystal growth and characterization of AlGaN/GaN heterostructures prepared on vicinal-cut sapphire (0 0 0 1) substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 308(2), 252–257 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Ramaiah, Y. K. Su, S. J. Chang, and C. H. Chen, “A comparative study of blue, green and yellow light emitting diode structures grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Solid-State Electron. 50(2), 119–124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. H.

K. S. Ramaiah, Y. K. Su, S. J. Chang, and C. H. Chen, “A comparative study of blue, green and yellow light emitting diode structures grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Solid-State Electron. 50(2), 119–124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. J.

X. M. Zhang, M. Y. Lu, Y. Zhang, L. J. Chen, and Z. L. Wang, “Fabrication of a high-brightness blue-light-emitting diode using a ZnO-nanowire array grown on p-GaN thin film,” Adv. Mater. 21(27), 2767–2770 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. Y.

C. H. Yen, Y. J. Liu, K. K. Yu, P. L. Lin, T. P. Chen, L. Y. Chen, T. H. Tsai, and W. C. Liu, “On an AlGaInP-based light-emitting diode with an ITO direct Ohmic contact structure,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(4), 359–361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, N. C.

N. C. Chen, C. M. Lin, Y. K. Yang, C. Shen, T. W. Wang, and M. C. Wu, “Measurement of junction temperature in a nitride light-emitting diode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(12), 8779–8782 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, T. P.

C. H. Yen, Y. J. Liu, K. K. Yu, P. L. Lin, T. P. Chen, L. Y. Chen, T. H. Tsai, and W. C. Liu, “On an AlGaInP-based light-emitting diode with an ITO direct Ohmic contact structure,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(4), 359–361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z. Z.

C. Y. Zhu, L. F. Feng, C. D. Wang, H. X. Cong, G. Y. Zhang, Z. J. Yang, and Z. Z. Chen, “Negative capacitance in light-emitting devices,” Solid-State Electron. 53(3), 324–328 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, C. H.

Z. Y. Li, M. H. Lo, C. H. Chiu, P. C. Lin, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Carrier localization degree of In0.2Ga0.8N/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on vicinal sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(1), 013103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chuang, R. W.

R. W. Chuang, C. L. Yu, S. J. Chang, P. C. Chang, J. C. Lin, and T. M. Kuan, “Crystal growth and characterization of AlGaN/GaN heterostructures prepared on vicinal-cut sapphire (0 0 0 1) substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 308(2), 252–257 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chung, H. J.

J. Xu, M. F. Schubert, A. N. Noemaun, D. Zhu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, H. J. Chung, S. Yoon, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Reduction in efficiency droop, forward voltage, ideality factor, and wavelength shift in polarization-matched GaInN/GaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cong, H. X.

C. Y. Zhu, L. F. Feng, C. D. Wang, H. X. Cong, G. Y. Zhang, Z. J. Yang, and Z. Z. Chen, “Negative capacitance in light-emitting devices,” Solid-State Electron. 53(3), 324–328 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, M. H.

D. Zhu, J. Xu, A. N. Noemaun, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, and D. D. Koleske, “The origin of the high diode-ideality factors in GaInN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 081113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dai, Y. T.

X. L. Tong, L. Li, D. S. Zhang, Y. T. Dai, D. J. Lv, K. Ling, Z. X. Liu, P. X. Lu, G. Yang, Z. Y. Yang, and H. Long, “The influences of laser scanning speed on the structural and optical properties of thin GaN films separated from sapphire substrates by excimer laser lift-off,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(4), 045414 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Eddy, C. R.

M. A. Mastro, J. D. Caldwell, R. T. Holm, R. L. Henry, and C. R. Eddy., “Design of Gallium Nitride Resonant Cavity Light-Emitting Diodes on Si Substrates,” Adv. Mater. 20(1), 115–118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Feng, L. F.

C. Y. Zhu, L. F. Feng, C. D. Wang, H. X. Cong, G. Y. Zhang, Z. J. Yang, and Z. Z. Chen, “Negative capacitance in light-emitting devices,” Solid-State Electron. 53(3), 324–328 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Florescu, D. I.

D. Lu, D. I. Florescu, D. S. Lee, V. Merai, J. C. Ramer, A. Parekh, and E. A. Armour, “Sapphire substrate misorientation effects on GaN nucleation layer properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 272(1-4), 353–359 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gessmann, Th.

J. M. Shah, Y. L. Li, Th. Gessmann, and E. F. Schubert, “Experimental analysis and theoretical model for anomalously high ideality factors (n>>2) in AlGaN/GaN p-n junction diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(4), 2627–2630 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Henry, R. L.

M. A. Mastro, J. D. Caldwell, R. T. Holm, R. L. Henry, and C. R. Eddy., “Design of Gallium Nitride Resonant Cavity Light-Emitting Diodes on Si Substrates,” Adv. Mater. 20(1), 115–118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hernandez-Rojas, J. L.

M. L. Lucia, J. L. Hernandez-Rojas, C. Leon, and I. Martil, “Capacitance measurements of p-n junctions: depletion layer and diffusion capacitance contributions,” Eur. J. Phys. 14, 86–89 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Holm, R. T.

M. A. Mastro, J. D. Caldwell, R. T. Holm, R. L. Henry, and C. R. Eddy., “Design of Gallium Nitride Resonant Cavity Light-Emitting Diodes on Si Substrates,” Adv. Mater. 20(1), 115–118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Honda, Y.

