Abstract

Microfluctuations of accommodation have been the subject of many studies. New technological developments now permit us to study the dynamics of the microfluctuations with unprecedented resolution and accuracy. We aim to characterise their temporal statistics for different levels of accommodative effort, using a custom-built aberrometer. We conducted 46 s long measurements on the dominant eye of 9 young, healthy subjects. The ocular wavefront was sampled every 250 μm across the 3.9 mm measured pupil, at a frame rate of 173 Hz. This enabled us to obtain high resolution estimates of the Power Spectral Density (PSD). Results show that the shape of the estimated PSD for a 4 D effort is distinct from the shape for the two extrema of the accommodation range. The autocorrelation function of the increments of the accommodation signal is also affected by the level of effort, regardless of the refractive error of the subject.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2009 (2)

C. Leroux and C. Dainty, "A simple and robust method to extend the dynamic range of an aberrometer," Opt. Express 17,21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Mira-Agudelo, L. Lundström, and P. Artal, "Temporal dynamics of ocular aberrations: monocular vs binocular vision," Opthal. Physiol. Opt. 29,256-263 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

K. Hampson, I. Munro, C. Paterson, and J. C. Dainty, "Weak correlation between the aberration dynamics of the human eye and the cardiopulmonary system," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22,1241-1250 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Plainis, H. Ginis, and A. Pallikaris, "The effect of ocular aberrations on steady-state errors of accommodative response," J. Vis. 5,466-477 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

D. R. Iskander, M. Collins, M. Morelande, and M. Zhu, "Analyzing the dynamic wavefront aberrations in the human eye," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 51,1969-1980 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Zhu, M. J. Collins, and D. R. Iskander, "Microfluctuations of wavefront aberrations of the eye," Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 24,562-571 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Cabrera and J. G. Milton, "Human stick balancing: Tuning l’evy flights to improve balance control," Chaos 14,3 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

L. Llorente, L. Diaz-Santana, D. Lara-Saucedo, and S. Marcos, "Aberrations of the human eye in visible and near infrared illumination," Optom. Vis. Sci. 80,26-35 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Salmon, R. West, W. Gasser, and T. Kenmore, "Measurement of Refractive Errors in Young Myopes Using the COAS Shack-Hartmann Aberrometer," Optom. Vis. Sci. 801,6-14 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. N. Thibos, X. Hong, A. Bradley, and X. Cheng, "Statistical variation of aberration structure and image quality in a normal population of healthy eyes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19,12 (2003).

L. Diaz-Santana, C. Torti, I. Munro, P. Gasson, and C. Dainty, "Benefit of higher closedloop bandwidths in ocular adaptive optics," Opt. Express 11,20 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

L. N. Thibos, A. Bradley, and X. Hong, "A statistical model of the aberration structure of normal, well-corrected eyes," Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 22,427-433 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

H. Hofer, P. Artal, and D. R. Williams, "Dynamics of the eye’s wave aberration," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18,497-506 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

T. Ruf, "The Lomb-Scargle Periodogram in Biological Rhythm Research: Analysis of Incomplete and Unequally Spaced Time-Series," Biol. Rhythm Res. 30,178-201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

L. R. Stark and D. A. Atchison, "Pupil size, mean accommodation response and the fluctuations of accommodation," Opthal. Physiol. Opt. 17,4 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

G. L. van der Heijde, A. P. A. Beers, and M. Dubbelman, "Microfluctuations of steady-state accommodation measured with ultrasonography," Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 16,3 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Yambe, S. Nanka, S. Naganuma, S. Kobayashi, S. Nitta, T. Fukuju, M. Miura, N. Uchida, K. Tabayashi, A. Tanaka, M. Takayasu, K. Abe, H. Takayasu, M. Yoshizawa, and H. Takeda, "Extracting 1/f fluctuation from the arterial blood pressure of an artificial heart," J. Artif. Organs 20,777-782 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Hausdorff and C. K. Peng, "Multiscaled randomness: A possible source of 1/f noise in biology," Phys. Rev. E 54,2 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

M. Collins, B. Davis, and J. Wood, "Microfluctuations of steady-state accommodation and the cardiopulmonary system," Vision Res. 17, (1995).

