Abstract

A new particle-in-cell (PIC) code which includes collisional and ionization processes has been developed to study laser-plasma interaction. Using the new code, the dynamics of a cluster plasma in a strong laser field has been analyzed and the threshold intensity of the resonant heating, which was previously predicted is accurately evaluated. The angular dependence of ion energy spectrum has also been simulated. As a result, it is found that the anisotropic energy spectrum depends strongly on the presence or absence of collisional processes.

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  28. W. Lotz, “Electron-Impact Ionization Cross-Sections and Ionization Rate Coefficients for Atoms and Ions from Hydrogen to Calcium,” Z. Phys. 216(3), 241–247 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  29. F. Brunel, “Not-so-resonant, resonant absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59(1), 52–55 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. L. Koller, M. Schumacher, J. Kohn, S. Teuber, J. Tiggesbaumker, and K. H. Meiwes-Broer, “Plasmon-Enhanced Multi-Ionization of Small Metal Clusters in Strong Femtosecond Laser Fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(19), 3783–3786 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  31. J. Zweiback, T. Ditmire, and M. D. Perry, “Femtosecond time-resolved studies of the dynamics of noble-gas cluster explosions,” Phys. Rev. A 59(5), R3166–R3169 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  32. U. Saalmann, “Resonant energy absorption of rare-gas clusters in strong laser pulses,” J. Mod. Opt. 53(1–2), 173–183 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  33. B. N. Breizman, A. V. Arefiev, and M. V. Fomyts’kyi, “Nonlinear physics of laser-irradiated microclusters,” Phys. Plasmas 12(5), 056706 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  34. U. Saalmann, Ch. Siedschlag, and J. M. Rost, “Mechanisms of cluster ionization in strong laser pulses,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39(4), R39–R77 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2007

J. Davis, G. M. Petrov, and A. Velikovich, “Nonlinear energy absorption of rare gas clusters in intense laser field,” Phys. Plasmas 14(6), 060701 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Symes, M. Hohenberger, A. Henig, and T. Ditmire, “Anisotropic Explosions of Hydrogen Clusters under Intense Femtosecond Laser Irradiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(12), 123401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

A. Gupta, T. M. Antonsen, T. Taguchi, and J. Palastro, “Effect of pulse duration on resonant heating of laser-irradiated argon and deuterium clusters,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(4), 046408–046501 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Saalmann, “Resonant energy absorption of rare-gas clusters in strong laser pulses,” J. Mod. Opt. 53(1–2), 173–183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

U. Saalmann, Ch. Siedschlag, and J. M. Rost, “Mechanisms of cluster ionization in strong laser pulses,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39(4), R39–R77 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

B. N. Breizman, A. V. Arefiev, and M. V. Fomyts’kyi, “Nonlinear physics of laser-irradiated microclusters,” Phys. Plasmas 12(5), 056706 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yu. M. Mikhailova, T. V Platonenko, and A. B Savel'ev, “Efficient heating of near-surface plasmas with femtosecond laser pulses stimulated by nanoscale inhomogeneities,” Quantum Electron. 35(1), 38–42 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Antonsen, T. Taguchi, A. Gupta, J. Palastro, and H. M. Milchberg, “Resonant heating of a cluster plasma by intense laser light,” Phys. Plasmas 12,(5), 056703 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

T. Taguchi, T. M. Antonsen, and H. M. Milchberg, “Resonant Heating of a Cluster Plasma by Intense Laser Light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(20), 205003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

I. Alexeev, T. M. Antonsen, K. Y. Kim, and H. M. Milchberg, “Self-Focusing of Intense Laser Pulses in a Clustered Gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(10), 103402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

V. Kumarappan, M. Krishnamurthy, and D. Mathur, “Asymmetric High-Energy Ion Emission from Argon Clusters in Intense Laser Fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(8), 085005 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. M. Milchberg, S. J. McNaught, and E. Parra, “Plasma hydrodynamics of the intense laser-cluster interaction,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 64,(5), 056402–1-7 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Eloy, R. Azambuja, J. T. Mendonca, and R. Bingham, “Interaction of ultrashort high-intensity laser pulses with atomic clusters,” Phys. Plasmas 8(3), 1084–1086 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Sakabe, K. Nishihara, N. Nakashima, J. Kou, S. Shimizu, V. Zhakhovskii, H. Amitani, and F. Sato, “The interactions of ultra-short high-intensity laser pulses with large molecules and clusters: Experimental and computational studies,” Phys. Plasmas 8(5), 2517–2524 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

J. Kou, V. Zhakhovskii, S. Sakabe, K. Nishihara, S. Shimizu, S. Kawato, M. Hashida, K. Shimizu, S. Bulanov, Y. Izawa, Y. Kato, and N. Nakashima, “Anisotropic Coulomb explosion of C60 irradiated with a high-intensity femtosecond laser pulse,” J. Chem. Phys. 112(11), 5012–5020 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Ishikawa and T. Blenski, “Explosion dynamics of rare-gas clusters in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 62(6), 063204 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

T. Ditmire, J. Zweiback, V. P. Yanovsky, T. E. Cowan, G. Hays, and K. B. Wharton, “Nuclearfusionfromexplosions of femtosecond laser-heated deuterium clusters,” Nature 398, 489–492 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Koller, M. Schumacher, J. Kohn, S. Teuber, J. Tiggesbaumker, and K. H. Meiwes-Broer, “Plasmon-Enhanced Multi-Ionization of Small Metal Clusters in Strong Femtosecond Laser Fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(19), 3783–3786 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Zweiback, T. Ditmire, and M. D. Perry, “Femtosecond time-resolved studies of the dynamics of noble-gas cluster explosions,” Phys. Rev. A 59(5), R3166–R3169 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

