Abstract

This study elucidates for the first time an all-optically controllable random laser in a dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (DDPDLC) with nano-sized LC droplets. Experimental results demonstrate that the lasing intensity of the random laser can be controlled to decrease by increasing irradiation time/intensity of one green beam, and increase by increasing the irradiation time of one red beam. The all-optical controllability of the random laser is attributed to the green (red)-beam-induced isothermal nematic→isotropic (isotropic→nematic) phase transition in LC droplets by transcis (cistrans back) isomerization of azo dyes. This isomerization may decrease (increase) the difference between the refractive indices of the LC droplets and the polymer, thereby increasing (decreasing) the diffusion constant (or transport mean free path), subsequently decreasing the scattering strength and, thus, random lasing intensity.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, "Laser action in strongly scattering media," Nature 368(6470), 436-438 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, "Random laser action in semiconductor powder," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278-2281 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. S. Wiersma, "The smallest random laser," Nature 406(6792), 132-135 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. V. M. Apalkov, M. E. Raikh, and B. Shapiro, "Random resonators and prelocalized modes in disordered dielectric films," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(1), 016802 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. C. Polson, and Z. V. Vardeny, "Random lasing in human tissues," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1289-1291 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Q. H. Song, L. Wang, S. M. Xiao, X. C. Zhou, L. Y. Liu, and L. Xu, "Random laser emission from a surfacecorrugated waveguide," Phys. Rev. B 72(3), 035424 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Varderny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, "Stimulated emission in high-gain organic media," Phys. Rev. B 59(8), R5284-R5287 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. S. Wiersma, M. Colocci, R. Righini, and F. Aliev, "Temperature-controlled light diffusion in random media," Phys. Rev. B 64(14), 144208 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. M. Morris, A. D. Ford, M. N. Pivnenko, and H. J. Coles, "Electronic control of nonresonant random lasing from a dye-doped smectic A* liquid crystal scattering device," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 141103 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. Strangi, S. Ferjani, V. Barna, A. De Luca, C. Versace, N. Scaramuzza, and R. Bartolino, "Random lasing and weak localization of light in dye-doped nematic liquid crystals," Opt. Express 14(17), 7737-7744 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Q. H. Song, S. M. Xiao, X. C. Zhou, L. Y. Liu, L. Xu, Y. G. Wu, and Z. S. Wang, "Liquid-crystal-based tunable high-Q directional random laser from a planar random microcavity," Opt. Lett. 32(4), 373-375 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S. Ferjani, V. Barna, A. De Luca, C. Versace, and G. Strangi, "Random lasing in freely suspended dye-doped nematic liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 33(6), 557-559 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. Q. H. Song, L. Y. Liu, L. Xu, Y. G. Wu, and Z. S. Wang, "Electrical tunable random laser emission from a liquid-crystal infiltrated disordered planar microcavity," Opt. Lett. 34(3), 298-300 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. S. Gottardo, S. Cavalieri, O. Yaroshchuk, and D. S. Wiersma, "Quasi-two-dimensional diffusive random laser action," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(26), 263901 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. J. Liu, X. W. Sun, H. I. Elim, and W. Ji, "Gain narrowing and random lasing from dye-doped polymer dispersed liquid crystals with nanoscale liquid crystal droplets," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(1), 011111 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. Ferjani, L. Sorriso-Valvo, A. De Luca, V. Barna, R. De Marco, and G. Strangi, "Statistical analysis of random lasing emission properties in nematic liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 78(1), 011707 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. D. S. Wiersma, "The physics and applications of random lasers," Nat. Phys. 4(5), 359-367 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. Lagendijk and M. van Albada, "Observation of weak localization of light in a random medium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 55(24), 2692-2695 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. E. Akkermans, P. E. Wolf, and R. Maynard, "Coherent backscattering of light by disordered media: Analysis of the peak line shape," Phys. Rev. Lett. 56(14), 1471-1474 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. M. van Alvada, M. B. van der Mark, and A. Lagendijk, "Observation of weak localization of light in a finite slab: Anisotropy effects and light path classification," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(4), 361-364 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  21. P. C. de Oliveira, A. E. Perkins, and N. M. Lawandy, "Coherent backscattering from high-gain scattering media," Opt. Lett. 21(20), 1685-1687 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. H.-K. Lee, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, T. Fujisawa, M. Aizawa, and B. Lee, "All-optically controllable polymer/liquid crystal composite films containing the azobenzene liquid crystal," Chem. Mater. 10(5), 1402-1407 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  23. H.-C. Yeh, G.-H. Chen, C.-R. Lee, and T.-S. Mo, "Optically switchable biphotonic gratings based on dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261103 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2009

