Abstract

In this paper, a high voltage and fast pulse discharge circuit is developed and combined with laser ablation to enhance optical emission from Si crystal. The new characters of the discharge circuit and its effect on the plasma emission are presented. Characterizing by a damping and periodical oscillating discharge voltage and current with a short period of ~0.5μs, the discharge automatically occurs ~1μs after laser ablation. Significant optical emission enhancement, up to 52 times improved signal intensity relative to the signal in the absence of the discharge spark, is observed. Better line stability in terms of relative standard deviation and improved signal to noise (S/N) ratio are also achieved. The enhanced line intensity with better stability and S/N ratio, similar with the observation when using double-pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (DP-LIBS), probably will benefit element analysis in the future.

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    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Song, Y. I. Lee, and J. Sneddon, “Applications of laser-induced breakdown spectrometry,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 32(3), 183–235 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Grönlund, M. Lundqvist, and S. Svanberg, “Remote imaging laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and remote cultural heritage ablative cleaning,” Opt. Lett. 30(21), 2882–2884 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. L. Xu, W. Liu, and S. L. Chin, “Remote time-resolved filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy of biological materials,” Opt. Lett. 31(10), 1540–1542 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. D. Body and B. L. Chadwick, “A simultaneous elemental analysis system using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72(3), 1625–1629 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. R. Doucet, T. F. Belliveau, J. L. Fortier, and J. Hubert, “Comparative study of laser induced plasma spectroscopy and spark-optical emission spectroscopy for quantitative analysis of aluminium alloys,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19(4), 499–501 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. A. Cremers, L. J. Radziemski, and T. R. Loree, “Spectrochemical analysis of liquids using the laser spark,” Appl. Spectrosc. 38(5), 721–729 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D. N. Stratis, K. L. Eland, and S. M. Angel, “Dual-Pulse LIBS using a pre-ablation spark for enhanced ablation and emission,” Appl. Spectrosc. 54(9), 1270–1274 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Uebbing, J. Brust, W. Sdorra, F. Leis, and K. Niemax, “Reheating of a Laser-Produced Plasma by a 2nd Pulse Laser,” Appl. Spectrosc. 45(9), 1419–1423 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. J. R. Hunter, R. T. Wainner, L. G. Piper, and S. J. Davis, “Rapid field screening of soils for heavy metals with spark-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 42(12), 2102–2109 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Iida, “Laser vaporization of solid samples into a hollow-cathode discharge for atomic emission spectrometry,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 45(4-5), 427–438 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  15. K. Dittrich and R. Wennrich, “Laser vaporization in atomic spectroscopy,” Prog. Analyt. Atom. Spectrosc. 7, 139–198 (1984).
  16. F. Brech and L. Cross, “Optical micro emission stimulated by a ruby laser,” Appl. Spectrosc. 16, 59 (1962).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. S. D. Rasberry, B. F. Scribner, and M. Margoshes, “Laser probe excitation in spectrchemical analysis. I Investigation of quantitative aspects,” Appl. Opt. 6(1), 87–93 (1967).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  23. V. I. Babushok, F. C. DeLucia, J. L. Gottfried, C. A. Munson, and A. W. Miziolek, “Double pulse laser ablation and plasma: laser induced breakdown spectroscopy signal enhancement,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 61(9), 999–1014 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2007 (1)

D. K. Killinger, S. D. Allen, R. D. Waterbury, C. Stefano, and E. L. Dottery, “Enhancement of Nd:YAG LIBS emission of a remote target using a simultaneous CO(2) laser pulse,” Opt. Express 15(20), 12905–12915 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

H. L. Xu, W. Liu, and S. L. Chin, “Remote time-resolved filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy of biological materials,” Opt. Lett. 31(10), 1540–1542 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. I. Babushok, F. C. DeLucia, J. L. Gottfried, C. A. Munson, and A. W. Miziolek, “Double pulse laser ablation and plasma: laser induced breakdown spectroscopy signal enhancement,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 61(9), 999–1014 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

O. A. Nassef and H. E. Elsayed-Ali, “Spark discharge assisted laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, Spectrochim,” Acta Balt. 60, 1564–1572 (2005).