T. Ditmire, “Simulation of exploding clusters ionized by high-intensity femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 57(6), R4094–R4097 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

W. M. Manheimer, M. Lampe, and G. Joyce, “Langevin Representation of Coulomb Collisions in PIC Simulations,” J. Comput. Phys. 138(2), 563–584 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

T. Ditmire, T. Donnelly, A. M. Rubenchik, R. W. Falcone, and M. D. Perry, “Interaction of intense laser pulses with atomic clusters,” Phys. Rev. A 53(5), 3379–3402 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. L. Shao, T. Ditmire, J. W. G. Tisch, E. Springate, J. P. Marangos, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, “Multi-keV Electron Generation in the Interaction of Intense Laser Pulses with Xe Clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(16), 3343–3346 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ditmire, T. Donnelly, A. M. Rubenchik, R. W. Falcone, and M. D. Perry, “Interaction of intense laser pulses with atomic clusters,” Phys. Rev. A 53(5), 3379–3402 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. D. Donnelly, T. Ditmire, K. Neuman, M. D. Perry, and R. W. Falcone, “High-order harmonic generation in atom clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(14), 2472–2475 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. D. Kubiak, L. J. Bernardez, K. D. Krenz, D. J. O’Connell, R. Gutowski, and M. M. Todd, “Debris-free EUVL sources based on gas jets,” OSA Trends Opt. Photonics Ser. 4, 66–71 (1996).

1995

J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, and M. Howells, “Soft X-ray microscopes and their biological applications,” Q. Rev. Biophys. 28(1), 33–130 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987

F. Brunel, “Not-so-resonant, resonant absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59(1), 52–55 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel Ionization of Complex Atoms and of Atomic Ions in an Altering Electromagnetic Field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64(6), 1191–1194 (1986).

1977

T. Takizuka and H. Abe, “A Binary Collision Model for Plasma Simulation with a Particle Code,” J. Comput. Phys. 25(3), 205–219 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1968

W. Lotz, “Electron-Impact Ionization Cross-Sections and Ionization Rate Coefficients for Atoms and Ions from Hydrogen to Calcium,” Z. Phys. 216(3), 241–247 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Abe, H.

T. Takizuka and H. Abe, “A Binary Collision Model for Plasma Simulation with a Particle Code,” J. Comput. Phys. 25(3), 205–219 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Alexeev, I.

I. Alexeev, T. M. Antonsen, K. Y. Kim, and H. M. Milchberg, “Self-Focusing of Intense Laser Pulses in a Clustered Gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(10), 103402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amitani, H.

S. Sakabe, K. Nishihara, N. Nakashima, J. Kou, S. Shimizu, V. Zhakhovskii, H. Amitani, and F. Sato, “The interactions of ultra-short high-intensity laser pulses with large molecules and clusters: Experimental and computational studies,” Phys. Plasmas 8(5), 2517–2524 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ammosov, M. V.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel Ionization of Complex Atoms and of Atomic Ions in an Altering Electromagnetic Field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64(6), 1191–1194 (1986).

Antonsen, T. M.

A. Gupta, T. M. Antonsen, T. Taguchi, and J. Palastro, “Effect of pulse duration on resonant heating of laser-irradiated argon and deuterium clusters,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(4), 046408–046501 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Antonsen, T. Taguchi, A. Gupta, J. Palastro, and H. M. Milchberg, “Resonant heating of a cluster plasma by intense laser light,” Phys. Plasmas 12,(5), 056703 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Taguchi, T. M. Antonsen, and H. M. Milchberg, “Resonant Heating of a Cluster Plasma by Intense Laser Light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(20), 205003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Alexeev, T. M. Antonsen, K. Y. Kim, and H. M. Milchberg, “Self-Focusing of Intense Laser Pulses in a Clustered Gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(10), 103402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Are?ev, A. V.

B. N. Breizman, A. V. Arefiev, and M. V. Fomyts’kyi, “Nonlinear physics of laser-irradiated microclusters,” Phys. Plasmas 12(5), 056706 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Azambuja, R.

M. Eloy, R. Azambuja, J. T. Mendonca, and R. Bingham, “Interaction of ultrashort high-intensity laser pulses with atomic clusters,” Phys. Plasmas 8(3), 1084–1086 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bernardez, L. J.

G. D. Kubiak, L. J. Bernardez, K. D. Krenz, D. J. O’Connell, R. Gutowski, and M. M. Todd, “Debris-free EUVL sources based on gas jets,” OSA Trends Opt. Photonics Ser. 4, 66–71 (1996).

Bingham, R.

M. Eloy, R. Azambuja, J. T. Mendonca, and R. Bingham, “Interaction of ultrashort high-intensity laser pulses with atomic clusters,” Phys. Plasmas 8(3), 1084–1086 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Blenski, T.

K. Ishikawa and T. Blenski, “Explosion dynamics of rare-gas clusters in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 62(6), 063204 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Breizman, B. N.

B. N. Breizman, A. V. Arefiev, and M. V. Fomyts’kyi, “Nonlinear physics of laser-irradiated microclusters,” Phys. Plasmas 12(5), 056706 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brunel, F.