Q. H. Song, L. Y. Liu, L. Xu, Y. G. Wu, and Z. S. Wang, "Electrical tunable random laser emission from a liquid-crystal infiltrated disordered planar microcavity," Opt. Lett. 34(3), 298-300 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

S. Ferjani, L. Sorriso-Valvo, A. De Luca, V. Barna, R. De Marco, and G. Strangi, "Statistical analysis of random lasing emission properties in nematic liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 78(1), 011707 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Wiersma, "The physics and applications of random lasers," Nat. Phys. 4(5), 359-367 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Ferjani, V. Barna, A. De Luca, C. Versace, and G. Strangi, "Random lasing in freely suspended dye-doped nematic liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 33(6), 557-559 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

Q. H. Song, S. M. Xiao, X. C. Zhou, L. Y. Liu, L. Xu, Y. G. Wu, and Z. S. Wang, "Liquid-crystal-based tunable high-Q directional random laser from a planar random microcavity," Opt. Lett. 32(4), 373-375 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-C. Yeh, G.-H. Chen, C.-R. Lee, and T.-S. Mo, "Optically switchable biphotonic gratings based on dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

Y. J. Liu, X. W. Sun, H. I. Elim, and W. Ji, "Gain narrowing and random lasing from dye-doped polymer dispersed liquid crystals with nanoscale liquid crystal droplets," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(1), 011111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Strangi, S. Ferjani, V. Barna, A. De Luca, C. Versace, N. Scaramuzza, and R. Bartolino, "Random lasing and weak localization of light in dye-doped nematic liquid crystals," Opt. Express 14(17), 7737-7744 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

S. M. Morris, A. D. Ford, M. N. Pivnenko, and H. J. Coles, "Electronic control of nonresonant random lasing from a dye-doped smectic A* liquid crystal scattering device," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 141103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. H. Song, L. Wang, S. M. Xiao, X. C. Zhou, L. Y. Liu, and L. Xu, "Random laser emission from a surfacecorrugated waveguide," Phys. Rev. B 72(3), 035424 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

R. C. Polson, and Z. V. Vardeny, "Random lasing in human tissues," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1289-1291 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Gottardo, S. Cavalieri, O. Yaroshchuk, and D. S. Wiersma, "Quasi-two-dimensional diffusive random laser action," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(26), 263901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

V. M. Apalkov, M. E. Raikh, and B. Shapiro, "Random resonators and prelocalized modes in disordered dielectric films," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(1), 016802 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

D. S. Wiersma, M. Colocci, R. Righini, and F. Aliev, "Temperature-controlled light diffusion in random media," Phys. Rev. B 64(14), 144208 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

D. S. Wiersma, "The smallest random laser," Nature 406(6792), 132-135 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, "Random laser action in semiconductor powder," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278-2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Varderny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, "Stimulated emission in high-gain organic media," Phys. Rev. B 59(8), R5284-R5287 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

H.-K. Lee, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, T. Fujisawa, M. Aizawa, and B. Lee, "All-optically controllable polymer/liquid crystal composite films containing the azobenzene liquid crystal," Chem. Mater. 10(5), 1402-1407 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

P. C. de Oliveira, A. E. Perkins, and N. M. Lawandy, "Coherent backscattering from high-gain scattering media," Opt. Lett. 21(20), 1685-1687 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, "Laser action in strongly scattering media," Nature 368(6470), 436-438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1987

M. van Alvada, M. B. van der Mark, and A. Lagendijk, "Observation of weak localization of light in a finite slab: Anisotropy effects and light path classification," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(4), 361-364 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986

E. Akkermans, P. E. Wolf, and R. Maynard, "Coherent backscattering of light by disordered media: Analysis of the peak line shape," Phys. Rev. Lett. 56(14), 1471-1474 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985

A. Lagendijk and M. van Albada, "Observation of weak localization of light in a random medium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 55(24), 2692-2695 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aizawa, M.