1993 (3)

L. S. Gray, B. Winn, and B. Gilmartin, "Accommodative microfluctuations and pupil diameter," Vision Res. 33,15 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Gray, B. Winn, and B. Gilmartin, "Effect of target luminance on microfluctuations of accommodation," Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 13,3 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Peng, J. Mietus, J. M. Hausdorff, S. Havlin, H. E. Stanley, and A. L. Goldberger, "Long-range anticorrelations and non-gaussian behavior of the heartbeat," Phys. Rev. Lett. 70,9 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

B. Winn, J. R. Pugh, B. Gilmartin, and H. Owens, "Arterial pulse modulates steady-state ocular accommodation," Curr. Eye Res. 9,10 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

B. Winn, W. N. Charman, J. R. Pugh, G. Heron, and A. S. Eadie, "Perceptual detectability of ocular accommodation microfluctuations," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 6,3 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

W. N. Charman and G. Heron, "Fluctuations in accommodation: a review," Opthal. Physiol. Opt. 8,153-164 (1988).
[CrossRef]

C. Miege and P. Denieul, "Mean response and oscillations of accommodation for various stimulus vergences in relation to accommodation feedback control," Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 8,2 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

J.C. Kotulak and C. M. Schor, "Temporal variations in accommodation during steady-state conditions," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3,2 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

P. Denieul, "Effects of stimulus vergence on mean accommodation response, microfluctuations of accommodation and optical quality of the human eye," Vision Res. 22,15 (1983).

1982 (2)

M. Kobayashi and T. Musha, "1/f fluctuation of heartbeat period," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 29,456-457 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Scargle, "Studies in astronomical time series analysis ii. statistical aspects of spectral analysis of unevenly spaced data," Astrophys. J. 263,835-853 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

N. R. Lomb, "Least-squares frequency analysis of unequally spaced data," Astrophys. Space Sci. 39,447-462 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1959 (1)

F. W. Campbell, J. G. Robson, and G. Westheimer, "Fluctuations of accommodation under steady viewing conditions," J. Physiol. 3,145 (1959).

1958 (1)

M. Alpern, "Variability of accommodation during steady fixation at various levels of illuminance," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 48,3 (1958).

Abe, K.

T. Yambe, S. Nanka, S. Naganuma, S. Kobayashi, S. Nitta, T. Fukuju, M. Miura, N. Uchida, K. Tabayashi, A. Tanaka, M. Takayasu, K. Abe, H. Takayasu, M. Yoshizawa, and H. Takeda, "Extracting 1/f fluctuation from the arterial blood pressure of an artificial heart," J. Artif. Organs 20,777-782 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Alpern, M.

M. Alpern, "Variability of accommodation during steady fixation at various levels of illuminance," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 48,3 (1958).

Artal, P.

A. Mira-Agudelo, L. Lundström, and P. Artal, "Temporal dynamics of ocular aberrations: monocular vs binocular vision," Opthal. Physiol. Opt. 29,256-263 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Hofer, P. Artal, and D. R. Williams, "Dynamics of the eye’s wave aberration," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18,497-506 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Atchison, D. A.

L. R. Stark and D. A. Atchison, "Pupil size, mean accommodation response and the fluctuations of accommodation," Opthal. Physiol. Opt. 17,4 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Beers, A. P. A.

G. L. van der Heijde, A. P. A. Beers, and M. Dubbelman, "Microfluctuations of steady-state accommodation measured with ultrasonography," Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 16,3 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, A.

L. N. Thibos, X. Hong, A. Bradley, and X. Cheng, "Statistical variation of aberration structure and image quality in a normal population of healthy eyes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19,12 (2003).

L. N. Thibos, A. Bradley, and X. Hong, "A statistical model of the aberration structure of normal, well-corrected eyes," Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 22,427-433 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cabrera, J. L.

J. L. Cabrera and J. G. Milton, "Human stick balancing: Tuning l’evy flights to improve balance control," Chaos 14,3 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, F. W.

F. W. Campbell, J. G. Robson, and G. Westheimer, "Fluctuations of accommodation under steady viewing conditions," J. Physiol. 3,145 (1959).

Charman, W. N.

B. Winn, W. N. Charman, J. R. Pugh, G. Heron, and A. S. Eadie, "Perceptual detectability of ocular accommodation microfluctuations," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 6,3 (1989).
[CrossRef]

W. N. Charman and G. Heron, "Fluctuations in accommodation: a review," Opthal. Physiol. Opt. 8,153-164 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, X.

L. N. Thibos, X. Hong, A. Bradley, and X. Cheng, "Statistical variation of aberration structure and image quality in a normal population of healthy eyes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19,12 (2003).

Collins, M.

D. R. Iskander, M. Collins, M. Morelande, and M. Zhu, "Analyzing the dynamic wavefront aberrations in the human eye," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 51,1969-1980 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Collins, B. Davis, and J. Wood, "Microfluctuations of steady-state accommodation and the cardiopulmonary system," Vision Res. 17, (1995).

Collins, M. J.

M. Zhu, M. J. Collins, and D. R. Iskander, "Microfluctuations of wavefront aberrations of the eye," Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 24,562-571 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dainty, C.

C. Leroux and C. Dainty, "A simple and robust method to extend the dynamic range of an aberrometer," Opt. Express 17,21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Diaz-Santana, C. Torti, I. Munro, P. Gasson, and C. Dainty, "Benefit of higher closedloop bandwidths in ocular adaptive optics," Opt. Express 11,20 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dainty, J. C.