X. Q. Shen, M. Shimizu, T. Yamamoto, Y. Honda, and H. Okumura, “Characterizations of GaN films and GaN/AlN super-lattice structures grown on vicinal sapphire (0 0 0 1) substrates by RF-MBE,” J. Cryst. Growth 278(1-4), 378–382 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hoshino, K.

A. Nakamura, N. Yanagita, T. Murata, K. Hoshino, and K. Tadatomo, “Effects of sapphire substrate misorientation on the GaN-based light emitting diode grown by metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy,” Phys. Status Solidi 5(6c), 2007–2009 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Humphreys, C. J.

A. F. Jarjour, R. A. Oliver, A. Tahraoui, M. J. Kappers, R. A. Taylor, and C. J. Humphreys, “Experimental and theoretical study of the quantum-confined Stark effect in a single InGaN/GaN quantum dot under applied vertical electric field,” Superlattices Microstruct. 43(5-6), 431–435 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jaeger, A.

O. Pursiainen, N. Linder, A. Jaeger, R. Oberschmid, and K. Streubel, “Identification of aging mechanisms in the optical and electrical characteristics of light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(18), 2895–2897 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jarjour, A. F.

A. F. Jarjour, R. A. Oliver, A. Tahraoui, M. J. Kappers, R. A. Taylor, and C. J. Humphreys, “Experimental and theoretical study of the quantum-confined Stark effect in a single InGaN/GaN quantum dot under applied vertical electric field,” Superlattices Microstruct. 43(5-6), 431–435 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kappers, M. J.

A. F. Jarjour, R. A. Oliver, A. Tahraoui, M. J. Kappers, R. A. Taylor, and C. J. Humphreys, “Experimental and theoretical study of the quantum-confined Stark effect in a single InGaN/GaN quantum dot under applied vertical electric field,” Superlattices Microstruct. 43(5-6), 431–435 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

J. Xu, M. F. Schubert, A. N. Noemaun, D. Zhu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, H. J. Chung, S. Yoon, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Reduction in efficiency droop, forward voltage, ideality factor, and wavelength shift in polarization-matched GaInN/GaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhu, J. Xu, A. N. Noemaun, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, and D. D. Koleske, “The origin of the high diode-ideality factors in GaInN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 081113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M. H.

J. Xu, M. F. Schubert, A. N. Noemaun, D. Zhu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, H. J. Chung, S. Yoon, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Reduction in efficiency droop, forward voltage, ideality factor, and wavelength shift in polarization-matched GaInN/GaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. W.

S. W. Kim, H. Aida, and T. Suzuki, “The effect of a slight mis-orientation angle of c-plane sapphire substrate on surface and crystal quality of MOCVD grown GaN thin films,” Phys. Status Solidi 1(10), 2483–2486 (2004).

Koleske, D. D.

D. Zhu, J. Xu, A. N. Noemaun, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, and D. D. Koleske, “The origin of the high diode-ideality factors in GaInN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 081113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kuan, T. M.

R. W. Chuang, C. L. Yu, S. J. Chang, P. C. Chang, J. C. Lin, and T. M. Kuan, “Crystal growth and characterization of AlGaN/GaN heterostructures prepared on vicinal-cut sapphire (0 0 0 1) substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 308(2), 252–257 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H. C.

Z. Y. Li, M. H. Lo, C. H. Chiu, P. C. Lin, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Carrier localization degree of In0.2Ga0.8N/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on vicinal sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(1), 013103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, D. S.

D. Lu, D. I. Florescu, D. S. Lee, V. Merai, J. C. Ramer, A. Parekh, and E. A. Armour, “Sapphire substrate misorientation effects on GaN nucleation layer properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 272(1-4), 353–359 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lei, T.

T. Lei, K. F. Ludwig, and T. D. Moustakas, “Heteroepitaxy, polymorphism, and faulting in gain thin-films on silicon and sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 74(7), 4430–4437 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Leon, C.

M. L. Lucia, J. L. Hernandez-Rojas, C. Leon, and I. Martil, “Capacitance measurements of p-n junctions: depletion layer and diffusion capacitance contributions,” Eur. J. Phys. 14, 86–89 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

X. L. Tong, L. Li, D. S. Zhang, Y. T. Dai, D. J. Lv, K. Ling, Z. X. Liu, P. X. Lu, G. Yang, Z. Y. Yang, and H. Long, “The influences of laser scanning speed on the structural and optical properties of thin GaN films separated from sapphire substrates by excimer laser lift-off,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(4), 045414 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y. L.

J. M. Shah, Y. L. Li, Th. Gessmann, and E. F. Schubert, “Experimental analysis and theoretical model for anomalously high ideality factors (n>>2) in AlGaN/GaN p-n junction diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(4), 2627–2630 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z. Y.

Z. Y. Li, M. H. Lo, C. H. Chiu, P. C. Lin, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Carrier localization degree of In0.2Ga0.8N/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on vicinal sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(1), 013103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. M.

N. C. Chen, C. M. Lin, Y. K. Yang, C. Shen, T. W. Wang, and M. C. Wu, “Measurement of junction temperature in a nitride light-emitting diode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(12), 8779–8782 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J. C.

R. W. Chuang, C. L. Yu, S. J. Chang, P. C. Chang, J. C. Lin, and T. M. Kuan, “Crystal growth and characterization of AlGaN/GaN heterostructures prepared on vicinal-cut sapphire (0 0 0 1) substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 308(2), 252–257 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lin, P. C.