F. Brunel, “Not-so-resonant, resonant absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59(1), 52–55 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bulanov, S.

J. Kou, V. Zhakhovskii, S. Sakabe, K. Nishihara, S. Shimizu, S. Kawato, M. Hashida, K. Shimizu, S. Bulanov, Y. Izawa, Y. Kato, and N. Nakashima, “Anisotropic Coulomb explosion of C60 irradiated with a high-intensity femtosecond laser pulse,” J. Chem. Phys. 112(11), 5012–5020 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, S. Varma, V. Kumarappan, and H. M. Milchberg, to be published.

Cowan, T. E.

T. Ditmire, J. Zweiback, V. P. Yanovsky, T. E. Cowan, G. Hays, and K. B. Wharton, “Nuclearfusionfromexplosions of femtosecond laser-heated deuterium clusters,” Nature 398, 489–492 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Davis, J.

J. Davis, G. M. Petrov, and A. Velikovich, “Nonlinear energy absorption of rare gas clusters in intense laser field,” Phys. Plasmas 14(6), 060701 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Delone, N. B.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel Ionization of Complex Atoms and of Atomic Ions in an Altering Electromagnetic Field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64(6), 1191–1194 (1986).

Ditmire, T.

D. R. Symes, M. Hohenberger, A. Henig, and T. Ditmire, “Anisotropic Explosions of Hydrogen Clusters under Intense Femtosecond Laser Irradiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(12), 123401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zweiback, T. Ditmire, and M. D. Perry, “Femtosecond time-resolved studies of the dynamics of noble-gas cluster explosions,” Phys. Rev. A 59(5), R3166–R3169 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Ditmire, J. Zweiback, V. P. Yanovsky, T. E. Cowan, G. Hays, and K. B. Wharton, “Nuclearfusionfromexplosions of femtosecond laser-heated deuterium clusters,” Nature 398, 489–492 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Ditmire, “Simulation of exploding clusters ionized by high-intensity femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 57(6), R4094–R4097 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Ditmire, T. Donnelly, A. M. Rubenchik, R. W. Falcone, and M. D. Perry, “Interaction of intense laser pulses with atomic clusters,” Phys. Rev. A 53(5), 3379–3402 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ditmire, T. Donnelly, A. M. Rubenchik, R. W. Falcone, and M. D. Perry, “Interaction of intense laser pulses with atomic clusters,” Phys. Rev. A 53(5), 3379–3402 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. D. Donnelly, T. Ditmire, K. Neuman, M. D. Perry, and R. W. Falcone, “High-order harmonic generation in atom clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(14), 2472–2475 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. L. Shao, T. Ditmire, J. W. G. Tisch, E. Springate, J. P. Marangos, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, “Multi-keV Electron Generation in the Interaction of Intense Laser Pulses with Xe Clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(16), 3343–3346 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Donnelly, T.

T. Ditmire, T. Donnelly, A. M. Rubenchik, R. W. Falcone, and M. D. Perry, “Interaction of intense laser pulses with atomic clusters,” Phys. Rev. A 53(5), 3379–3402 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ditmire, T. Donnelly, A. M. Rubenchik, R. W. Falcone, and M. D. Perry, “Interaction of intense laser pulses with atomic clusters,” Phys. Rev. A 53(5), 3379–3402 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Donnelly, T. D.

T. D. Donnelly, T. Ditmire, K. Neuman, M. D. Perry, and R. W. Falcone, “High-order harmonic generation in atom clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(14), 2472–2475 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eloy, M.

M. Eloy, R. Azambuja, J. T. Mendonca, and R. Bingham, “Interaction of ultrashort high-intensity laser pulses with atomic clusters,” Phys. Plasmas 8(3), 1084–1086 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Falcone, R. W.

T. D. Donnelly, T. Ditmire, K. Neuman, M. D. Perry, and R. W. Falcone, “High-order harmonic generation in atom clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(14), 2472–2475 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ditmire, T. Donnelly, A. M. Rubenchik, R. W. Falcone, and M. D. Perry, “Interaction of intense laser pulses with atomic clusters,” Phys. Rev. A 53(5), 3379–3402 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ditmire, T. Donnelly, A. M. Rubenchik, R. W. Falcone, and M. D. Perry, “Interaction of intense laser pulses with atomic clusters,” Phys. Rev. A 53(5), 3379–3402 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fomyts’kyi, M. V.

B. N. Breizman, A. V. Arefiev, and M. V. Fomyts’kyi, “Nonlinear physics of laser-irradiated microclusters,” Phys. Plasmas 12(5), 056706 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, A.

A. Gupta, T. M. Antonsen, T. Taguchi, and J. Palastro, “Effect of pulse duration on resonant heating of laser-irradiated argon and deuterium clusters,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(4), 046408–046501 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Antonsen, T. Taguchi, A. Gupta, J. Palastro, and H. M. Milchberg, “Resonant heating of a cluster plasma by intense laser light,” Phys. Plasmas 12,(5), 056703 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gutowski, R.

G. D. Kubiak, L. J. Bernardez, K. D. Krenz, D. J. O’Connell, R. Gutowski, and M. M. Todd, “Debris-free EUVL sources based on gas jets,” OSA Trends Opt. Photonics Ser. 4, 66–71 (1996).

Hashida, M.