H.-K. Lee, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, T. Fujisawa, M. Aizawa, and B. Lee, "All-optically controllable polymer/liquid crystal composite films containing the azobenzene liquid crystal," Chem. Mater. 10(5), 1402-1407 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Akkermans, E.

E. Akkermans, P. E. Wolf, and R. Maynard, "Coherent backscattering of light by disordered media: Analysis of the peak line shape," Phys. Rev. Lett. 56(14), 1471-1474 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aliev, F.

D. S. Wiersma, M. Colocci, R. Righini, and F. Aliev, "Temperature-controlled light diffusion in random media," Phys. Rev. B 64(14), 144208 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Apalkov, V. M.

V. M. Apalkov, M. E. Raikh, and B. Shapiro, "Random resonators and prelocalized modes in disordered dielectric films," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(1), 016802 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balachandran, R. M.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, "Laser action in strongly scattering media," Nature 368(6470), 436-438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Barna, V.

S. Ferjani, V. Barna, A. De Luca, C. Versace, and G. Strangi, "Random lasing in freely suspended dye-doped nematic liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 33(6), 557-559 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ferjani, L. Sorriso-Valvo, A. De Luca, V. Barna, R. De Marco, and G. Strangi, "Statistical analysis of random lasing emission properties in nematic liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 78(1), 011707 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Strangi, S. Ferjani, V. Barna, A. De Luca, C. Versace, N. Scaramuzza, and R. Bartolino, "Random lasing and weak localization of light in dye-doped nematic liquid crystals," Opt. Express 14(17), 7737-7744 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartolino, R.

G. Strangi, S. Ferjani, V. Barna, A. De Luca, C. Versace, N. Scaramuzza, and R. Bartolino, "Random lasing and weak localization of light in dye-doped nematic liquid crystals," Opt. Express 14(17), 7737-7744 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baughman, R. H.

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Varderny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, "Stimulated emission in high-gain organic media," Phys. Rev. B 59(8), R5284-R5287 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cao, H.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, "Random laser action in semiconductor powder," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278-2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cavalieri, S.

S. Gottardo, S. Cavalieri, O. Yaroshchuk, and D. S. Wiersma, "Quasi-two-dimensional diffusive random laser action," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(26), 263901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R. P. H.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, "Random laser action in semiconductor powder," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278-2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G.-H.

H.-C. Yeh, G.-H. Chen, C.-R. Lee, and T.-S. Mo, "Optically switchable biphotonic gratings based on dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Coles, H. J.

S. M. Morris, A. D. Ford, M. N. Pivnenko, and H. J. Coles, "Electronic control of nonresonant random lasing from a dye-doped smectic A* liquid crystal scattering device," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 141103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Colocci, M.

D. S. Wiersma, M. Colocci, R. Righini, and F. Aliev, "Temperature-controlled light diffusion in random media," Phys. Rev. B 64(14), 144208 (2001).
[CrossRef]

De Luca, A.

S. Ferjani, V. Barna, A. De Luca, C. Versace, and G. Strangi, "Random lasing in freely suspended dye-doped nematic liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 33(6), 557-559 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ferjani, L. Sorriso-Valvo, A. De Luca, V. Barna, R. De Marco, and G. Strangi, "Statistical analysis of random lasing emission properties in nematic liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 78(1), 011707 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Strangi, S. Ferjani, V. Barna, A. De Luca, C. Versace, N. Scaramuzza, and R. Bartolino, "Random lasing and weak localization of light in dye-doped nematic liquid crystals," Opt. Express 14(17), 7737-7744 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Marco, R.

S. Ferjani, L. Sorriso-Valvo, A. De Luca, V. Barna, R. De Marco, and G. Strangi, "Statistical analysis of random lasing emission properties in nematic liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 78(1), 011707 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Oliveira, P. C.