K. Hampson, I. Munro, C. Paterson, and J. C. Dainty, "Weak correlation between the aberration dynamics of the human eye and the cardiopulmonary system," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22,1241-1250 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Davis, B.

M. Collins, B. Davis, and J. Wood, "Microfluctuations of steady-state accommodation and the cardiopulmonary system," Vision Res. 17, (1995).

Denieul, P.

C. Miege and P. Denieul, "Mean response and oscillations of accommodation for various stimulus vergences in relation to accommodation feedback control," Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 8,2 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. Denieul, "Effects of stimulus vergence on mean accommodation response, microfluctuations of accommodation and optical quality of the human eye," Vision Res. 22,15 (1983).

Diaz-Santana, L.

L. Llorente, L. Diaz-Santana, D. Lara-Saucedo, and S. Marcos, "Aberrations of the human eye in visible and near infrared illumination," Optom. Vis. Sci. 80,26-35 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Diaz-Santana, C. Torti, I. Munro, P. Gasson, and C. Dainty, "Benefit of higher closedloop bandwidths in ocular adaptive optics," Opt. Express 11,20 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dubbelman, M.

G. L. van der Heijde, A. P. A. Beers, and M. Dubbelman, "Microfluctuations of steady-state accommodation measured with ultrasonography," Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 16,3 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Eadie, A. S.

B. Winn, W. N. Charman, J. R. Pugh, G. Heron, and A. S. Eadie, "Perceptual detectability of ocular accommodation microfluctuations," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 6,3 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Fukuju, T.

T. Yambe, S. Nanka, S. Naganuma, S. Kobayashi, S. Nitta, T. Fukuju, M. Miura, N. Uchida, K. Tabayashi, A. Tanaka, M. Takayasu, K. Abe, H. Takayasu, M. Yoshizawa, and H. Takeda, "Extracting 1/f fluctuation from the arterial blood pressure of an artificial heart," J. Artif. Organs 20,777-782 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gasser, W.

T. Salmon, R. West, W. Gasser, and T. Kenmore, "Measurement of Refractive Errors in Young Myopes Using the COAS Shack-Hartmann Aberrometer," Optom. Vis. Sci. 801,6-14 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gasson, P.

L. Diaz-Santana, C. Torti, I. Munro, P. Gasson, and C. Dainty, "Benefit of higher closedloop bandwidths in ocular adaptive optics," Opt. Express 11,20 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gilmartin, B.

L. S. Gray, B. Winn, and B. Gilmartin, "Effect of target luminance on microfluctuations of accommodation," Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 13,3 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Gray, B. Winn, and B. Gilmartin, "Accommodative microfluctuations and pupil diameter," Vision Res. 33,15 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. Winn, J. R. Pugh, B. Gilmartin, and H. Owens, "Arterial pulse modulates steady-state ocular accommodation," Curr. Eye Res. 9,10 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ginis, H.

S. Plainis, H. Ginis, and A. Pallikaris, "The effect of ocular aberrations on steady-state errors of accommodative response," J. Vis. 5,466-477 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldberger, A. L.

C. K. Peng, J. Mietus, J. M. Hausdorff, S. Havlin, H. E. Stanley, and A. L. Goldberger, "Long-range anticorrelations and non-gaussian behavior of the heartbeat," Phys. Rev. Lett. 70,9 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gray, L. S.

L. S. Gray, B. Winn, and B. Gilmartin, "Accommodative microfluctuations and pupil diameter," Vision Res. 33,15 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Gray, B. Winn, and B. Gilmartin, "Effect of target luminance on microfluctuations of accommodation," Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 13,3 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hampson, K.

K. Hampson, I. Munro, C. Paterson, and J. C. Dainty, "Weak correlation between the aberration dynamics of the human eye and the cardiopulmonary system," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22,1241-1250 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hausdorff, J. M.

J. M. Hausdorff and C. K. Peng, "Multiscaled randomness: A possible source of 1/f noise in biology," Phys. Rev. E 54,2 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Peng, J. Mietus, J. M. Hausdorff, S. Havlin, H. E. Stanley, and A. L. Goldberger, "Long-range anticorrelations and non-gaussian behavior of the heartbeat," Phys. Rev. Lett. 70,9 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Havlin, S.

C. K. Peng, J. Mietus, J. M. Hausdorff, S. Havlin, H. E. Stanley, and A. L. Goldberger, "Long-range anticorrelations and non-gaussian behavior of the heartbeat," Phys. Rev. Lett. 70,9 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Heron, G.

B. Winn, W. N. Charman, J. R. Pugh, G. Heron, and A. S. Eadie, "Perceptual detectability of ocular accommodation microfluctuations," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 6,3 (1989).
[CrossRef]

W. N. Charman and G. Heron, "Fluctuations in accommodation: a review," Opthal. Physiol. Opt. 8,153-164 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hofer, H.