J. Kou, V. Zhakhovskii, S. Sakabe, K. Nishihara, S. Shimizu, S. Kawato, M. Hashida, K. Shimizu, S. Bulanov, Y. Izawa, Y. Kato, and N. Nakashima, “Anisotropic Coulomb explosion of C60 irradiated with a high-intensity femtosecond laser pulse,” J. Chem. Phys. 112(11), 5012–5020 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hays, G.

T. Ditmire, J. Zweiback, V. P. Yanovsky, T. E. Cowan, G. Hays, and K. B. Wharton, “Nuclearfusionfromexplosions of femtosecond laser-heated deuterium clusters,” Nature 398, 489–492 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Henig, A.

D. R. Symes, M. Hohenberger, A. Henig, and T. Ditmire, “Anisotropic Explosions of Hydrogen Clusters under Intense Femtosecond Laser Irradiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(12), 123401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hohenberger, M.

D. R. Symes, M. Hohenberger, A. Henig, and T. Ditmire, “Anisotropic Explosions of Hydrogen Clusters under Intense Femtosecond Laser Irradiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(12), 123401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Howells, M.

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Y. L. Shao, T. Ditmire, J. W. G. Tisch, E. Springate, J. P. Marangos, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, “Multi-keV Electron Generation in the Interaction of Intense Laser Pulses with Xe Clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(16), 3343–3346 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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K. Ishikawa and T. Blenski, “Explosion dynamics of rare-gas clusters in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 62(6), 063204 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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J. Kou, V. Zhakhovskii, S. Sakabe, K. Nishihara, S. Shimizu, S. Kawato, M. Hashida, K. Shimizu, S. Bulanov, Y. Izawa, Y. Kato, and N. Nakashima, “Anisotropic Coulomb explosion of C60 irradiated with a high-intensity femtosecond laser pulse,” J. Chem. Phys. 112(11), 5012–5020 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, and M. Howells, “Soft X-ray microscopes and their biological applications,” Q. Rev. Biophys. 28(1), 33–130 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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W. M. Manheimer, M. Lampe, and G. Joyce, “Langevin Representation of Coulomb Collisions in PIC Simulations,” J. Comput. Phys. 138(2), 563–584 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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J. Kou, V. Zhakhovskii, S. Sakabe, K. Nishihara, S. Shimizu, S. Kawato, M. Hashida, K. Shimizu, S. Bulanov, Y. Izawa, Y. Kato, and N. Nakashima, “Anisotropic Coulomb explosion of C60 irradiated with a high-intensity femtosecond laser pulse,” J. Chem. Phys. 112(11), 5012–5020 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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J. Kou, V. Zhakhovskii, S. Sakabe, K. Nishihara, S. Shimizu, S. Kawato, M. Hashida, K. Shimizu, S. Bulanov, Y. Izawa, Y. Kato, and N. Nakashima, “Anisotropic Coulomb explosion of C60 irradiated with a high-intensity femtosecond laser pulse,” J. Chem. Phys. 112(11), 5012–5020 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. Y.

I. Alexeev, T. M. Antonsen, K. Y. Kim, and H. M. Milchberg, “Self-Focusing of Intense Laser Pulses in a Clustered Gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(10), 103402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. Kirz, C. Jacobsen, and M. Howells, “Soft X-ray microscopes and their biological applications,” Q. Rev. Biophys. 28(1), 33–130 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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L. Koller, M. Schumacher, J. Kohn, S. Teuber, J. Tiggesbaumker, and K. H. Meiwes-Broer, “Plasmon-Enhanced Multi-Ionization of Small Metal Clusters in Strong Femtosecond Laser Fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(19), 3783–3786 (1999).
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L. Koller, M. Schumacher, J. Kohn, S. Teuber, J. Tiggesbaumker, and K. H. Meiwes-Broer, “Plasmon-Enhanced Multi-Ionization of Small Metal Clusters in Strong Femtosecond Laser Fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(19), 3783–3786 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kou, J.

S. Sakabe, K. Nishihara, N. Nakashima, J. Kou, S. Shimizu, V. Zhakhovskii, H. Amitani, and F. Sato, “The interactions of ultra-short high-intensity laser pulses with large molecules and clusters: Experimental and computational studies,” Phys. Plasmas 8(5), 2517–2524 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Kou, V. Zhakhovskii, S. Sakabe, K. Nishihara, S. Shimizu, S. Kawato, M. Hashida, K. Shimizu, S. Bulanov, Y. Izawa, Y. Kato, and N. Nakashima, “Anisotropic Coulomb explosion of C60 irradiated with a high-intensity femtosecond laser pulse,” J. Chem. Phys. 112(11), 5012–5020 (2000).
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M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel Ionization of Complex Atoms and of Atomic Ions in an Altering Electromagnetic Field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64(6), 1191–1194 (1986).

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G. D. Kubiak, L. J. Bernardez, K. D. Krenz, D. J. O’Connell, R. Gutowski, and M. M. Todd, “Debris-free EUVL sources based on gas jets,” OSA Trends Opt. Photonics Ser. 4, 66–71 (1996).

Krishnamurthy, M.

V. Kumarappan, M. Krishnamurthy, and D. Mathur, “Asymmetric High-Energy Ion Emission from Argon Clusters in Intense Laser Fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(8), 085005 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kubiak, G. D.