R. Grönlund, M. Lundqvist, and S. Svanberg, “Remote imaging laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and remote cultural heritage ablative cleaning,” Opt. Lett. 30(21), 2882–2884 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

F. R. Doucet, T. F. Belliveau, J. L. Fortier, and J. Hubert, “Comparative study of laser induced plasma spectroscopy and spark-optical emission spectroscopy for quantitative analysis of aluminium alloys,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19(4), 499–501 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

A. J. R. Hunter, R. T. Wainner, L. G. Piper, and S. J. Davis, “Rapid field screening of soils for heavy metals with spark-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 42(12), 2102–2109 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

J. Leon, “Radziemski, From laser to LIBS, the path of technology development,” Spectrochimica Acta Part B 57(7), 1109–1113 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

D. Body and B. L. Chadwick, “A simultaneous elemental analysis system using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72(3), 1625–1629 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

D. N. Stratis, K. L. Eland, and S. M. Angel, “Dual-Pulse LIBS using a pre-ablation spark for enhanced ablation and emission,” Appl. Spectrosc. 54(9), 1270–1274 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

D. A. Rusak, B. C. Castle, B. W. Smith, and J. D. Winefordner, “Fundamentals and applications of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. 27(4), 257–290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Song, Y. I. Lee, and J. Sneddon, “Applications of laser-induced breakdown spectrometry,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 32(3), 183–235 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

R. Nyga and W. Neu, “Double-pulse technique for optical emission spectroscopy of ablation plasmas of samples in liquids,” Opt. Lett. 18(9), 747–749 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

J. Uebbing, J. Brust, W. Sdorra, F. Leis, and K. Niemax, “Reheating of a Laser-Produced Plasma by a 2nd Pulse Laser,” Appl. Spectrosc. 45(9), 1419–1423 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

Y. Iida, “Laser vaporization of solid samples into a hollow-cathode discharge for atomic emission spectrometry,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 45(4-5), 427–438 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1984 (3)

K. Dittrich and R. Wennrich, “Laser vaporization in atomic spectroscopy,” Prog. Analyt. Atom. Spectrosc. 7, 139–198 (1984).

A. Aziz, J. A. Brekaert, K. Laqua, and F. Leis, “A study of direct analysis of solid samples using spark ablation combined with excitation in an inductively coupled plasma,” Spectrochimica Acta Part B 39(9-11), 1091–1103 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Cremers, L. J. Radziemski, and T. R. Loree, “Spectrochemical analysis of liquids using the laser spark,” Appl. Spectrosc. 38(5), 721–729 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1967 (2)

S. D. Rasberry, B. F. Scribner, and M. Margoshes, “Laser probe excitation in spectrochemical analysis.I: characteristics of the source,” Appl. Opt. 6(1), 81–86 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Rasberry, B. F. Scribner, and M. Margoshes, “Laser probe excitation in spectrchemical analysis. I Investigation of quantitative aspects,” Appl. Opt. 6(1), 87–93 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1962 (1)

F. Brech and L. Cross, “Optical micro emission stimulated by a ruby laser,” Appl. Spectrosc. 16, 59 (1962).

Allen, S. D.

D. K. Killinger, S. D. Allen, R. D. Waterbury, C. Stefano, and E. L. Dottery, “Enhancement of Nd:YAG LIBS emission of a remote target using a simultaneous CO(2) laser pulse,” Opt. Express 15(20), 12905–12915 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Angel, S. M.

D. N. Stratis, K. L. Eland, and S. M. Angel, “Dual-Pulse LIBS using a pre-ablation spark for enhanced ablation and emission,” Appl. Spectrosc. 54(9), 1270–1274 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Aziz, A.

A. Aziz, J. A. Brekaert, K. Laqua, and F. Leis, “A study of direct analysis of solid samples using spark ablation combined with excitation in an inductively coupled plasma,” Spectrochimica Acta Part B 39(9-11), 1091–1103 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Babushok, V. I.

V. I. Babushok, F. C. DeLucia, J. L. Gottfried, C. A. Munson, and A. W. Miziolek, “Double pulse laser ablation and plasma: laser induced breakdown spectroscopy signal enhancement,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 61(9), 999–1014 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Belliveau, T. F.

F. R. Doucet, T. F. Belliveau, J. L. Fortier, and J. Hubert, “Comparative study of laser induced plasma spectroscopy and spark-optical emission spectroscopy for quantitative analysis of aluminium alloys,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19(4), 499–501 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Body, D.

D. Body and B. L. Chadwick, “A simultaneous elemental analysis system using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72(3), 1625–1629 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brech, F.

F. Brech and L. Cross, “Optical micro emission stimulated by a ruby laser,” Appl. Spectrosc. 16, 59 (1962).

Brekaert, J. A.