P. C. de Oliveira, A. E. Perkins, and N. M. Lawandy, "Coherent backscattering from high-gain scattering media," Opt. Lett. 21(20), 1685-1687 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elim, H. I.

Y. J. Liu, X. W. Sun, H. I. Elim, and W. Ji, "Gain narrowing and random lasing from dye-doped polymer dispersed liquid crystals with nanoscale liquid crystal droplets," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(1), 011111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ferjani, S.

S. Ferjani, L. Sorriso-Valvo, A. De Luca, V. Barna, R. De Marco, and G. Strangi, "Statistical analysis of random lasing emission properties in nematic liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 78(1), 011707 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ferjani, V. Barna, A. De Luca, C. Versace, and G. Strangi, "Random lasing in freely suspended dye-doped nematic liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 33(6), 557-559 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Strangi, S. Ferjani, V. Barna, A. De Luca, C. Versace, N. Scaramuzza, and R. Bartolino, "Random lasing and weak localization of light in dye-doped nematic liquid crystals," Opt. Express 14(17), 7737-7744 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ford, A. D.

S. M. Morris, A. D. Ford, M. N. Pivnenko, and H. J. Coles, "Electronic control of nonresonant random lasing from a dye-doped smectic A* liquid crystal scattering device," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 141103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Frolov, S. V.

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Varderny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, "Stimulated emission in high-gain organic media," Phys. Rev. B 59(8), R5284-R5287 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fujisawa, T.

H.-K. Lee, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, T. Fujisawa, M. Aizawa, and B. Lee, "All-optically controllable polymer/liquid crystal composite films containing the azobenzene liquid crystal," Chem. Mater. 10(5), 1402-1407 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gomes, A. S. L.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, "Laser action in strongly scattering media," Nature 368(6470), 436-438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gottardo, S.

S. Gottardo, S. Cavalieri, O. Yaroshchuk, and D. S. Wiersma, "Quasi-two-dimensional diffusive random laser action," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(26), 263901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ho, S. T.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, "Random laser action in semiconductor powder," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278-2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, T.

H.-K. Lee, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, T. Fujisawa, M. Aizawa, and B. Lee, "All-optically controllable polymer/liquid crystal composite films containing the azobenzene liquid crystal," Chem. Mater. 10(5), 1402-1407 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ji, W.

Y. J. Liu, X. W. Sun, H. I. Elim, and W. Ji, "Gain narrowing and random lasing from dye-doped polymer dispersed liquid crystals with nanoscale liquid crystal droplets," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(1), 011111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kanazawa, A.

H.-K. Lee, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, T. Fujisawa, M. Aizawa, and B. Lee, "All-optically controllable polymer/liquid crystal composite films containing the azobenzene liquid crystal," Chem. Mater. 10(5), 1402-1407 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lagendijk, A.

M. van Alvada, M. B. van der Mark, and A. Lagendijk, "Observation of weak localization of light in a finite slab: Anisotropy effects and light path classification," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(4), 361-364 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. Lagendijk and M. van Albada, "Observation of weak localization of light in a random medium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 55(24), 2692-2695 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lawandy, N. M.

P. C. de Oliveira, A. E. Perkins, and N. M. Lawandy, "Coherent backscattering from high-gain scattering media," Opt. Lett. 21(20), 1685-1687 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, "Laser action in strongly scattering media," Nature 368(6470), 436-438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B.

H.-K. Lee, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, T. Fujisawa, M. Aizawa, and B. Lee, "All-optically controllable polymer/liquid crystal composite films containing the azobenzene liquid crystal," Chem. Mater. 10(5), 1402-1407 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.-R.

H.-C. Yeh, G.-H. Chen, C.-R. Lee, and T.-S. Mo, "Optically switchable biphotonic gratings based on dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.-K.

H.-K. Lee, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, T. Fujisawa, M. Aizawa, and B. Lee, "All-optically controllable polymer/liquid crystal composite films containing the azobenzene liquid crystal," Chem. Mater. 10(5), 1402-1407 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liu, L. Y.