Z. Y. Li, M. H. Lo, C. H. Chiu, P. C. Lin, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Carrier localization degree of In0.2Ga0.8N/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on vicinal sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(1), 013103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lin, P. L.

C. H. Yen, Y. J. Liu, K. K. Yu, P. L. Lin, T. P. Chen, L. Y. Chen, T. H. Tsai, and W. C. Liu, “On an AlGaInP-based light-emitting diode with an ITO direct Ohmic contact structure,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(4), 359–361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Linder, N.

O. Pursiainen, N. Linder, A. Jaeger, R. Oberschmid, and K. Streubel, “Identification of aging mechanisms in the optical and electrical characteristics of light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(18), 2895–2897 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ling, K.

X. L. Tong, L. Li, D. S. Zhang, Y. T. Dai, D. J. Lv, K. Ling, Z. X. Liu, P. X. Lu, G. Yang, Z. Y. Yang, and H. Long, “The influences of laser scanning speed on the structural and optical properties of thin GaN films separated from sapphire substrates by excimer laser lift-off,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(4), 045414 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W. C.

C. H. Yen, Y. J. Liu, K. K. Yu, P. L. Lin, T. P. Chen, L. Y. Chen, T. H. Tsai, and W. C. Liu, “On an AlGaInP-based light-emitting diode with an ITO direct Ohmic contact structure,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(4), 359–361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y. J.

C. H. Yen, Y. J. Liu, K. K. Yu, P. L. Lin, T. P. Chen, L. Y. Chen, T. H. Tsai, and W. C. Liu, “On an AlGaInP-based light-emitting diode with an ITO direct Ohmic contact structure,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(4), 359–361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z. X.

X. L. Tong, L. Li, D. S. Zhang, Y. T. Dai, D. J. Lv, K. Ling, Z. X. Liu, P. X. Lu, G. Yang, Z. Y. Yang, and H. Long, “The influences of laser scanning speed on the structural and optical properties of thin GaN films separated from sapphire substrates by excimer laser lift-off,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(4), 045414 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lo, M. H.

Z. Y. Li, M. H. Lo, C. H. Chiu, P. C. Lin, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Carrier localization degree of In0.2Ga0.8N/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on vicinal sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(1), 013103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Long, H.

X. L. Tong, L. Li, D. S. Zhang, Y. T. Dai, D. J. Lv, K. Ling, Z. X. Liu, P. X. Lu, G. Yang, Z. Y. Yang, and H. Long, “The influences of laser scanning speed on the structural and optical properties of thin GaN films separated from sapphire substrates by excimer laser lift-off,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(4), 045414 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lu, D.

D. Lu, D. I. Florescu, D. S. Lee, V. Merai, J. C. Ramer, A. Parekh, and E. A. Armour, “Sapphire substrate misorientation effects on GaN nucleation layer properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 272(1-4), 353–359 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lu, M. Y.

X. M. Zhang, M. Y. Lu, Y. Zhang, L. J. Chen, and Z. L. Wang, “Fabrication of a high-brightness blue-light-emitting diode using a ZnO-nanowire array grown on p-GaN thin film,” Adv. Mater. 21(27), 2767–2770 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lu, P. X.

X. L. Tong, L. Li, D. S. Zhang, Y. T. Dai, D. J. Lv, K. Ling, Z. X. Liu, P. X. Lu, G. Yang, Z. Y. Yang, and H. Long, “The influences of laser scanning speed on the structural and optical properties of thin GaN films separated from sapphire substrates by excimer laser lift-off,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(4), 045414 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lu, T. C.

Z. Y. Li, M. H. Lo, C. H. Chiu, P. C. Lin, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Carrier localization degree of In0.2Ga0.8N/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on vicinal sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(1), 013103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lucia, M. L.

M. L. Lucia, J. L. Hernandez-Rojas, C. Leon, and I. Martil, “Capacitance measurements of p-n junctions: depletion layer and diffusion capacitance contributions,” Eur. J. Phys. 14, 86–89 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ludwig, K. F.

T. Lei, K. F. Ludwig, and T. D. Moustakas, “Heteroepitaxy, polymorphism, and faulting in gain thin-films on silicon and sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 74(7), 4430–4437 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lv, D. J.

X. L. Tong, L. Li, D. S. Zhang, Y. T. Dai, D. J. Lv, K. Ling, Z. X. Liu, P. X. Lu, G. Yang, Z. Y. Yang, and H. Long, “The influences of laser scanning speed on the structural and optical properties of thin GaN films separated from sapphire substrates by excimer laser lift-off,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(4), 045414 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Manfredi, M.

F. Rossi, M. Pavesi, M. Meneghini, G. Salviati, M. Manfredi, G. Meneghesso, A. Castaldini, A. Cavallini, L. Rigutti, U. Strass, U. Zehnder, and E. Zanoni, “Influence of short-term low current dc aging on the electrical and optical properties of InGaN blue light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(5), 053104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Martil, I.

M. L. Lucia, J. L. Hernandez-Rojas, C. Leon, and I. Martil, “Capacitance measurements of p-n junctions: depletion layer and diffusion capacitance contributions,” Eur. J. Phys. 14, 86–89 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mastro, M. A.

M. A. Mastro, J. D. Caldwell, R. T. Holm, R. L. Henry, and C. R. Eddy., “Design of Gallium Nitride Resonant Cavity Light-Emitting Diodes on Si Substrates,” Adv. Mater. 20(1), 115–118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Matsuhata, H.