G. D. Kubiak, L. J. Bernardez, K. D. Krenz, D. J. O’Connell, R. Gutowski, and M. M. Todd, “Debris-free EUVL sources based on gas jets,” OSA Trends Opt. Photonics Ser. 4, 66–71 (1996).

Kumarappan, V.

V. Kumarappan, M. Krishnamurthy, and D. Mathur, “Asymmetric High-Energy Ion Emission from Argon Clusters in Intense Laser Fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(8), 085005 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, S. Varma, V. Kumarappan, and H. M. Milchberg, to be published.

Lampe, M.

W. M. Manheimer, M. Lampe, and G. Joyce, “Langevin Representation of Coulomb Collisions in PIC Simulations,” J. Comput. Phys. 138(2), 563–584 (1997).
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W. Lotz, “Electron-Impact Ionization Cross-Sections and Ionization Rate Coefficients for Atoms and Ions from Hydrogen to Calcium,” Z. Phys. 216(3), 241–247 (1968).
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Manheimer, W. M.

W. M. Manheimer, M. Lampe, and G. Joyce, “Langevin Representation of Coulomb Collisions in PIC Simulations,” J. Comput. Phys. 138(2), 563–584 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Marangos, J. P.

Y. L. Shao, T. Ditmire, J. W. G. Tisch, E. Springate, J. P. Marangos, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, “Multi-keV Electron Generation in the Interaction of Intense Laser Pulses with Xe Clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(16), 3343–3346 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mathur, D.

V. Kumarappan, M. Krishnamurthy, and D. Mathur, “Asymmetric High-Energy Ion Emission from Argon Clusters in Intense Laser Fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(8), 085005 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McNaught, S. J.

H. M. Milchberg, S. J. McNaught, and E. Parra, “Plasma hydrodynamics of the intense laser-cluster interaction,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 64,(5), 056402–1-7 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Meiwes-Broer, K. H.

L. Koller, M. Schumacher, J. Kohn, S. Teuber, J. Tiggesbaumker, and K. H. Meiwes-Broer, “Plasmon-Enhanced Multi-Ionization of Small Metal Clusters in Strong Femtosecond Laser Fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(19), 3783–3786 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mendonca, J. T.

M. Eloy, R. Azambuja, J. T. Mendonca, and R. Bingham, “Interaction of ultrashort high-intensity laser pulses with atomic clusters,” Phys. Plasmas 8(3), 1084–1086 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mikhailova, Yu. M.

Yu. M. Mikhailova, T. V Platonenko, and A. B Savel'ev, “Efficient heating of near-surface plasmas with femtosecond laser pulses stimulated by nanoscale inhomogeneities,” Quantum Electron. 35(1), 38–42 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Milchberg, H. M.

T. M. Antonsen, T. Taguchi, A. Gupta, J. Palastro, and H. M. Milchberg, “Resonant heating of a cluster plasma by intense laser light,” Phys. Plasmas 12,(5), 056703 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Taguchi, T. M. Antonsen, and H. M. Milchberg, “Resonant Heating of a Cluster Plasma by Intense Laser Light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(20), 205003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Alexeev, T. M. Antonsen, K. Y. Kim, and H. M. Milchberg, “Self-Focusing of Intense Laser Pulses in a Clustered Gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(10), 103402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. M. Milchberg, S. J. McNaught, and E. Parra, “Plasma hydrodynamics of the intense laser-cluster interaction,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 64,(5), 056402–1-7 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, S. Varma, V. Kumarappan, and H. M. Milchberg, to be published.

Nakashima, N.

S. Sakabe, K. Nishihara, N. Nakashima, J. Kou, S. Shimizu, V. Zhakhovskii, H. Amitani, and F. Sato, “The interactions of ultra-short high-intensity laser pulses with large molecules and clusters: Experimental and computational studies,” Phys. Plasmas 8(5), 2517–2524 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Kou, V. Zhakhovskii, S. Sakabe, K. Nishihara, S. Shimizu, S. Kawato, M. Hashida, K. Shimizu, S. Bulanov, Y. Izawa, Y. Kato, and N. Nakashima, “Anisotropic Coulomb explosion of C60 irradiated with a high-intensity femtosecond laser pulse,” J. Chem. Phys. 112(11), 5012–5020 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Neuman, K.

T. D. Donnelly, T. Ditmire, K. Neuman, M. D. Perry, and R. W. Falcone, “High-order harmonic generation in atom clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(14), 2472–2475 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishihara, K.

S. Sakabe, K. Nishihara, N. Nakashima, J. Kou, S. Shimizu, V. Zhakhovskii, H. Amitani, and F. Sato, “The interactions of ultra-short high-intensity laser pulses with large molecules and clusters: Experimental and computational studies,” Phys. Plasmas 8(5), 2517–2524 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Kou, V. Zhakhovskii, S. Sakabe, K. Nishihara, S. Shimizu, S. Kawato, M. Hashida, K. Shimizu, S. Bulanov, Y. Izawa, Y. Kato, and N. Nakashima, “Anisotropic Coulomb explosion of C60 irradiated with a high-intensity femtosecond laser pulse,” J. Chem. Phys. 112(11), 5012–5020 (2000).
[CrossRef]

O’Connell, D. J.

G. D. Kubiak, L. J. Bernardez, K. D. Krenz, D. J. O’Connell, R. Gutowski, and M. M. Todd, “Debris-free EUVL sources based on gas jets,” OSA Trends Opt. Photonics Ser. 4, 66–71 (1996).