Q. H. Song, L. Y. Liu, L. Xu, Y. G. Wu, and Z. S. Wang, "Electrical tunable random laser emission from a liquid-crystal infiltrated disordered planar microcavity," Opt. Lett. 34(3), 298-300 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. H. Song, S. M. Xiao, X. C. Zhou, L. Y. Liu, L. Xu, Y. G. Wu, and Z. S. Wang, "Liquid-crystal-based tunable high-Q directional random laser from a planar random microcavity," Opt. Lett. 32(4), 373-375 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. H. Song, L. Wang, S. M. Xiao, X. C. Zhou, L. Y. Liu, and L. Xu, "Random laser emission from a surfacecorrugated waveguide," Phys. Rev. B 72(3), 035424 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y. J.

Y. J. Liu, X. W. Sun, H. I. Elim, and W. Ji, "Gain narrowing and random lasing from dye-doped polymer dispersed liquid crystals with nanoscale liquid crystal droplets," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(1), 011111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Maynard, R.

E. Akkermans, P. E. Wolf, and R. Maynard, "Coherent backscattering of light by disordered media: Analysis of the peak line shape," Phys. Rev. Lett. 56(14), 1471-1474 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mo, T.-S.

H.-C. Yeh, G.-H. Chen, C.-R. Lee, and T.-S. Mo, "Optically switchable biphotonic gratings based on dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Morris, S. M.

S. M. Morris, A. D. Ford, M. N. Pivnenko, and H. J. Coles, "Electronic control of nonresonant random lasing from a dye-doped smectic A* liquid crystal scattering device," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 141103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Perkins, A. E.

P. C. de Oliveira, A. E. Perkins, and N. M. Lawandy, "Coherent backscattering from high-gain scattering media," Opt. Lett. 21(20), 1685-1687 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pivnenko, M. N.

S. M. Morris, A. D. Ford, M. N. Pivnenko, and H. J. Coles, "Electronic control of nonresonant random lasing from a dye-doped smectic A* liquid crystal scattering device," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 141103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Polson, R. C.

R. C. Polson, and Z. V. Vardeny, "Random lasing in human tissues," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1289-1291 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Raikh, M. E.

V. M. Apalkov, M. E. Raikh, and B. Shapiro, "Random resonators and prelocalized modes in disordered dielectric films," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(1), 016802 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Righini, R.

D. S. Wiersma, M. Colocci, R. Righini, and F. Aliev, "Temperature-controlled light diffusion in random media," Phys. Rev. B 64(14), 144208 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sauvain, E.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, "Laser action in strongly scattering media," Nature 368(6470), 436-438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Scaramuzza, N.

G. Strangi, S. Ferjani, V. Barna, A. De Luca, C. Versace, N. Scaramuzza, and R. Bartolino, "Random lasing and weak localization of light in dye-doped nematic liquid crystals," Opt. Express 14(17), 7737-7744 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seelig, E. W.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, "Random laser action in semiconductor powder," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278-2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shapiro, B.

V. M. Apalkov, M. E. Raikh, and B. Shapiro, "Random resonators and prelocalized modes in disordered dielectric films," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(1), 016802 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shiono, T.

H.-K. Lee, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, T. Fujisawa, M. Aizawa, and B. Lee, "All-optically controllable polymer/liquid crystal composite films containing the azobenzene liquid crystal," Chem. Mater. 10(5), 1402-1407 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Song, Q. H.

Q. H. Song, L. Y. Liu, L. Xu, Y. G. Wu, and Z. S. Wang, "Electrical tunable random laser emission from a liquid-crystal infiltrated disordered planar microcavity," Opt. Lett. 34(3), 298-300 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. H. Song, S. M. Xiao, X. C. Zhou, L. Y. Liu, L. Xu, Y. G. Wu, and Z. S. Wang, "Liquid-crystal-based tunable high-Q directional random laser from a planar random microcavity," Opt. Lett. 32(4), 373-375 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. H. Song, L. Wang, S. M. Xiao, X. C. Zhou, L. Y. Liu, and L. Xu, "Random laser emission from a surfacecorrugated waveguide," Phys. Rev. B 72(3), 035424 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sorriso-Valvo, L.

S. Ferjani, L. Sorriso-Valvo, A. De Luca, V. Barna, R. De Marco, and G. Strangi, "Statistical analysis of random lasing emission properties in nematic liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 78(1), 011707 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strangi, G.