H. Hofer, P. Artal, and D. R. Williams, "Dynamics of the eye’s wave aberration," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18,497-506 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hong, X.

L. N. Thibos, X. Hong, A. Bradley, and X. Cheng, "Statistical variation of aberration structure and image quality in a normal population of healthy eyes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19,12 (2003).

L. N. Thibos, A. Bradley, and X. Hong, "A statistical model of the aberration structure of normal, well-corrected eyes," Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 22,427-433 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Iskander, D. R.

M. Zhu, M. J. Collins, and D. R. Iskander, "Microfluctuations of wavefront aberrations of the eye," Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 24,562-571 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Iskander, M. Collins, M. Morelande, and M. Zhu, "Analyzing the dynamic wavefront aberrations in the human eye," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 51,1969-1980 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kenmore, T.

T. Salmon, R. West, W. Gasser, and T. Kenmore, "Measurement of Refractive Errors in Young Myopes Using the COAS Shack-Hartmann Aberrometer," Optom. Vis. Sci. 801,6-14 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, M.

M. Kobayashi and T. Musha, "1/f fluctuation of heartbeat period," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 29,456-457 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kobayashi, S.

T. Yambe, S. Nanka, S. Naganuma, S. Kobayashi, S. Nitta, T. Fukuju, M. Miura, N. Uchida, K. Tabayashi, A. Tanaka, M. Takayasu, K. Abe, H. Takayasu, M. Yoshizawa, and H. Takeda, "Extracting 1/f fluctuation from the arterial blood pressure of an artificial heart," J. Artif. Organs 20,777-782 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kotulak, J.C.

J.C. Kotulak and C. M. Schor, "Temporal variations in accommodation during steady-state conditions," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3,2 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Lara-Saucedo, D.

L. Llorente, L. Diaz-Santana, D. Lara-Saucedo, and S. Marcos, "Aberrations of the human eye in visible and near infrared illumination," Optom. Vis. Sci. 80,26-35 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leroux, C.

C. Leroux and C. Dainty, "A simple and robust method to extend the dynamic range of an aberrometer," Opt. Express 17,21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Llorente, L.

L. Llorente, L. Diaz-Santana, D. Lara-Saucedo, and S. Marcos, "Aberrations of the human eye in visible and near infrared illumination," Optom. Vis. Sci. 80,26-35 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lomb, N. R.

N. R. Lomb, "Least-squares frequency analysis of unequally spaced data," Astrophys. Space Sci. 39,447-462 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Lundström, L.

A. Mira-Agudelo, L. Lundström, and P. Artal, "Temporal dynamics of ocular aberrations: monocular vs binocular vision," Opthal. Physiol. Opt. 29,256-263 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Marcos, S.

L. Llorente, L. Diaz-Santana, D. Lara-Saucedo, and S. Marcos, "Aberrations of the human eye in visible and near infrared illumination," Optom. Vis. Sci. 80,26-35 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miege, C.

C. Miege and P. Denieul, "Mean response and oscillations of accommodation for various stimulus vergences in relation to accommodation feedback control," Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 8,2 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Mietus, J.

C. K. Peng, J. Mietus, J. M. Hausdorff, S. Havlin, H. E. Stanley, and A. L. Goldberger, "Long-range anticorrelations and non-gaussian behavior of the heartbeat," Phys. Rev. Lett. 70,9 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Milton, J. G.

J. L. Cabrera and J. G. Milton, "Human stick balancing: Tuning l’evy flights to improve balance control," Chaos 14,3 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mira-Agudelo, A.

A. Mira-Agudelo, L. Lundström, and P. Artal, "Temporal dynamics of ocular aberrations: monocular vs binocular vision," Opthal. Physiol. Opt. 29,256-263 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Miura, M.

T. Yambe, S. Nanka, S. Naganuma, S. Kobayashi, S. Nitta, T. Fukuju, M. Miura, N. Uchida, K. Tabayashi, A. Tanaka, M. Takayasu, K. Abe, H. Takayasu, M. Yoshizawa, and H. Takeda, "Extracting 1/f fluctuation from the arterial blood pressure of an artificial heart," J. Artif. Organs 20,777-782 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Morelande, M.

D. R. Iskander, M. Collins, M. Morelande, and M. Zhu, "Analyzing the dynamic wavefront aberrations in the human eye," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 51,1969-1980 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Munro, I.

K. Hampson, I. Munro, C. Paterson, and J. C. Dainty, "Weak correlation between the aberration dynamics of the human eye and the cardiopulmonary system," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22,1241-1250 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Diaz-Santana, C. Torti, I. Munro, P. Gasson, and C. Dainty, "Benefit of higher closedloop bandwidths in ocular adaptive optics," Opt. Express 11,20 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Musha, T.