Palastro, J.

A. Gupta, T. M. Antonsen, T. Taguchi, and J. Palastro, “Effect of pulse duration on resonant heating of laser-irradiated argon and deuterium clusters,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(4), 046408–046501 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Antonsen, T. Taguchi, A. Gupta, J. Palastro, and H. M. Milchberg, “Resonant heating of a cluster plasma by intense laser light,” Phys. Plasmas 12,(5), 056703 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Parra, E.

H. M. Milchberg, S. J. McNaught, and E. Parra, “Plasma hydrodynamics of the intense laser-cluster interaction,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 64,(5), 056402–1-7 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Perry, M. D.

J. Zweiback, T. Ditmire, and M. D. Perry, “Femtosecond time-resolved studies of the dynamics of noble-gas cluster explosions,” Phys. Rev. A 59(5), R3166–R3169 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. D. Donnelly, T. Ditmire, K. Neuman, M. D. Perry, and R. W. Falcone, “High-order harmonic generation in atom clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(14), 2472–2475 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ditmire, T. Donnelly, A. M. Rubenchik, R. W. Falcone, and M. D. Perry, “Interaction of intense laser pulses with atomic clusters,” Phys. Rev. A 53(5), 3379–3402 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ditmire, T. Donnelly, A. M. Rubenchik, R. W. Falcone, and M. D. Perry, “Interaction of intense laser pulses with atomic clusters,” Phys. Rev. A 53(5), 3379–3402 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petrov, G. M.

J. Davis, G. M. Petrov, and A. Velikovich, “Nonlinear energy absorption of rare gas clusters in intense laser field,” Phys. Plasmas 14(6), 060701 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Platonenko, T. V

Yu. M. Mikhailova, T. V Platonenko, and A. B Savel'ev, “Efficient heating of near-surface plasmas with femtosecond laser pulses stimulated by nanoscale inhomogeneities,” Quantum Electron. 35(1), 38–42 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rost, J. M.

U. Saalmann, Ch. Siedschlag, and J. M. Rost, “Mechanisms of cluster ionization in strong laser pulses,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39(4), R39–R77 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rubenchik, A. M.

T. Ditmire, T. Donnelly, A. M. Rubenchik, R. W. Falcone, and M. D. Perry, “Interaction of intense laser pulses with atomic clusters,” Phys. Rev. A 53(5), 3379–3402 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ditmire, T. Donnelly, A. M. Rubenchik, R. W. Falcone, and M. D. Perry, “Interaction of intense laser pulses with atomic clusters,” Phys. Rev. A 53(5), 3379–3402 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saalmann, U.

U. Saalmann, “Resonant energy absorption of rare-gas clusters in strong laser pulses,” J. Mod. Opt. 53(1–2), 173–183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

U. Saalmann, Ch. Siedschlag, and J. M. Rost, “Mechanisms of cluster ionization in strong laser pulses,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39(4), R39–R77 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sakabe, S.

S. Sakabe, K. Nishihara, N. Nakashima, J. Kou, S. Shimizu, V. Zhakhovskii, H. Amitani, and F. Sato, “The interactions of ultra-short high-intensity laser pulses with large molecules and clusters: Experimental and computational studies,” Phys. Plasmas 8(5), 2517–2524 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Kou, V. Zhakhovskii, S. Sakabe, K. Nishihara, S. Shimizu, S. Kawato, M. Hashida, K. Shimizu, S. Bulanov, Y. Izawa, Y. Kato, and N. Nakashima, “Anisotropic Coulomb explosion of C60 irradiated with a high-intensity femtosecond laser pulse,” J. Chem. Phys. 112(11), 5012–5020 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sato, F.

S. Sakabe, K. Nishihara, N. Nakashima, J. Kou, S. Shimizu, V. Zhakhovskii, H. Amitani, and F. Sato, “The interactions of ultra-short high-intensity laser pulses with large molecules and clusters: Experimental and computational studies,” Phys. Plasmas 8(5), 2517–2524 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Savel'ev, A. B

Yu. M. Mikhailova, T. V Platonenko, and A. B Savel'ev, “Efficient heating of near-surface plasmas with femtosecond laser pulses stimulated by nanoscale inhomogeneities,” Quantum Electron. 35(1), 38–42 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schumacher, M.

L. Koller, M. Schumacher, J. Kohn, S. Teuber, J. Tiggesbaumker, and K. H. Meiwes-Broer, “Plasmon-Enhanced Multi-Ionization of Small Metal Clusters in Strong Femtosecond Laser Fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(19), 3783–3786 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shao, Y. L.

Y. L. Shao, T. Ditmire, J. W. G. Tisch, E. Springate, J. P. Marangos, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, “Multi-keV Electron Generation in the Interaction of Intense Laser Pulses with Xe Clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(16), 3343–3346 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shimizu, K.

J. Kou, V. Zhakhovskii, S. Sakabe, K. Nishihara, S. Shimizu, S. Kawato, M. Hashida, K. Shimizu, S. Bulanov, Y. Izawa, Y. Kato, and N. Nakashima, “Anisotropic Coulomb explosion of C60 irradiated with a high-intensity femtosecond laser pulse,” J. Chem. Phys. 112(11), 5012–5020 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, S.