X. Q. Shen, H. Matsuhata, and H. Okumura, “Reduction of the threading dislocation density in GaN films grown on vicinal sapphire (0001) substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(2), 021912 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Meneghesso, G.

M. Meneghini, L. R. Trevisanello, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “A review on the reliability of GaN-based LEDs,” IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 8(2), 323–331 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Rossi, M. Pavesi, M. Meneghini, G. Salviati, M. Manfredi, G. Meneghesso, A. Castaldini, A. Cavallini, L. Rigutti, U. Strass, U. Zehnder, and E. Zanoni, “Influence of short-term low current dc aging on the electrical and optical properties of InGaN blue light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(5), 053104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Meneghini, M.

M. Meneghini, L. R. Trevisanello, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “A review on the reliability of GaN-based LEDs,” IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 8(2), 323–331 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Rossi, M. Pavesi, M. Meneghini, G. Salviati, M. Manfredi, G. Meneghesso, A. Castaldini, A. Cavallini, L. Rigutti, U. Strass, U. Zehnder, and E. Zanoni, “Influence of short-term low current dc aging on the electrical and optical properties of InGaN blue light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(5), 053104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Merai, V.

D. Lu, D. I. Florescu, D. S. Lee, V. Merai, J. C. Ramer, A. Parekh, and E. A. Armour, “Sapphire substrate misorientation effects on GaN nucleation layer properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 272(1-4), 353–359 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Moustakas, T. D.

T. Lei, K. F. Ludwig, and T. D. Moustakas, “Heteroepitaxy, polymorphism, and faulting in gain thin-films on silicon and sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 74(7), 4430–4437 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Murata, T.

A. Nakamura, N. Yanagita, T. Murata, K. Hoshino, and K. Tadatomo, “Effects of sapphire substrate misorientation on the GaN-based light emitting diode grown by metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy,” Phys. Status Solidi 5(6c), 2007–2009 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, A.

A. Nakamura, N. Yanagita, T. Murata, K. Hoshino, and K. Tadatomo, “Effects of sapphire substrate misorientation on the GaN-based light emitting diode grown by metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy,” Phys. Status Solidi 5(6c), 2007–2009 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Noemaun, A. N.

J. Xu, M. F. Schubert, A. N. Noemaun, D. Zhu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, H. J. Chung, S. Yoon, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Reduction in efficiency droop, forward voltage, ideality factor, and wavelength shift in polarization-matched GaInN/GaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhu, J. Xu, A. N. Noemaun, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, and D. D. Koleske, “The origin of the high diode-ideality factors in GaInN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 081113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Oberschmid, R.

O. Pursiainen, N. Linder, A. Jaeger, R. Oberschmid, and K. Streubel, “Identification of aging mechanisms in the optical and electrical characteristics of light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(18), 2895–2897 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Okumura, H.

X. Q. Shen, H. Matsuhata, and H. Okumura, “Reduction of the threading dislocation density in GaN films grown on vicinal sapphire (0001) substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(2), 021912 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Q. Shen, M. Shimizu, T. Yamamoto, Y. Honda, and H. Okumura, “Characterizations of GaN films and GaN/AlN super-lattice structures grown on vicinal sapphire (0 0 0 1) substrates by RF-MBE,” J. Cryst. Growth 278(1-4), 378–382 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Oliver, R. A.

A. F. Jarjour, R. A. Oliver, A. Tahraoui, M. J. Kappers, R. A. Taylor, and C. J. Humphreys, “Experimental and theoretical study of the quantum-confined Stark effect in a single InGaN/GaN quantum dot under applied vertical electric field,” Superlattices Microstruct. 43(5-6), 431–435 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Parekh, A.

D. Lu, D. I. Florescu, D. S. Lee, V. Merai, J. C. Ramer, A. Parekh, and E. A. Armour, “Sapphire substrate misorientation effects on GaN nucleation layer properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 272(1-4), 353–359 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

J. Xu, M. F. Schubert, A. N. Noemaun, D. Zhu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, H. J. Chung, S. Yoon, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Reduction in efficiency droop, forward voltage, ideality factor, and wavelength shift in polarization-matched GaInN/GaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pavesi, M.

F. Rossi, M. Pavesi, M. Meneghini, G. Salviati, M. Manfredi, G. Meneghesso, A. Castaldini, A. Cavallini, L. Rigutti, U. Strass, U. Zehnder, and E. Zanoni, “Influence of short-term low current dc aging on the electrical and optical properties of InGaN blue light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(5), 053104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, A. F.

A. F. Phillips, S. J. Sweeney, A. R. Adams, and P. J. A. Thijs, “The temperature dependence of 1.3- and 1.5- m compressively strained InGaAs(P) MQW semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(3), 401–412 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pursiainen, O.

O. Pursiainen, N. Linder, A. Jaeger, R. Oberschmid, and K. Streubel, “Identification of aging mechanisms in the optical and electrical characteristics of light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(18), 2895–2897 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ramaiah, K. S.

K. S. Ramaiah, Y. K. Su, S. J. Chang, and C. H. Chen, “A comparative study of blue, green and yellow light emitting diode structures grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Solid-State Electron. 50(2), 119–124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ramer, J. C.

D. Lu, D. I. Florescu, D. S. Lee, V. Merai, J. C. Ramer, A. Parekh, and E. A. Armour, “Sapphire substrate misorientation effects on GaN nucleation layer properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 272(1-4), 353–359 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rigutti, L.