S. Ferjani, L. Sorriso-Valvo, A. De Luca, V. Barna, R. De Marco, and G. Strangi, "Statistical analysis of random lasing emission properties in nematic liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 78(1), 011707 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ferjani, V. Barna, A. De Luca, C. Versace, and G. Strangi, "Random lasing in freely suspended dye-doped nematic liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 33(6), 557-559 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Strangi, S. Ferjani, V. Barna, A. De Luca, C. Versace, N. Scaramuzza, and R. Bartolino, "Random lasing and weak localization of light in dye-doped nematic liquid crystals," Opt. Express 14(17), 7737-7744 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, X. W.

Y. J. Liu, X. W. Sun, H. I. Elim, and W. Ji, "Gain narrowing and random lasing from dye-doped polymer dispersed liquid crystals with nanoscale liquid crystal droplets," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(1), 011111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

van Albada, M.

A. Lagendijk and M. van Albada, "Observation of weak localization of light in a random medium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 55(24), 2692-2695 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Alvada, M.

M. van Alvada, M. B. van der Mark, and A. Lagendijk, "Observation of weak localization of light in a finite slab: Anisotropy effects and light path classification," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(4), 361-364 (1987).
[CrossRef]

van der Mark, M. B.

M. van Alvada, M. B. van der Mark, and A. Lagendijk, "Observation of weak localization of light in a finite slab: Anisotropy effects and light path classification," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(4), 361-364 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Vardeny, Z. V.

R. C. Polson, and Z. V. Vardeny, "Random lasing in human tissues," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1289-1291 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Varderny, Z. V.

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Varderny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, "Stimulated emission in high-gain organic media," Phys. Rev. B 59(8), R5284-R5287 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Versace, C.

S. Ferjani, V. Barna, A. De Luca, C. Versace, and G. Strangi, "Random lasing in freely suspended dye-doped nematic liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 33(6), 557-559 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Strangi, S. Ferjani, V. Barna, A. De Luca, C. Versace, N. Scaramuzza, and R. Bartolino, "Random lasing and weak localization of light in dye-doped nematic liquid crystals," Opt. Express 14(17), 7737-7744 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L.

Q. H. Song, L. Wang, S. M. Xiao, X. C. Zhou, L. Y. Liu, and L. Xu, "Random laser emission from a surfacecorrugated waveguide," Phys. Rev. B 72(3), 035424 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q. H.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, "Random laser action in semiconductor powder," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278-2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. S.

Q. H. Song, L. Y. Liu, L. Xu, Y. G. Wu, and Z. S. Wang, "Electrical tunable random laser emission from a liquid-crystal infiltrated disordered planar microcavity," Opt. Lett. 34(3), 298-300 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. H. Song, S. M. Xiao, X. C. Zhou, L. Y. Liu, L. Xu, Y. G. Wu, and Z. S. Wang, "Liquid-crystal-based tunable high-Q directional random laser from a planar random microcavity," Opt. Lett. 32(4), 373-375 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiersma, D. S.

D. S. Wiersma, "The physics and applications of random lasers," Nat. Phys. 4(5), 359-367 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Gottardo, S. Cavalieri, O. Yaroshchuk, and D. S. Wiersma, "Quasi-two-dimensional diffusive random laser action," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(26), 263901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Wiersma, M. Colocci, R. Righini, and F. Aliev, "Temperature-controlled light diffusion in random media," Phys. Rev. B 64(14), 144208 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Wiersma, "The smallest random laser," Nature 406(6792), 132-135 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, P. E.

E. Akkermans, P. E. Wolf, and R. Maynard, "Coherent backscattering of light by disordered media: Analysis of the peak line shape," Phys. Rev. Lett. 56(14), 1471-1474 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, Y. G.

Q. H. Song, L. Y. Liu, L. Xu, Y. G. Wu, and Z. S. Wang, "Electrical tunable random laser emission from a liquid-crystal infiltrated disordered planar microcavity," Opt. Lett. 34(3), 298-300 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. H. Song, S. M. Xiao, X. C. Zhou, L. Y. Liu, L. Xu, Y. G. Wu, and Z. S. Wang, "Liquid-crystal-based tunable high-Q directional random laser from a planar random microcavity," Opt. Lett. 32(4), 373-375 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiao, S. M.