M. Kobayashi and T. Musha, "1/f fluctuation of heartbeat period," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 29,456-457 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Naganuma, S.

T. Yambe, S. Nanka, S. Naganuma, S. Kobayashi, S. Nitta, T. Fukuju, M. Miura, N. Uchida, K. Tabayashi, A. Tanaka, M. Takayasu, K. Abe, H. Takayasu, M. Yoshizawa, and H. Takeda, "Extracting 1/f fluctuation from the arterial blood pressure of an artificial heart," J. Artif. Organs 20,777-782 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nanka, S.

T. Yambe, S. Nanka, S. Naganuma, S. Kobayashi, S. Nitta, T. Fukuju, M. Miura, N. Uchida, K. Tabayashi, A. Tanaka, M. Takayasu, K. Abe, H. Takayasu, M. Yoshizawa, and H. Takeda, "Extracting 1/f fluctuation from the arterial blood pressure of an artificial heart," J. Artif. Organs 20,777-782 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nitta, S.

T. Yambe, S. Nanka, S. Naganuma, S. Kobayashi, S. Nitta, T. Fukuju, M. Miura, N. Uchida, K. Tabayashi, A. Tanaka, M. Takayasu, K. Abe, H. Takayasu, M. Yoshizawa, and H. Takeda, "Extracting 1/f fluctuation from the arterial blood pressure of an artificial heart," J. Artif. Organs 20,777-782 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Owens, H.

B. Winn, J. R. Pugh, B. Gilmartin, and H. Owens, "Arterial pulse modulates steady-state ocular accommodation," Curr. Eye Res. 9,10 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Pallikaris, A.

S. Plainis, H. Ginis, and A. Pallikaris, "The effect of ocular aberrations on steady-state errors of accommodative response," J. Vis. 5,466-477 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paterson, C.

K. Hampson, I. Munro, C. Paterson, and J. C. Dainty, "Weak correlation between the aberration dynamics of the human eye and the cardiopulmonary system," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22,1241-1250 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Peng, C. K.

J. M. Hausdorff and C. K. Peng, "Multiscaled randomness: A possible source of 1/f noise in biology," Phys. Rev. E 54,2 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Peng, J. Mietus, J. M. Hausdorff, S. Havlin, H. E. Stanley, and A. L. Goldberger, "Long-range anticorrelations and non-gaussian behavior of the heartbeat," Phys. Rev. Lett. 70,9 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Plainis, S.

S. Plainis, H. Ginis, and A. Pallikaris, "The effect of ocular aberrations on steady-state errors of accommodative response," J. Vis. 5,466-477 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pugh, J. R.

B. Winn, J. R. Pugh, B. Gilmartin, and H. Owens, "Arterial pulse modulates steady-state ocular accommodation," Curr. Eye Res. 9,10 (1990).
[CrossRef]

B. Winn, W. N. Charman, J. R. Pugh, G. Heron, and A. S. Eadie, "Perceptual detectability of ocular accommodation microfluctuations," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 6,3 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Robson, J. G.

F. W. Campbell, J. G. Robson, and G. Westheimer, "Fluctuations of accommodation under steady viewing conditions," J. Physiol. 3,145 (1959).

Ruf, T.

T. Ruf, "The Lomb-Scargle Periodogram in Biological Rhythm Research: Analysis of Incomplete and Unequally Spaced Time-Series," Biol. Rhythm Res. 30,178-201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Salmon, T.

T. Salmon, R. West, W. Gasser, and T. Kenmore, "Measurement of Refractive Errors in Young Myopes Using the COAS Shack-Hartmann Aberrometer," Optom. Vis. Sci. 801,6-14 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Scargle, J. D.

J. D. Scargle, "Studies in astronomical time series analysis ii. statistical aspects of spectral analysis of unevenly spaced data," Astrophys. J. 263,835-853 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Schor, C. M.

J.C. Kotulak and C. M. Schor, "Temporal variations in accommodation during steady-state conditions," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3,2 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Stanley, H. E.

C. K. Peng, J. Mietus, J. M. Hausdorff, S. Havlin, H. E. Stanley, and A. L. Goldberger, "Long-range anticorrelations and non-gaussian behavior of the heartbeat," Phys. Rev. Lett. 70,9 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Stark, L. R.

L. R. Stark and D. A. Atchison, "Pupil size, mean accommodation response and the fluctuations of accommodation," Opthal. Physiol. Opt. 17,4 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tabayashi, K.

T. Yambe, S. Nanka, S. Naganuma, S. Kobayashi, S. Nitta, T. Fukuju, M. Miura, N. Uchida, K. Tabayashi, A. Tanaka, M. Takayasu, K. Abe, H. Takayasu, M. Yoshizawa, and H. Takeda, "Extracting 1/f fluctuation from the arterial blood pressure of an artificial heart," J. Artif. Organs 20,777-782 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Takayasu, H.