F. Rossi, M. Pavesi, M. Meneghini, G. Salviati, M. Manfredi, G. Meneghesso, A. Castaldini, A. Cavallini, L. Rigutti, U. Strass, U. Zehnder, and E. Zanoni, “Influence of short-term low current dc aging on the electrical and optical properties of InGaN blue light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(5), 053104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rossi, F.

F. Rossi, M. Pavesi, M. Meneghini, G. Salviati, M. Manfredi, G. Meneghesso, A. Castaldini, A. Cavallini, L. Rigutti, U. Strass, U. Zehnder, and E. Zanoni, “Influence of short-term low current dc aging on the electrical and optical properties of InGaN blue light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(5), 053104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Salviati, G.

F. Rossi, M. Pavesi, M. Meneghini, G. Salviati, M. Manfredi, G. Meneghesso, A. Castaldini, A. Cavallini, L. Rigutti, U. Strass, U. Zehnder, and E. Zanoni, “Influence of short-term low current dc aging on the electrical and optical properties of InGaN blue light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(5), 053104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

D. Zhu, J. Xu, A. N. Noemaun, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, and D. D. Koleske, “The origin of the high diode-ideality factors in GaInN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 081113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Xu, M. F. Schubert, A. N. Noemaun, D. Zhu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, H. J. Chung, S. Yoon, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Reduction in efficiency droop, forward voltage, ideality factor, and wavelength shift in polarization-matched GaInN/GaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Shah, Y. L. Li, Th. Gessmann, and E. F. Schubert, “Experimental analysis and theoretical model for anomalously high ideality factors (n>>2) in AlGaN/GaN p-n junction diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(4), 2627–2630 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, M. F.

J. Xu, M. F. Schubert, A. N. Noemaun, D. Zhu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, H. J. Chung, S. Yoon, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Reduction in efficiency droop, forward voltage, ideality factor, and wavelength shift in polarization-matched GaInN/GaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shah, J. M.

J. M. Shah, Y. L. Li, Th. Gessmann, and E. F. Schubert, “Experimental analysis and theoretical model for anomalously high ideality factors (n>>2) in AlGaN/GaN p-n junction diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(4), 2627–2630 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shahedipour-Sandvik, F.

X. A. Cao, J. A. Teetsov, F. Shahedipour-Sandvik, and S. D. Arthur, “Microstructural origin of leakage current in GaN/InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Cryst. Growth 264(1-3), 172–177 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shen, C.

N. C. Chen, C. M. Lin, Y. K. Yang, C. Shen, T. W. Wang, and M. C. Wu, “Measurement of junction temperature in a nitride light-emitting diode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(12), 8779–8782 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shen, X. Q.

X. Q. Shen, M. Shimizu, T. Yamamoto, Y. Honda, and H. Okumura, “Characterizations of GaN films and GaN/AlN super-lattice structures grown on vicinal sapphire (0 0 0 1) substrates by RF-MBE,” J. Cryst. Growth 278(1-4), 378–382 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Q. Shen, H. Matsuhata, and H. Okumura, “Reduction of the threading dislocation density in GaN films grown on vicinal sapphire (0001) substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(2), 021912 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, M.

X. Q. Shen, M. Shimizu, T. Yamamoto, Y. Honda, and H. Okumura, “Characterizations of GaN films and GaN/AlN super-lattice structures grown on vicinal sapphire (0 0 0 1) substrates by RF-MBE,” J. Cryst. Growth 278(1-4), 378–382 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sone, C.

J. Xu, M. F. Schubert, A. N. Noemaun, D. Zhu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, H. J. Chung, S. Yoon, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Reduction in efficiency droop, forward voltage, ideality factor, and wavelength shift in polarization-matched GaInN/GaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Strass, U.

F. Rossi, M. Pavesi, M. Meneghini, G. Salviati, M. Manfredi, G. Meneghesso, A. Castaldini, A. Cavallini, L. Rigutti, U. Strass, U. Zehnder, and E. Zanoni, “Influence of short-term low current dc aging on the electrical and optical properties of InGaN blue light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(5), 053104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Streubel, K.

O. Pursiainen, N. Linder, A. Jaeger, R. Oberschmid, and K. Streubel, “Identification of aging mechanisms in the optical and electrical characteristics of light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(18), 2895–2897 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Su, Y. K.

K. S. Ramaiah, Y. K. Su, S. J. Chang, and C. H. Chen, “A comparative study of blue, green and yellow light emitting diode structures grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Solid-State Electron. 50(2), 119–124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, T.

S. W. Kim, H. Aida, and T. Suzuki, “The effect of a slight mis-orientation angle of c-plane sapphire substrate on surface and crystal quality of MOCVD grown GaN thin films,” Phys. Status Solidi 1(10), 2483–2486 (2004).

Sweeney, S. J.

A. F. Phillips, S. J. Sweeney, A. R. Adams, and P. J. A. Thijs, “The temperature dependence of 1.3- and 1.5- m compressively strained InGaAs(P) MQW semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(3), 401–412 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tadatomo, K.

A. Nakamura, N. Yanagita, T. Murata, K. Hoshino, and K. Tadatomo, “Effects of sapphire substrate misorientation on the GaN-based light emitting diode grown by metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy,” Phys. Status Solidi 5(6c), 2007–2009 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tahraoui, A.

A. F. Jarjour, R. A. Oliver, A. Tahraoui, M. J. Kappers, R. A. Taylor, and C. J. Humphreys, “Experimental and theoretical study of the quantum-confined Stark effect in a single InGaN/GaN quantum dot under applied vertical electric field,” Superlattices Microstruct. 43(5-6), 431–435 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, R. A.