A. Aziz, J. A. Brekaert, K. Laqua, and F. Leis, “A study of direct analysis of solid samples using spark ablation combined with excitation in an inductively coupled plasma,” Spectrochimica Acta Part B 39(9-11), 1091–1103 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Brust, J.

J. Uebbing, J. Brust, W. Sdorra, F. Leis, and K. Niemax, “Reheating of a Laser-Produced Plasma by a 2nd Pulse Laser,” Appl. Spectrosc. 45(9), 1419–1423 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Castle, B. C.

D. A. Rusak, B. C. Castle, B. W. Smith, and J. D. Winefordner, “Fundamentals and applications of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. 27(4), 257–290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chadwick, B. L.

D. Body and B. L. Chadwick, “A simultaneous elemental analysis system using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72(3), 1625–1629 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chin, S. L.

H. L. Xu, W. Liu, and S. L. Chin, “Remote time-resolved filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy of biological materials,” Opt. Lett. 31(10), 1540–1542 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cremers, D. A.

D. A. Cremers, L. J. Radziemski, and T. R. Loree, “Spectrochemical analysis of liquids using the laser spark,” Appl. Spectrosc. 38(5), 721–729 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Cross, L.

F. Brech and L. Cross, “Optical micro emission stimulated by a ruby laser,” Appl. Spectrosc. 16, 59 (1962).

Davis, S. J.

A. J. R. Hunter, R. T. Wainner, L. G. Piper, and S. J. Davis, “Rapid field screening of soils for heavy metals with spark-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 42(12), 2102–2109 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DeLucia, F. C.

V. I. Babushok, F. C. DeLucia, J. L. Gottfried, C. A. Munson, and A. W. Miziolek, “Double pulse laser ablation and plasma: laser induced breakdown spectroscopy signal enhancement,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 61(9), 999–1014 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dittrich, K.

K. Dittrich and R. Wennrich, “Laser vaporization in atomic spectroscopy,” Prog. Analyt. Atom. Spectrosc. 7, 139–198 (1984).

Dottery, E. L.

D. K. Killinger, S. D. Allen, R. D. Waterbury, C. Stefano, and E. L. Dottery, “Enhancement of Nd:YAG LIBS emission of a remote target using a simultaneous CO(2) laser pulse,” Opt. Express 15(20), 12905–12915 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doucet, F. R.

F. R. Doucet, T. F. Belliveau, J. L. Fortier, and J. Hubert, “Comparative study of laser induced plasma spectroscopy and spark-optical emission spectroscopy for quantitative analysis of aluminium alloys,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19(4), 499–501 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Eland, K. L.

D. N. Stratis, K. L. Eland, and S. M. Angel, “Dual-Pulse LIBS using a pre-ablation spark for enhanced ablation and emission,” Appl. Spectrosc. 54(9), 1270–1274 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Elsayed-Ali, H. E.

O. A. Nassef and H. E. Elsayed-Ali, “Spark discharge assisted laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, Spectrochim,” Acta Balt. 60, 1564–1572 (2005).

Fortier, J. L.

F. R. Doucet, T. F. Belliveau, J. L. Fortier, and J. Hubert, “Comparative study of laser induced plasma spectroscopy and spark-optical emission spectroscopy for quantitative analysis of aluminium alloys,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19(4), 499–501 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gottfried, J. L.

V. I. Babushok, F. C. DeLucia, J. L. Gottfried, C. A. Munson, and A. W. Miziolek, “Double pulse laser ablation and plasma: laser induced breakdown spectroscopy signal enhancement,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 61(9), 999–1014 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Grönlund, R.

R. Grönlund, M. Lundqvist, and S. Svanberg, “Remote imaging laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and remote cultural heritage ablative cleaning,” Opt. Lett. 30(21), 2882–2884 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hubert, J.

F. R. Doucet, T. F. Belliveau, J. L. Fortier, and J. Hubert, “Comparative study of laser induced plasma spectroscopy and spark-optical emission spectroscopy for quantitative analysis of aluminium alloys,” J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 19(4), 499–501 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hunter, A. J. R.

A. J. R. Hunter, R. T. Wainner, L. G. Piper, and S. J. Davis, “Rapid field screening of soils for heavy metals with spark-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 42(12), 2102–2109 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iida, Y.

Y. Iida, “Laser vaporization of solid samples into a hollow-cathode discharge for atomic emission spectrometry,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 45(4-5), 427–438 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Killinger, D. K.