T. Yambe, S. Nanka, S. Naganuma, S. Kobayashi, S. Nitta, T. Fukuju, M. Miura, N. Uchida, K. Tabayashi, A. Tanaka, M. Takayasu, K. Abe, H. Takayasu, M. Yoshizawa, and H. Takeda, "Extracting 1/f fluctuation from the arterial blood pressure of an artificial heart," J. Artif. Organs 20,777-782 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Takayasu, M.

T. Yambe, S. Nanka, S. Naganuma, S. Kobayashi, S. Nitta, T. Fukuju, M. Miura, N. Uchida, K. Tabayashi, A. Tanaka, M. Takayasu, K. Abe, H. Takayasu, M. Yoshizawa, and H. Takeda, "Extracting 1/f fluctuation from the arterial blood pressure of an artificial heart," J. Artif. Organs 20,777-782 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Takeda, H.

T. Yambe, S. Nanka, S. Naganuma, S. Kobayashi, S. Nitta, T. Fukuju, M. Miura, N. Uchida, K. Tabayashi, A. Tanaka, M. Takayasu, K. Abe, H. Takayasu, M. Yoshizawa, and H. Takeda, "Extracting 1/f fluctuation from the arterial blood pressure of an artificial heart," J. Artif. Organs 20,777-782 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, A.

T. Yambe, S. Nanka, S. Naganuma, S. Kobayashi, S. Nitta, T. Fukuju, M. Miura, N. Uchida, K. Tabayashi, A. Tanaka, M. Takayasu, K. Abe, H. Takayasu, M. Yoshizawa, and H. Takeda, "Extracting 1/f fluctuation from the arterial blood pressure of an artificial heart," J. Artif. Organs 20,777-782 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Thibos, L. N.

L. N. Thibos, X. Hong, A. Bradley, and X. Cheng, "Statistical variation of aberration structure and image quality in a normal population of healthy eyes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19,12 (2003).

L. N. Thibos, A. Bradley, and X. Hong, "A statistical model of the aberration structure of normal, well-corrected eyes," Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 22,427-433 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Torti, C.

L. Diaz-Santana, C. Torti, I. Munro, P. Gasson, and C. Dainty, "Benefit of higher closedloop bandwidths in ocular adaptive optics," Opt. Express 11,20 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Uchida, N.

T. Yambe, S. Nanka, S. Naganuma, S. Kobayashi, S. Nitta, T. Fukuju, M. Miura, N. Uchida, K. Tabayashi, A. Tanaka, M. Takayasu, K. Abe, H. Takayasu, M. Yoshizawa, and H. Takeda, "Extracting 1/f fluctuation from the arterial blood pressure of an artificial heart," J. Artif. Organs 20,777-782 (1996).
[CrossRef]

van der Heijde, G. L.

G. L. van der Heijde, A. P. A. Beers, and M. Dubbelman, "Microfluctuations of steady-state accommodation measured with ultrasonography," Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 16,3 (1996).
[CrossRef]

West, R.

T. Salmon, R. West, W. Gasser, and T. Kenmore, "Measurement of Refractive Errors in Young Myopes Using the COAS Shack-Hartmann Aberrometer," Optom. Vis. Sci. 801,6-14 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Westheimer, G.

F. W. Campbell, J. G. Robson, and G. Westheimer, "Fluctuations of accommodation under steady viewing conditions," J. Physiol. 3,145 (1959).

Williams, D. R.

H. Hofer, P. Artal, and D. R. Williams, "Dynamics of the eye’s wave aberration," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18,497-506 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Winn, B.

L. S. Gray, B. Winn, and B. Gilmartin, "Accommodative microfluctuations and pupil diameter," Vision Res. 33,15 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Gray, B. Winn, and B. Gilmartin, "Effect of target luminance on microfluctuations of accommodation," Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 13,3 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. Winn, J. R. Pugh, B. Gilmartin, and H. Owens, "Arterial pulse modulates steady-state ocular accommodation," Curr. Eye Res. 9,10 (1990).
[CrossRef]

B. Winn, W. N. Charman, J. R. Pugh, G. Heron, and A. S. Eadie, "Perceptual detectability of ocular accommodation microfluctuations," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 6,3 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Wood, J.

M. Collins, B. Davis, and J. Wood, "Microfluctuations of steady-state accommodation and the cardiopulmonary system," Vision Res. 17, (1995).

Yambe, T.

T. Yambe, S. Nanka, S. Naganuma, S. Kobayashi, S. Nitta, T. Fukuju, M. Miura, N. Uchida, K. Tabayashi, A. Tanaka, M. Takayasu, K. Abe, H. Takayasu, M. Yoshizawa, and H. Takeda, "Extracting 1/f fluctuation from the arterial blood pressure of an artificial heart," J. Artif. Organs 20,777-782 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yoshizawa, M.