S. Sakabe, K. Nishihara, N. Nakashima, J. Kou, S. Shimizu, V. Zhakhovskii, H. Amitani, and F. Sato, “The interactions of ultra-short high-intensity laser pulses with large molecules and clusters: Experimental and computational studies,” Phys. Plasmas 8(5), 2517–2524 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Kou, V. Zhakhovskii, S. Sakabe, K. Nishihara, S. Shimizu, S. Kawato, M. Hashida, K. Shimizu, S. Bulanov, Y. Izawa, Y. Kato, and N. Nakashima, “Anisotropic Coulomb explosion of C60 irradiated with a high-intensity femtosecond laser pulse,” J. Chem. Phys. 112(11), 5012–5020 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Siedschlag, Ch.

U. Saalmann, Ch. Siedschlag, and J. M. Rost, “Mechanisms of cluster ionization in strong laser pulses,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39(4), R39–R77 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Springate, E.

Y. L. Shao, T. Ditmire, J. W. G. Tisch, E. Springate, J. P. Marangos, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, “Multi-keV Electron Generation in the Interaction of Intense Laser Pulses with Xe Clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(16), 3343–3346 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Symes, D. R.

D. R. Symes, M. Hohenberger, A. Henig, and T. Ditmire, “Anisotropic Explosions of Hydrogen Clusters under Intense Femtosecond Laser Irradiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(12), 123401 (2007).
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Taguchi, T.

A. Gupta, T. M. Antonsen, T. Taguchi, and J. Palastro, “Effect of pulse duration on resonant heating of laser-irradiated argon and deuterium clusters,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 74(4), 046408–046501 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Antonsen, T. Taguchi, A. Gupta, J. Palastro, and H. M. Milchberg, “Resonant heating of a cluster plasma by intense laser light,” Phys. Plasmas 12,(5), 056703 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Taguchi, T. M. Antonsen, and H. M. Milchberg, “Resonant Heating of a Cluster Plasma by Intense Laser Light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(20), 205003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takizuka, T.

T. Takizuka and H. Abe, “A Binary Collision Model for Plasma Simulation with a Particle Code,” J. Comput. Phys. 25(3), 205–219 (1977).
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Teuber, S.

L. Koller, M. Schumacher, J. Kohn, S. Teuber, J. Tiggesbaumker, and K. H. Meiwes-Broer, “Plasmon-Enhanced Multi-Ionization of Small Metal Clusters in Strong Femtosecond Laser Fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(19), 3783–3786 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tiggesbaumker, J.

L. Koller, M. Schumacher, J. Kohn, S. Teuber, J. Tiggesbaumker, and K. H. Meiwes-Broer, “Plasmon-Enhanced Multi-Ionization of Small Metal Clusters in Strong Femtosecond Laser Fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(19), 3783–3786 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tisch, J. W. G.

Y. L. Shao, T. Ditmire, J. W. G. Tisch, E. Springate, J. P. Marangos, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, “Multi-keV Electron Generation in the Interaction of Intense Laser Pulses with Xe Clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(16), 3343–3346 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Todd, M. M.

G. D. Kubiak, L. J. Bernardez, K. D. Krenz, D. J. O’Connell, R. Gutowski, and M. M. Todd, “Debris-free EUVL sources based on gas jets,” OSA Trends Opt. Photonics Ser. 4, 66–71 (1996).

Varma, S.

Y. Chen, S. Varma, V. Kumarappan, and H. M. Milchberg, to be published.

Velikovich, A.

J. Davis, G. M. Petrov, and A. Velikovich, “Nonlinear energy absorption of rare gas clusters in intense laser field,” Phys. Plasmas 14(6), 060701 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wharton, K. B.

T. Ditmire, J. Zweiback, V. P. Yanovsky, T. E. Cowan, G. Hays, and K. B. Wharton, “Nuclearfusionfromexplosions of femtosecond laser-heated deuterium clusters,” Nature 398, 489–492 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yanovsky, V. P.

T. Ditmire, J. Zweiback, V. P. Yanovsky, T. E. Cowan, G. Hays, and K. B. Wharton, “Nuclearfusionfromexplosions of femtosecond laser-heated deuterium clusters,” Nature 398, 489–492 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhakhovskii, V.

S. Sakabe, K. Nishihara, N. Nakashima, J. Kou, S. Shimizu, V. Zhakhovskii, H. Amitani, and F. Sato, “The interactions of ultra-short high-intensity laser pulses with large molecules and clusters: Experimental and computational studies,” Phys. Plasmas 8(5), 2517–2524 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Kou, V. Zhakhovskii, S. Sakabe, K. Nishihara, S. Shimizu, S. Kawato, M. Hashida, K. Shimizu, S. Bulanov, Y. Izawa, Y. Kato, and N. Nakashima, “Anisotropic Coulomb explosion of C60 irradiated with a high-intensity femtosecond laser pulse,” J. Chem. Phys. 112(11), 5012–5020 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zweiback, J.

T. Ditmire, J. Zweiback, V. P. Yanovsky, T. E. Cowan, G. Hays, and K. B. Wharton, “Nuclearfusionfromexplosions of femtosecond laser-heated deuterium clusters,” Nature 398, 489–492 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Zweiback, T. Ditmire, and M. D. Perry, “Femtosecond time-resolved studies of the dynamics of noble-gas cluster explosions,” Phys. Rev. A 59(5), R3166–R3169 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

J. Kou, V. Zhakhovskii, S. Sakabe, K. Nishihara, S. Shimizu, S. Kawato, M. Hashida, K. Shimizu, S. Bulanov, Y. Izawa, Y. Kato, and N. Nakashima, “Anisotropic Coulomb explosion of C60 irradiated with a high-intensity femtosecond laser pulse,” J. Chem. Phys. 112(11), 5012–5020 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Comput. Phys.