Q. H. Song, S. M. Xiao, X. C. Zhou, L. Y. Liu, L. Xu, Y. G. Wu, and Z. S. Wang, "Liquid-crystal-based tunable high-Q directional random laser from a planar random microcavity," Opt. Lett. 32(4), 373-375 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. H. Song, L. Wang, S. M. Xiao, X. C. Zhou, L. Y. Liu, and L. Xu, "Random laser emission from a surfacecorrugated waveguide," Phys. Rev. B 72(3), 035424 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xu, L.

Q. H. Song, L. Y. Liu, L. Xu, Y. G. Wu, and Z. S. Wang, "Electrical tunable random laser emission from a liquid-crystal infiltrated disordered planar microcavity," Opt. Lett. 34(3), 298-300 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. H. Song, S. M. Xiao, X. C. Zhou, L. Y. Liu, L. Xu, Y. G. Wu, and Z. S. Wang, "Liquid-crystal-based tunable high-Q directional random laser from a planar random microcavity," Opt. Lett. 32(4), 373-375 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. H. Song, L. Wang, S. M. Xiao, X. C. Zhou, L. Y. Liu, and L. Xu, "Random laser emission from a surfacecorrugated waveguide," Phys. Rev. B 72(3), 035424 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yaroshchuk, O.

S. Gottardo, S. Cavalieri, O. Yaroshchuk, and D. S. Wiersma, "Quasi-two-dimensional diffusive random laser action," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(26), 263901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, H.-C.

H.-C. Yeh, G.-H. Chen, C.-R. Lee, and T.-S. Mo, "Optically switchable biphotonic gratings based on dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, K.

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Varderny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, "Stimulated emission in high-gain organic media," Phys. Rev. B 59(8), R5284-R5287 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zakhidov, A.

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Varderny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, "Stimulated emission in high-gain organic media," Phys. Rev. B 59(8), R5284-R5287 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y. G.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, "Random laser action in semiconductor powder," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278-2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, X. C.

Q. H. Song, S. M. Xiao, X. C. Zhou, L. Y. Liu, L. Xu, Y. G. Wu, and Z. S. Wang, "Liquid-crystal-based tunable high-Q directional random laser from a planar random microcavity," Opt. Lett. 32(4), 373-375 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. H. Song, L. Wang, S. M. Xiao, X. C. Zhou, L. Y. Liu, and L. Xu, "Random laser emission from a surfacecorrugated waveguide," Phys. Rev. B 72(3), 035424 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. C. Polson, and Z. V. Vardeny, "Random lasing in human tissues," Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(7), 1289-1291 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Morris, A. D. Ford, M. N. Pivnenko, and H. J. Coles, "Electronic control of nonresonant random lasing from a dye-doped smectic A* liquid crystal scattering device," Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 141103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Liu, X. W. Sun, H. I. Elim, and W. Ji, "Gain narrowing and random lasing from dye-doped polymer dispersed liquid crystals with nanoscale liquid crystal droplets," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(1), 011111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H.-C. Yeh, G.-H. Chen, C.-R. Lee, and T.-S. Mo, "Optically switchable biphotonic gratings based on dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal films," Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(26), 261103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater.

H.-K. Lee, A. Kanazawa, T. Shiono, T. Ikeda, T. Fujisawa, M. Aizawa, and B. Lee, "All-optically controllable polymer/liquid crystal composite films containing the azobenzene liquid crystal," Chem. Mater. 10(5), 1402-1407 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys.