A. F. Jarjour, R. A. Oliver, A. Tahraoui, M. J. Kappers, R. A. Taylor, and C. J. Humphreys, “Experimental and theoretical study of the quantum-confined Stark effect in a single InGaN/GaN quantum dot under applied vertical electric field,” Superlattices Microstruct. 43(5-6), 431–435 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Teetsov, J. A.

X. A. Cao, J. A. Teetsov, F. Shahedipour-Sandvik, and S. D. Arthur, “Microstructural origin of leakage current in GaN/InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Cryst. Growth 264(1-3), 172–177 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thijs, P. J. A.

A. F. Phillips, S. J. Sweeney, A. R. Adams, and P. J. A. Thijs, “The temperature dependence of 1.3- and 1.5- m compressively strained InGaAs(P) MQW semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(3), 401–412 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tong, X. L.

X. L. Tong, L. Li, D. S. Zhang, Y. T. Dai, D. J. Lv, K. Ling, Z. X. Liu, P. X. Lu, G. Yang, Z. Y. Yang, and H. Long, “The influences of laser scanning speed on the structural and optical properties of thin GaN films separated from sapphire substrates by excimer laser lift-off,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(4), 045414 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Trevisanello, L. R.

M. Meneghini, L. R. Trevisanello, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “A review on the reliability of GaN-based LEDs,” IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 8(2), 323–331 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, T. H.

C. H. Yen, Y. J. Liu, K. K. Yu, P. L. Lin, T. P. Chen, L. Y. Chen, T. H. Tsai, and W. C. Liu, “On an AlGaInP-based light-emitting diode with an ITO direct Ohmic contact structure,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(4), 359–361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. D.

C. Y. Zhu, L. F. Feng, C. D. Wang, H. X. Cong, G. Y. Zhang, Z. J. Yang, and Z. Z. Chen, “Negative capacitance in light-emitting devices,” Solid-State Electron. 53(3), 324–328 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. C.

Z. Y. Li, M. H. Lo, C. H. Chiu, P. C. Lin, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Carrier localization degree of In0.2Ga0.8N/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on vicinal sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(1), 013103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T. W.

N. C. Chen, C. M. Lin, Y. K. Yang, C. Shen, T. W. Wang, and M. C. Wu, “Measurement of junction temperature in a nitride light-emitting diode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(12), 8779–8782 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. L.

X. M. Zhang, M. Y. Lu, Y. Zhang, L. J. Chen, and Z. L. Wang, “Fabrication of a high-brightness blue-light-emitting diode using a ZnO-nanowire array grown on p-GaN thin film,” Adv. Mater. 21(27), 2767–2770 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, M. C.

N. C. Chen, C. M. Lin, Y. K. Yang, C. Shen, T. W. Wang, and M. C. Wu, “Measurement of junction temperature in a nitride light-emitting diode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(12), 8779–8782 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

J. Xu, M. F. Schubert, A. N. Noemaun, D. Zhu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, H. J. Chung, S. Yoon, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Reduction in efficiency droop, forward voltage, ideality factor, and wavelength shift in polarization-matched GaInN/GaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhu, J. Xu, A. N. Noemaun, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, and D. D. Koleske, “The origin of the high diode-ideality factors in GaInN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 081113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, T.

X. Q. Shen, M. Shimizu, T. Yamamoto, Y. Honda, and H. Okumura, “Characterizations of GaN films and GaN/AlN super-lattice structures grown on vicinal sapphire (0 0 0 1) substrates by RF-MBE,” J. Cryst. Growth 278(1-4), 378–382 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yanagita, N.

A. Nakamura, N. Yanagita, T. Murata, K. Hoshino, and K. Tadatomo, “Effects of sapphire substrate misorientation on the GaN-based light emitting diode grown by metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy,” Phys. Status Solidi 5(6c), 2007–2009 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, G.

X. L. Tong, L. Li, D. S. Zhang, Y. T. Dai, D. J. Lv, K. Ling, Z. X. Liu, P. X. Lu, G. Yang, Z. Y. Yang, and H. Long, “The influences of laser scanning speed on the structural and optical properties of thin GaN films separated from sapphire substrates by excimer laser lift-off,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(4), 045414 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y. K.

N. C. Chen, C. M. Lin, Y. K. Yang, C. Shen, T. W. Wang, and M. C. Wu, “Measurement of junction temperature in a nitride light-emitting diode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(12), 8779–8782 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Z. J.

C. Y. Zhu, L. F. Feng, C. D. Wang, H. X. Cong, G. Y. Zhang, Z. J. Yang, and Z. Z. Chen, “Negative capacitance in light-emitting devices,” Solid-State Electron. 53(3), 324–328 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Z. Y.

X. L. Tong, L. Li, D. S. Zhang, Y. T. Dai, D. J. Lv, K. Ling, Z. X. Liu, P. X. Lu, G. Yang, Z. Y. Yang, and H. Long, “The influences of laser scanning speed on the structural and optical properties of thin GaN films separated from sapphire substrates by excimer laser lift-off,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(4), 045414 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yen, C. H.

C. H. Yen, Y. J. Liu, K. K. Yu, P. L. Lin, T. P. Chen, L. Y. Chen, T. H. Tsai, and W. C. Liu, “On an AlGaInP-based light-emitting diode with an ITO direct Ohmic contact structure,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(4), 359–361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, S.