T. Takizuka and H. Abe, “A Binary Collision Model for Plasma Simulation with a Particle Code,” J. Comput. Phys. 25(3), 205–219 (1977).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Manheimer, M. Lampe, and G. Joyce, “Langevin Representation of Coulomb Collisions in PIC Simulations,” J. Comput. Phys. 138(2), 563–584 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt.

U. Saalmann, “Resonant energy absorption of rare-gas clusters in strong laser pulses,” J. Mod. Opt. 53(1–2), 173–183 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys.

U. Saalmann, Ch. Siedschlag, and J. M. Rost, “Mechanisms of cluster ionization in strong laser pulses,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39(4), R39–R77 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature

T. Ditmire, J. Zweiback, V. P. Yanovsky, T. E. Cowan, G. Hays, and K. B. Wharton, “Nuclearfusionfromexplosions of femtosecond laser-heated deuterium clusters,” Nature 398, 489–492 (1999).
[CrossRef]

OSA Trends Opt. Photonics Ser.

G. D. Kubiak, L. J. Bernardez, K. D. Krenz, D. J. O’Connell, R. Gutowski, and M. M. Todd, “Debris-free EUVL sources based on gas jets,” OSA Trends Opt. Photonics Ser. 4, 66–71 (1996).

Phys. Plasmas

T. M. Antonsen, T. Taguchi, A. Gupta, J. Palastro, and H. M. Milchberg, “Resonant heating of a cluster plasma by intense laser light,” Phys. Plasmas 12,(5), 056703 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Eloy, R. Azambuja, J. T. Mendonca, and R. Bingham, “Interaction of ultrashort high-intensity laser pulses with atomic clusters,” Phys. Plasmas 8(3), 1084–1086 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Sakabe, K. Nishihara, N. Nakashima, J. Kou, S. Shimizu, V. Zhakhovskii, H. Amitani, and F. Sato, “The interactions of ultra-short high-intensity laser pulses with large molecules and clusters: Experimental and computational studies,” Phys. Plasmas 8(5), 2517–2524 (2001).
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B. N. Breizman, A. V. Arefiev, and M. V. Fomyts’kyi, “Nonlinear physics of laser-irradiated microclusters,” Phys. Plasmas 12(5), 056706 (2005).
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J. Davis, G. M. Petrov, and A. Velikovich, “Nonlinear energy absorption of rare gas clusters in intense laser field,” Phys. Plasmas 14(6), 060701 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

J. Zweiback, T. Ditmire, and M. D. Perry, “Femtosecond time-resolved studies of the dynamics of noble-gas cluster explosions,” Phys. Rev. A 59(5), R3166–R3169 (1999).
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T. Ditmire, “Simulation of exploding clusters ionized by high-intensity femtosecond laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 57(6), R4094–R4097 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Ditmire, T. Donnelly, A. M. Rubenchik, R. W. Falcone, and M. D. Perry, “Interaction of intense laser pulses with atomic clusters,” Phys. Rev. A 53(5), 3379–3402 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Ishikawa and T. Blenski, “Explosion dynamics of rare-gas clusters in an intense laser field,” Phys. Rev. A 62(6), 063204 (2000).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Temporal evolution of electron energy distribution. The black curve is the initial non-Maxwellian distribution and the light-colored curve is the asymptotic distribution simulated by the code. The dashed curve is the Maxwellian distribution.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Temporal evolution of the average charge state of argon ions in a cluster for different laser intensities.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Average absorbed energy per electron versus laser intensity for several simulations.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Ion energy spectra for a 22 nm hydrogen cluster and intensities I = 2x1014 W/cm2, I = 7x1014 W/cm2 and, I = 2.5x1015 W/cm2, as labeled, and a weighted average of spectra for intensities 0.1-3x1015 W/cm2. In each case, the solid symbols show the distribution parallel to the polarization, while the open symbols show the distribution perpendicular to the polarization.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Radial profiles of radial electric fields as a function of distance from the center of the cluster at several different times during the cluster explosion for I = 1x1015 W/cm2. For the solid (dashed) curves distance is measured along the direction parallel (perpendicular) to the laser polarization.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Radial profiles of ion density (here n0 = 4.1 × 1022 cm−3) as a function of distance from the center of the cluster at several different times during the cluster explosion for I = 1x1015 W/cm2. For the solid (dashed) curves distance is measured along the direction parallel (perpendicular) to the laser polarization. In each case, the solid symbols show the distribution parallel to the polarization, while the open symbols show the distribution perpendicular to the polarization.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Ion energy spectra for 35 nm argon clusters and intensities I = 5x1015 W/cm2, I = 1.5x1016 W/cm2 and I = 3x1016 W/cm2. In the graph, the solid curves show the distributions parallel to the polarization, while the dashed curves show the distributions perpendicular to the polarization.

Equations (2)

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f t = v ν s ( v ) [ v f + T e m e f v ] ,
Δ U = 0 Δ U p ( Δ U ) d ( Δ U ) = 0 W i ( U i + Δ U ) W i ( U i ) d ( Δ U ) .

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