D. K. Killinger, S. D. Allen, R. D. Waterbury, C. Stefano, and E. L. Dottery, “Enhancement of Nd:YAG LIBS emission of a remote target using a simultaneous CO(2) laser pulse,” Opt. Express 15(20), 12905–12915 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laqua, K.

A. Aziz, J. A. Brekaert, K. Laqua, and F. Leis, “A study of direct analysis of solid samples using spark ablation combined with excitation in an inductively coupled plasma,” Spectrochimica Acta Part B 39(9-11), 1091–1103 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. I.

K. Song, Y. I. Lee, and J. Sneddon, “Applications of laser-induced breakdown spectrometry,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 32(3), 183–235 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Leis, F.

J. Uebbing, J. Brust, W. Sdorra, F. Leis, and K. Niemax, “Reheating of a Laser-Produced Plasma by a 2nd Pulse Laser,” Appl. Spectrosc. 45(9), 1419–1423 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Aziz, J. A. Brekaert, K. Laqua, and F. Leis, “A study of direct analysis of solid samples using spark ablation combined with excitation in an inductively coupled plasma,” Spectrochimica Acta Part B 39(9-11), 1091–1103 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Leon, J.

J. Leon, “Radziemski, From laser to LIBS, the path of technology development,” Spectrochimica Acta Part B 57(7), 1109–1113 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W.

H. L. Xu, W. Liu, and S. L. Chin, “Remote time-resolved filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy of biological materials,” Opt. Lett. 31(10), 1540–1542 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loree, T. R.

D. A. Cremers, L. J. Radziemski, and T. R. Loree, “Spectrochemical analysis of liquids using the laser spark,” Appl. Spectrosc. 38(5), 721–729 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Lundqvist, M.

R. Grönlund, M. Lundqvist, and S. Svanberg, “Remote imaging laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and remote cultural heritage ablative cleaning,” Opt. Lett. 30(21), 2882–2884 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Margoshes, M.

S. D. Rasberry, B. F. Scribner, and M. Margoshes, “Laser probe excitation in spectrochemical analysis.I: characteristics of the source,” Appl. Opt. 6(1), 81–86 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Rasberry, B. F. Scribner, and M. Margoshes, “Laser probe excitation in spectrchemical analysis. I Investigation of quantitative aspects,” Appl. Opt. 6(1), 87–93 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miziolek, A. W.

V. I. Babushok, F. C. DeLucia, J. L. Gottfried, C. A. Munson, and A. W. Miziolek, “Double pulse laser ablation and plasma: laser induced breakdown spectroscopy signal enhancement,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 61(9), 999–1014 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Munson, C. A.

V. I. Babushok, F. C. DeLucia, J. L. Gottfried, C. A. Munson, and A. W. Miziolek, “Double pulse laser ablation and plasma: laser induced breakdown spectroscopy signal enhancement,” Spectrochim. Acta, B At. Spectrosc. 61(9), 999–1014 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nassef, O. A.

O. A. Nassef and H. E. Elsayed-Ali, “Spark discharge assisted laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, Spectrochim,” Acta Balt. 60, 1564–1572 (2005).

Neu, W.

R. Nyga and W. Neu, “Double-pulse technique for optical emission spectroscopy of ablation plasmas of samples in liquids,” Opt. Lett. 18(9), 747–749 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Niemax, K.

J. Uebbing, J. Brust, W. Sdorra, F. Leis, and K. Niemax, “Reheating of a Laser-Produced Plasma by a 2nd Pulse Laser,” Appl. Spectrosc. 45(9), 1419–1423 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nyga, R.

R. Nyga and W. Neu, “Double-pulse technique for optical emission spectroscopy of ablation plasmas of samples in liquids,” Opt. Lett. 18(9), 747–749 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Piper, L. G.

A. J. R. Hunter, R. T. Wainner, L. G. Piper, and S. J. Davis, “Rapid field screening of soils for heavy metals with spark-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 42(12), 2102–2109 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radziemski, L. J.

D. A. Cremers, L. J. Radziemski, and T. R. Loree, “Spectrochemical analysis of liquids using the laser spark,” Appl. Spectrosc. 38(5), 721–729 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Rasberry, S. D.

S. D. Rasberry, B. F. Scribner, and M. Margoshes, “Laser probe excitation in spectrochemical analysis.I: characteristics of the source,” Appl. Opt. 6(1), 81–86 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Rasberry, B. F. Scribner, and M. Margoshes, “Laser probe excitation in spectrchemical analysis. I Investigation of quantitative aspects,” Appl. Opt. 6(1), 87–93 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rusak, D. A.