J. Xu, M. F. Schubert, A. N. Noemaun, D. Zhu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, H. J. Chung, S. Yoon, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Reduction in efficiency droop, forward voltage, ideality factor, and wavelength shift in polarization-matched GaInN/GaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, C. L.

R. W. Chuang, C. L. Yu, S. J. Chang, P. C. Chang, J. C. Lin, and T. M. Kuan, “Crystal growth and characterization of AlGaN/GaN heterostructures prepared on vicinal-cut sapphire (0 0 0 1) substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 308(2), 252–257 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yu, K. K.

C. H. Yen, Y. J. Liu, K. K. Yu, P. L. Lin, T. P. Chen, L. Y. Chen, T. H. Tsai, and W. C. Liu, “On an AlGaInP-based light-emitting diode with an ITO direct Ohmic contact structure,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(4), 359–361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zanoni, E.

M. Meneghini, L. R. Trevisanello, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “A review on the reliability of GaN-based LEDs,” IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 8(2), 323–331 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Rossi, M. Pavesi, M. Meneghini, G. Salviati, M. Manfredi, G. Meneghesso, A. Castaldini, A. Cavallini, L. Rigutti, U. Strass, U. Zehnder, and E. Zanoni, “Influence of short-term low current dc aging on the electrical and optical properties of InGaN blue light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(5), 053104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zehnder, U.

F. Rossi, M. Pavesi, M. Meneghini, G. Salviati, M. Manfredi, G. Meneghesso, A. Castaldini, A. Cavallini, L. Rigutti, U. Strass, U. Zehnder, and E. Zanoni, “Influence of short-term low current dc aging on the electrical and optical properties of InGaN blue light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(5), 053104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, D. S.

X. L. Tong, L. Li, D. S. Zhang, Y. T. Dai, D. J. Lv, K. Ling, Z. X. Liu, P. X. Lu, G. Yang, Z. Y. Yang, and H. Long, “The influences of laser scanning speed on the structural and optical properties of thin GaN films separated from sapphire substrates by excimer laser lift-off,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(4), 045414 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G. Y.

C. Y. Zhu, L. F. Feng, C. D. Wang, H. X. Cong, G. Y. Zhang, Z. J. Yang, and Z. Z. Chen, “Negative capacitance in light-emitting devices,” Solid-State Electron. 53(3), 324–328 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. M.

X. M. Zhang, M. Y. Lu, Y. Zhang, L. J. Chen, and Z. L. Wang, “Fabrication of a high-brightness blue-light-emitting diode using a ZnO-nanowire array grown on p-GaN thin film,” Adv. Mater. 21(27), 2767–2770 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

X. M. Zhang, M. Y. Lu, Y. Zhang, L. J. Chen, and Z. L. Wang, “Fabrication of a high-brightness blue-light-emitting diode using a ZnO-nanowire array grown on p-GaN thin film,” Adv. Mater. 21(27), 2767–2770 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, C. Y.

C. Y. Zhu, L. F. Feng, C. D. Wang, H. X. Cong, G. Y. Zhang, Z. J. Yang, and Z. Z. Chen, “Negative capacitance in light-emitting devices,” Solid-State Electron. 53(3), 324–328 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, D.

J. Xu, M. F. Schubert, A. N. Noemaun, D. Zhu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, H. J. Chung, S. Yoon, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Reduction in efficiency droop, forward voltage, ideality factor, and wavelength shift in polarization-matched GaInN/GaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhu, J. Xu, A. N. Noemaun, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, and D. D. Koleske, “The origin of the high diode-ideality factors in GaInN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 081113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (2)

M. A. Mastro, J. D. Caldwell, R. T. Holm, R. L. Henry, and C. R. Eddy., “Design of Gallium Nitride Resonant Cavity Light-Emitting Diodes on Si Substrates,” Adv. Mater. 20(1), 115–118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. M. Zhang, M. Y. Lu, Y. Zhang, L. J. Chen, and Z. L. Wang, “Fabrication of a high-brightness blue-light-emitting diode using a ZnO-nanowire array grown on p-GaN thin film,” Adv. Mater. 21(27), 2767–2770 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

X. Q. Shen, H. Matsuhata, and H. Okumura, “Reduction of the threading dislocation density in GaN films grown on vicinal sapphire (0001) substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(2), 021912 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O. Pursiainen, N. Linder, A. Jaeger, R. Oberschmid, and K. Streubel, “Identification of aging mechanisms in the optical and electrical characteristics of light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(18), 2895–2897 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Xu, M. F. Schubert, A. N. Noemaun, D. Zhu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, H. J. Chung, S. Yoon, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Reduction in efficiency droop, forward voltage, ideality factor, and wavelength shift in polarization-matched GaInN/GaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhu, J. Xu, A. N. Noemaun, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Crawford, and D. D. Koleske, “The origin of the high diode-ideality factors in GaInN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 081113 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Eur. J. Phys. (1)

M. L. Lucia, J. L. Hernandez-Rojas, C. Leon, and I. Martil, “Capacitance measurements of p-n junctions: depletion layer and diffusion capacitance contributions,” Eur. J. Phys. 14, 86–89 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (1)

C. H. Yen, Y. J. Liu, K. K. Yu, P. L. Lin, T. P. Chen, L. Y. Chen, T. H. Tsai, and W. C. Liu, “On an AlGaInP-based light-emitting diode with an ITO direct Ohmic contact structure,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30(4), 359–361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. F. Phillips, S. J. Sweeney, A. R. Adams, and P. J. A. Thijs, “The temperature dependence of 1.3- and 1.5- m compressively strained InGaAs(P) MQW semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(3), 401–412 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. (1)