T. Yambe, S. Nanka, S. Naganuma, S. Kobayashi, S. Nitta, T. Fukuju, M. Miura, N. Uchida, K. Tabayashi, A. Tanaka, M. Takayasu, K. Abe, H. Takayasu, M. Yoshizawa, and H. Takeda, "Extracting 1/f fluctuation from the arterial blood pressure of an artificial heart," J. Artif. Organs 20,777-782 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, M.

M. Zhu, M. J. Collins, and D. R. Iskander, "Microfluctuations of wavefront aberrations of the eye," Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 24,562-571 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Iskander, M. Collins, M. Morelande, and M. Zhu, "Analyzing the dynamic wavefront aberrations in the human eye," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 51,1969-1980 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Astrophys. J. (1)

J. D. Scargle, "Studies in astronomical time series analysis ii. statistical aspects of spectral analysis of unevenly spaced data," Astrophys. J. 263,835-853 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. Space Sci. (1)

N. R. Lomb, "Least-squares frequency analysis of unequally spaced data," Astrophys. Space Sci. 39,447-462 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Biol. Rhythm Res. (1)

T. Ruf, "The Lomb-Scargle Periodogram in Biological Rhythm Research: Analysis of Incomplete and Unequally Spaced Time-Series," Biol. Rhythm Res. 30,178-201 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chaos (1)

J. L. Cabrera and J. G. Milton, "Human stick balancing: Tuning l’evy flights to improve balance control," Chaos 14,3 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Curr. Eye Res. (1)

B. Winn, J. R. Pugh, B. Gilmartin, and H. Owens, "Arterial pulse modulates steady-state ocular accommodation," Curr. Eye Res. 9,10 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. (2)

D. R. Iskander, M. Collins, M. Morelande, and M. Zhu, "Analyzing the dynamic wavefront aberrations in the human eye," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 51,1969-1980 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kobayashi and T. Musha, "1/f fluctuation of heartbeat period," IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 29,456-457 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Artif. Organs (1)

T. Yambe, S. Nanka, S. Naganuma, S. Kobayashi, S. Nitta, T. Fukuju, M. Miura, N. Uchida, K. Tabayashi, A. Tanaka, M. Takayasu, K. Abe, H. Takayasu, M. Yoshizawa, and H. Takeda, "Extracting 1/f fluctuation from the arterial blood pressure of an artificial heart," J. Artif. Organs 20,777-782 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (6)

L. N. Thibos, X. Hong, A. Bradley, and X. Cheng, "Statistical variation of aberration structure and image quality in a normal population of healthy eyes," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19,12 (2003).

B. Winn, W. N. Charman, J. R. Pugh, G. Heron, and A. S. Eadie, "Perceptual detectability of ocular accommodation microfluctuations," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 6,3 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. Hampson, I. Munro, C. Paterson, and J. C. Dainty, "Weak correlation between the aberration dynamics of the human eye and the cardiopulmonary system," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22,1241-1250 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J.C. Kotulak and C. M. Schor, "Temporal variations in accommodation during steady-state conditions," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 3,2 (1986).
[CrossRef]

H. Hofer, P. Artal, and D. R. Williams, "Dynamics of the eye’s wave aberration," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 18,497-506 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Alpern, "Variability of accommodation during steady fixation at various levels of illuminance," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 48,3 (1958).

J. Physiol. (1)

F. W. Campbell, J. G. Robson, and G. Westheimer, "Fluctuations of accommodation under steady viewing conditions," J. Physiol. 3,145 (1959).

J. Vis. (1)

S. Plainis, H. Ginis, and A. Pallikaris, "The effect of ocular aberrations on steady-state errors of accommodative response," J. Vis. 5,466-477 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. (5)

G. L. van der Heijde, A. P. A. Beers, and M. Dubbelman, "Microfluctuations of steady-state accommodation measured with ultrasonography," Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 16,3 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Zhu, M. J. Collins, and D. R. Iskander, "Microfluctuations of wavefront aberrations of the eye," Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 24,562-571 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Gray, B. Winn, and B. Gilmartin, "Effect of target luminance on microfluctuations of accommodation," Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 13,3 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. Miege and P. Denieul, "Mean response and oscillations of accommodation for various stimulus vergences in relation to accommodation feedback control," Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 8,2 (1988).
[CrossRef]

L. N. Thibos, A. Bradley, and X. Hong, "A statistical model of the aberration structure of normal, well-corrected eyes," Ophthal. Physiol. Opt. 22,427-433 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

C. Leroux and C. Dainty, "A simple and robust method to extend the dynamic range of an aberrometer," Opt. Express 17,21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Diaz-Santana, C. Torti, I. Munro, P. Gasson, and C. Dainty, "Benefit of higher closedloop bandwidths in ocular adaptive optics," Opt. Express 11,20 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opthal. Physiol. Opt. (3)