D. A. Rusak, B. C. Castle, B. W. Smith, and J. D. Winefordner, “Fundamentals and applications of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. 27(4), 257–290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Scribner, B. F.

S. D. Rasberry, B. F. Scribner, and M. Margoshes, “Laser probe excitation in spectrchemical analysis. I Investigation of quantitative aspects,” Appl. Opt. 6(1), 87–93 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Rasberry, B. F. Scribner, and M. Margoshes, “Laser probe excitation in spectrochemical analysis.I: characteristics of the source,” Appl. Opt. 6(1), 81–86 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sdorra, W.

J. Uebbing, J. Brust, W. Sdorra, F. Leis, and K. Niemax, “Reheating of a Laser-Produced Plasma by a 2nd Pulse Laser,” Appl. Spectrosc. 45(9), 1419–1423 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Smith, B. W.

D. A. Rusak, B. C. Castle, B. W. Smith, and J. D. Winefordner, “Fundamentals and applications of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. 27(4), 257–290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sneddon, J.

K. Song, Y. I. Lee, and J. Sneddon, “Applications of laser-induced breakdown spectrometry,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 32(3), 183–235 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Song, K.

K. Song, Y. I. Lee, and J. Sneddon, “Applications of laser-induced breakdown spectrometry,” Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 32(3), 183–235 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stefano, C.

D. K. Killinger, S. D. Allen, R. D. Waterbury, C. Stefano, and E. L. Dottery, “Enhancement of Nd:YAG LIBS emission of a remote target using a simultaneous CO(2) laser pulse,” Opt. Express 15(20), 12905–12915 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stratis, D. N.

D. N. Stratis, K. L. Eland, and S. M. Angel, “Dual-Pulse LIBS using a pre-ablation spark for enhanced ablation and emission,” Appl. Spectrosc. 54(9), 1270–1274 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Svanberg, S.

R. Grönlund, M. Lundqvist, and S. Svanberg, “Remote imaging laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and remote cultural heritage ablative cleaning,” Opt. Lett. 30(21), 2882–2884 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uebbing, J.

J. Uebbing, J. Brust, W. Sdorra, F. Leis, and K. Niemax, “Reheating of a Laser-Produced Plasma by a 2nd Pulse Laser,” Appl. Spectrosc. 45(9), 1419–1423 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wainner, R. T.

A. J. R. Hunter, R. T. Wainner, L. G. Piper, and S. J. Davis, “Rapid field screening of soils for heavy metals with spark-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 42(12), 2102–2109 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Waterbury, R. D.

D. K. Killinger, S. D. Allen, R. D. Waterbury, C. Stefano, and E. L. Dottery, “Enhancement of Nd:YAG LIBS emission of a remote target using a simultaneous CO(2) laser pulse,” Opt. Express 15(20), 12905–12915 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wennrich, R.

K. Dittrich and R. Wennrich, “Laser vaporization in atomic spectroscopy,” Prog. Analyt. Atom. Spectrosc. 7, 139–198 (1984).

Winefordner, J. D.

D. A. Rusak, B. C. Castle, B. W. Smith, and J. D. Winefordner, “Fundamentals and applications of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. 27(4), 257–290 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Xu, H. L.

H. L. Xu, W. Liu, and S. L. Chin, “Remote time-resolved filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy of biological materials,” Opt. Lett. 31(10), 1540–1542 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Acta Balt. (1)

O. A. Nassef and H. E. Elsayed-Ali, “Spark discharge assisted laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, Spectrochim,” Acta Balt. 60, 1564–1572 (2005).

Appl. Opt. (3)

A. J. R. Hunter, R. T. Wainner, L. G. Piper, and S. J. Davis, “Rapid field screening of soils for heavy metals with spark-induced breakdown spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 42(12), 2102–2109 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. D. Rasberry, B. F. Scribner, and M. Margoshes, “Laser probe excitation in spectrochemical analysis.I: characteristics of the source,” Appl. Opt. 6(1), 81–86 (1967).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic diagram of LA-FPDPS system. HV, high voltage

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The temporal profile of the discharge (a) voltage and (b) current

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Spectrum of silicon substrate obtained by LA-FPDPS with a 15KV discharge voltage, (b) Spectrum of silicon substrate obtained by SP-LIBS only.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Signal enhancement ratios of several selected lines as a function of discharge voltage

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

SEM images of the craters after 50 consecutive sampling of the same region of the Si sample using (a) laser ablation only, (b) laser ablation following a 15 KV discharge spark. The laser energy used in two measurements was the same.

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