D. S. Wiersma, "The physics and applications of random lasers," Nat. Phys. 4(5), 359-367 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, "Laser action in strongly scattering media," Nature 368(6470), 436-438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Wiersma, "The smallest random laser," Nature 406(6792), 132-135 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

G. Strangi, S. Ferjani, V. Barna, A. De Luca, C. Versace, N. Scaramuzza, and R. Bartolino, "Random lasing and weak localization of light in dye-doped nematic liquid crystals," Opt. Express 14(17), 7737-7744 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Q. H. Song, S. M. Xiao, X. C. Zhou, L. Y. Liu, L. Xu, Y. G. Wu, and Z. S. Wang, "Liquid-crystal-based tunable high-Q directional random laser from a planar random microcavity," Opt. Lett. 32(4), 373-375 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ferjani, V. Barna, A. De Luca, C. Versace, and G. Strangi, "Random lasing in freely suspended dye-doped nematic liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 33(6), 557-559 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. H. Song, L. Y. Liu, L. Xu, Y. G. Wu, and Z. S. Wang, "Electrical tunable random laser emission from a liquid-crystal infiltrated disordered planar microcavity," Opt. Lett. 34(3), 298-300 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. C. de Oliveira, A. E. Perkins, and N. M. Lawandy, "Coherent backscattering from high-gain scattering media," Opt. Lett. 21(20), 1685-1687 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B

Q. H. Song, L. Wang, S. M. Xiao, X. C. Zhou, L. Y. Liu, and L. Xu, "Random laser emission from a surfacecorrugated waveguide," Phys. Rev. B 72(3), 035424 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Frolov, Z. V. Varderny, K. Yoshino, A. Zakhidov, and R. H. Baughman, "Stimulated emission in high-gain organic media," Phys. Rev. B 59(8), R5284-R5287 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Wiersma, M. Colocci, R. Righini, and F. Aliev, "Temperature-controlled light diffusion in random media," Phys. Rev. B 64(14), 144208 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.

S. Ferjani, L. Sorriso-Valvo, A. De Luca, V. Barna, R. De Marco, and G. Strangi, "Statistical analysis of random lasing emission properties in nematic liquid crystals," Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 78(1), 011707 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

V. M. Apalkov, M. E. Raikh, and B. Shapiro, "Random resonators and prelocalized modes in disordered dielectric films," Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(1), 016802 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, "Random laser action in semiconductor powder," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278-2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Gottardo, S. Cavalieri, O. Yaroshchuk, and D. S. Wiersma, "Quasi-two-dimensional diffusive random laser action," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(26), 263901 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Lagendijk and M. van Albada, "Observation of weak localization of light in a random medium," Phys. Rev. Lett. 55(24), 2692-2695 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Akkermans, P. E. Wolf, and R. Maynard, "Coherent backscattering of light by disordered media: Analysis of the peak line shape," Phys. Rev. Lett. 56(14), 1471-1474 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. van Alvada, M. B. van der Mark, and A. Lagendijk, "Observation of weak localization of light in a finite slab: Anisotropy effects and light path classification," Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(4), 361-364 (1987).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Top view of experimental setup for examining the all-optically controllable random lasing emission of the DDPDLC cell (with a 6μm-thickness). The green and red beams are both circularly polarized (λ/2, half waveplate for 532nm; PBS, polarizing beam splitter). The inset on the bottom is an SEM photograph of the DDPDLC cell, in which the length of the white bar is 100nm and the black regions are places occupied by nano-sized LC droplets in the polymer matrix (grey regions).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Variations of (a) measured fluorescence spectra and (b) peak intensity of fluorescence output and corresponding full-width at half-maxima (FWHM) with incident pumped energy. The insets in (b) and (a) are the emission pattern and magnified fluorescence spectrum of the narrow random lasing peaks at E = 22μJ/pulse, respectively.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Variations of the random lasing emission with (a) irradiation time (fixed at IG = 450mW/cm2) and (b) irradiation intensity (fixed at tG = 2.5min) of one circularly polarized green beam. The pumped pulse energy is 22μJ/pulse.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Variation of the random lasing signal as irradiation time (tR) of the red beam (fixed irradiation intensity of IR = 1000mW/cm2) increases. (b) Variations in normalized peak intensity of random lasing output with tG and tR.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

(a) Random lasing signals measured in order at cell temperatures of 23, 80, and 23°C (black, red and green curves, respectively). The time required for the cell temperature to naturally relax from 80 to 23°C is roughly 4min. (b) The random lasing signals measured at 23°C in order as the pre-irradiation intensity of the green beam is set at 0, 450 (for 2.5min) and 0 (for 4min) mW/cm2 (black, red and green curves, respectively).

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