A. Mira-Agudelo, L. Lundström, and P. Artal, "Temporal dynamics of ocular aberrations: monocular vs binocular vision," Opthal. Physiol. Opt. 29,256-263 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. N. Charman and G. Heron, "Fluctuations in accommodation: a review," Opthal. Physiol. Opt. 8,153-164 (1988).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Stark and D. A. Atchison, "Pupil size, mean accommodation response and the fluctuations of accommodation," Opthal. Physiol. Opt. 17,4 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Optom. Vis. Sci. (2)

L. Llorente, L. Diaz-Santana, D. Lara-Saucedo, and S. Marcos, "Aberrations of the human eye in visible and near infrared illumination," Optom. Vis. Sci. 80,26-35 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Salmon, R. West, W. Gasser, and T. Kenmore, "Measurement of Refractive Errors in Young Myopes Using the COAS Shack-Hartmann Aberrometer," Optom. Vis. Sci. 801,6-14 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

J. M. Hausdorff and C. K. Peng, "Multiscaled randomness: A possible source of 1/f noise in biology," Phys. Rev. E 54,2 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

C. K. Peng, J. Mietus, J. M. Hausdorff, S. Havlin, H. E. Stanley, and A. L. Goldberger, "Long-range anticorrelations and non-gaussian behavior of the heartbeat," Phys. Rev. Lett. 70,9 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Vision Res. (3)

P. Denieul, "Effects of stimulus vergence on mean accommodation response, microfluctuations of accommodation and optical quality of the human eye," Vision Res. 22,15 (1983).

M. Collins, B. Davis, and J. Wood, "Microfluctuations of steady-state accommodation and the cardiopulmonary system," Vision Res. 17, (1995).

L. S. Gray, B. Winn, and B. Gilmartin, "Accommodative microfluctuations and pupil diameter," Vision Res. 33,15 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other (10)

E. N. Bruce, Biomedical Signal Processing and Signal Modeling (Wiley Series in Telecommunications and Signal Processing, 2001).

R. A. Muller and G. J. MacDonald, Ice Ages and Astronomical Causes: Data, Spectral Analysis and Mechanisms (Springer London Ltd, 2000).

D. Sornette, Critical Phenomena in Natural Sciences (Springer, 2003).

J. L. Cabrera and J. G. Milton, "Self-similarity in a human balancing task," In Proceedings of the Second Joint EMBS/BMES Conference (Houston, TX) 3-4 (2002).

A. Clauset, C. R. Shalizi, and M. E. J. Newman, "Power-law distributions in empirical data," arXiv:0706.1062v1.

G. E. P. Box and G. M. Jenkins, Time Series Analysis, Forecasting and Control (Holden-Day, 1970).

C. Lessard, Signal Processing of Random Physiological Signals (Morgan & Claypool, 2006).

R. M. Bethea and A. G. Piersol, Applied Engineering Statistics (Marcel Dekker Inc., 1991)

M. B. Priestley, Non-linear and nonstationary time series analysis (Academic Press London, 1988).

A. Papoulis, Probability, Random Variables, and Stochastic Processes (WCB McGraw-Hill, 1991).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Comparison of the mean accommodative effort of the 9 subjects at the 3 natural viewing conditions.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Periodograms of the accommodative response for 3 subjects at each of the viewing conditions with fitted slopes. The values m 1 and m 2 denote the fitted slopes for the lower and higher frequency regions respectively.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Averaged periodograms of the accommodative response for different accommodative conditions. Each trace represents the average estimated spectral power across 8 subjects.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Assessing the temporal stationarity of the accommodation measurements. There was an overall discrepancy between the two testing methods of 17 % for the raw time series, and 6 % for the increments.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Illustration of the effects of noise on the autocorrelation of the increments. The spherical aberration term Z 0 4 is more greatly affected by noise than the Zernike defocus Z 0 2 term.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

Normalised ACF of the increments of the Zernike defocus Z 0 2 for 3 subjects at each of the 4 viewing conditions.

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

Time series measurements of accommodation for subject ED at the 4 viewing conditions. During the near point measurement, the subject was unable to fully hold fixation from t = 19 s onwards.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Fitted slopes for the 9 subjects.

Equations (4)

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a ( n ) = 16 3 Φ 2 ( Z 2 0 ( n ) 15 Z 4 0 ( n ) )
P a ( ω ) = 1 2 { [ j a j cos ω ( t j τ ) ] 2 j a j cos 2 ω ( t j τ ) + [ j a j sin ω ( t j τ ) ] 2 j a j sin 2 ω ( t j τ ) }
tan ( 2 ωτ ) = j sin 2 ω t j j cos 2 ω t j
r ̂ xx ( k ) = { n = 0 N k 1 x n + k x n * if k 0 r ̂ xx * ( k ) otherwise

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