M. Meneghini, L. R. Trevisanello, G. Meneghesso, and E. Zanoni, “A review on the reliability of GaN-based LEDs,” IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 8(2), 323–331 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

F. Rossi, M. Pavesi, M. Meneghini, G. Salviati, M. Manfredi, G. Meneghesso, A. Castaldini, A. Cavallini, L. Rigutti, U. Strass, U. Zehnder, and E. Zanoni, “Influence of short-term low current dc aging on the electrical and optical properties of InGaN blue light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(5), 053104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Shah, Y. L. Li, Th. Gessmann, and E. F. Schubert, “Experimental analysis and theoretical model for anomalously high ideality factors (n>>2) in AlGaN/GaN p-n junction diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(4), 2627–2630 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Lei, K. F. Ludwig, and T. D. Moustakas, “Heteroepitaxy, polymorphism, and faulting in gain thin-films on silicon and sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 74(7), 4430–4437 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Li, M. H. Lo, C. H. Chiu, P. C. Lin, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Carrier localization degree of In0.2Ga0.8N/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on vicinal sapphire substrates,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(1), 013103 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (4)

X. Q. Shen, M. Shimizu, T. Yamamoto, Y. Honda, and H. Okumura, “Characterizations of GaN films and GaN/AlN super-lattice structures grown on vicinal sapphire (0 0 0 1) substrates by RF-MBE,” J. Cryst. Growth 278(1-4), 378–382 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Chuang, C. L. Yu, S. J. Chang, P. C. Chang, J. C. Lin, and T. M. Kuan, “Crystal growth and characterization of AlGaN/GaN heterostructures prepared on vicinal-cut sapphire (0 0 0 1) substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 308(2), 252–257 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. A. Cao, J. A. Teetsov, F. Shahedipour-Sandvik, and S. D. Arthur, “Microstructural origin of leakage current in GaN/InGaN light-emitting diodes,” J. Cryst. Growth 264(1-3), 172–177 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Lu, D. I. Florescu, D. S. Lee, V. Merai, J. C. Ramer, A. Parekh, and E. A. Armour, “Sapphire substrate misorientation effects on GaN nucleation layer properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 272(1-4), 353–359 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

X. L. Tong, L. Li, D. S. Zhang, Y. T. Dai, D. J. Lv, K. Ling, Z. X. Liu, P. X. Lu, G. Yang, Z. Y. Yang, and H. Long, “The influences of laser scanning speed on the structural and optical properties of thin GaN films separated from sapphire substrates by excimer laser lift-off,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 42(4), 045414 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

N. C. Chen, C. M. Lin, Y. K. Yang, C. Shen, T. W. Wang, and M. C. Wu, “Measurement of junction temperature in a nitride light-emitting diode,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(12), 8779–8782 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi (2)

S. W. Kim, H. Aida, and T. Suzuki, “The effect of a slight mis-orientation angle of c-plane sapphire substrate on surface and crystal quality of MOCVD grown GaN thin films,” Phys. Status Solidi 1(10), 2483–2486 (2004).

A. Nakamura, N. Yanagita, T. Murata, K. Hoshino, and K. Tadatomo, “Effects of sapphire substrate misorientation on the GaN-based light emitting diode grown by metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy,” Phys. Status Solidi 5(6c), 2007–2009 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Solid-State Electron. (2)

K. S. Ramaiah, Y. K. Su, S. J. Chang, and C. H. Chen, “A comparative study of blue, green and yellow light emitting diode structures grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition,” Solid-State Electron. 50(2), 119–124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Zhu, L. F. Feng, C. D. Wang, H. X. Cong, G. Y. Zhang, Z. J. Yang, and Z. Z. Chen, “Negative capacitance in light-emitting devices,” Solid-State Electron. 53(3), 324–328 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Superlattices Microstruct. (1)

A. F. Jarjour, R. A. Oliver, A. Tahraoui, M. J. Kappers, R. A. Taylor, and C. J. Humphreys, “Experimental and theoretical study of the quantum-confined Stark effect in a single InGaN/GaN quantum dot under applied vertical electric field,” Superlattices Microstruct. 43(5-6), 431–435 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) XRD FWHM measurements about (002) and (102)-reflecting planes of studied films, and (b) Raman spectra of the studied films.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Turn-on voltages of studied devices as a function of sapphire tilt angle. The surface root-mean-aquare roughness of the studied films as a function of sapphire tilt angle is illustrated in inset.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The I-V characteristics of LED devices at the reverse-biased voltage region, and (b) The breakdown voltage, operated at 300 and 400 K respectively, as a function of sapphire tilt angle.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The ideality factor as a function of forward current for the studied LED devices.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) C-V characteristics of LED devices. The measuring frequency is kept at 1 MHz, and (b) Junction capacitance operated at −25 volt, as a function of sapphire tilt angle. The measuring frequency is kept at 1 MHz.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Output power and external quantum efficiency as a function of current.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

TEM images near the InGaN/GaN MQW regions of devices A (a) and D (b). The enlarged views of MQW layers of devices A and D are also shown in (c) and (d), respectively.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Output power performance under lower current levels (1~3 mA).

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

D d i s β 2 / 9 b 2
inj  = qV (An + Bn 2  + Cn 3 ) + I  leak    

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