Abstract

The effects of the nanocrystal size on the emission spectra and decay rates of upconverting hexagonal NaYF4:Yb,Er nanocrystals are investigated. The influence of nanocrystal size is represented in terms of the surface area/volume ratio (SA/Vol). Our results show that a small nanocrystal size, or large SA/Vol ratio increases the decay rate, in particular, the green luminescence decay rate varies linearly with the SA/Vol ratio.

© 2010 OSA

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    [Crossref]

2009 (4)

J. Shan and Y. Ju, “A single-step synthesis and the kinetic mechanism for monodisperse and hexagonal-phase NaYF4:Yb, Er upconversion nanophosphors,” Nanotechnology 20(27), 275603 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Schietinger, L. S. Menezes, B. Lauritzen, and O. Benson, “Observation of size dependence in multicolor upconversion in single Yb3+, Er3+ Codoped NaYF4 nanocrystals,” Nano Lett. 9(6), 2477–2481 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Zhang, J. Li, J. Shan, L. Xu, and D. Zhao, “Shape, Size, and Phase-Controlled Rare-Earth Fluoride Nanocrystals with Optical Up-Conversion Properties,” Chemistry 15(41), 11010–11019 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Wang, W. Qin, L. Wang, G. Wei, P. Zhu, D. Zhang, and F. Ding, “Synthesis and upconversion luminescence properties of NaYF4:Yb3+/Er3+ microspheres,” J. Rare Earths 27(3), 394–397 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (6)

S. Chen, M. Wu, L. An, Y. Li, and S. Wang, “Strong Green and Red Upconversion Emission in Er3+- Doped Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3 Ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 90(2), 664–666 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Liu, S. W. Wang, J. Zhang, L. Q. An, and L. D. Chen, “Dominant red emission (4F9/2-> 4I15/2) via upconversion in YAG (Y3Al5O12): Yb3+, Er3+ nanopowders,” Opt. Mater. 29(11), 1352–1357 (2007).
[Crossref]

X. Bai, H. W. Song, G. H. Pan, Y. Q. Lei, T. Wang, X. G. Ren, S. Z. Lu, B. Dong, Q. L. Dai, and L. Fan, “Size-dependent upconversion luminescence in Er3+/Yb3+-codoped nanocrystalline yttria: Saturation and thermal effects,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(36), 13611–13617 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. N. Shan and Y. G. Ju, “Controlled synthesis of lanthanide-doped NaYF4 upconversion nanocrystals via ligand induced crystal phase transition and silica coating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123103–123105 (2007).
[Crossref]

X. Qin, T. Yokomori, and Y. G. Ju, “Flame synthesis and characterization of rare-earth (Er3+, Ho3+, and Tm3+) doped upconversion nanophosphors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(7), 073104 (2007).
[Crossref]

Z. Y. Chen, M. G. Mauk, J. Wang, W. R. Abrams, P. Corstjens, R. S. Niedbala, D. Malamud, and H. H. Bau, “A microfluidic system for saliva-based detection of infectious diseases,” Oral-Based Diagnostics 1098, 429–436 (2007).

2006 (6)

A. Rapaport, J. Milliez, M. Bass, A. Cassanho, and H. Jenssen, “Review of the Properties of Up-Conversion Phosphors for New Emissive Displays,” Journal of Display Technology 2(1), 68–78 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. C. Boyer, F. Vetrone, L. A. Cuccia, and J. A. Capobianco, “Synthesis of colloidal upconverting NaYF4 nanocrystals doped with Er3+, Yb3+ and Tm3+, Yb3+ via thermal decomposition of lanthanide trifluoroacetate precursors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(23), 7444–7445 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. X. Mai, Y. W. Zhang, R. Si, Z. G. Yan, L. D. Sun, L. P. You, and C. H. Yan, “High-quality sodium rare-earth fluoride nanocrystals: Controlled synthesis and optical properties,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(19), 6426–6436 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. S. Yi and G. M. Chow, “Synthesis of hexagonal-phase NaYF4: Yb,Er and NaYF4: Yb,Tm nanocrystals with efficient up-conversion fluorescence,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16(18), 2324–2329 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. W. Song, H. P. Xia, B. J. Sun, S. Z. Lu, Z. X. Liu, and L. X. Yu, “Upconversion luminescence dynamics in Er3+/Yb3+ codoped nanocrystalline yttria,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 23(2), 474–477 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. J. De, W. P. Qin, J. S. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Y. Cao, and Y. Cui, “Effect of OH- on the upconversion luminescent efficiency of Y2O3: Yb3+, Er3+ nanostructures,” Solid State Commun. 137(9), 483–487 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (8)

J. F. Suyver, J. Grimm, K. W. Kramer, and H. U. Gudel, “Highly efficient near-infrared to visible up-conversion process in NaYF4: Er3+,Yb3+,” J. Lumin. 114(1), 53–59 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. B. Kutsenko, J. Heber, S. E. Kapphan, R. Demirbilek, and R. I. Zakharchenya, “Energy migration and energy transfer processes in RE3+ doped nanocrystalline yttrium oxide,” Phys. Status Solidi 2(1), 685–688 (2005).
[Crossref]

Y. Lei, H. Song, L. Yang, L. Yu, Z. Liu, G. Pan, X. Bai, and L. Fan, “Upconversion luminescence, intensity saturation effect, and thermal effect in Gd2O3:Er3+,Yb3+ nanowires,” J. Chem. Phys. 123(17), 174710–174714 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, T. Trupke, K. W. Kramer, and H. U. Gudel, “Application of NaYF4: Er3+ up-converting phosphors for enhanced near-infrared silicon solar cell response,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(1), 013505 (2005).
[Crossref]

W. Chen, A. G. Joly, and D. E. McCready, “Upconversion luminescence from CdSe nanoparticles,” J. Chem. Phys. 122(22), 224708 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. H. Zeng, J. Su, Z. H. Li, R. X. Yan, and Y. D. Li, “Synthesis and upconversion luminescence of hexagonal-phase NaYF4: Yb, Er phosphors of controlled size and morphology,” Adv. Mater. 17(17), 2119–2123 (2005).
[Crossref]

K. Kuningas, T. Rantanen, U. Karhunen, T. Lövgren, and T. Soukka, “Simultaneous use of time-resolved fluorescence and anti-stokes photoluminescence in a bioaffinity assay,” Anal. Chem. 77(9), 2826–2834 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. G. Joly, W. Chen, D. E. McCready, J.-O. Malm, and J.-O. Bovin, “Upconversion luminescence of CdTe nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 71(16), 165304 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (6)

G. S. Yi, H. C. Lu, S. Y. Zhao, G. Yue, W. J. Yang, D. P. Chen, and L. H. Guo, “Synthesis, characterization, and biological application of size-controlled nanocrystalline NaYF4: Yb,Er infrared-to-visible up-conversion phosphors,” Nano Lett. 4(11), 2191–2196 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Heer, K. Kompe, H. U. Gudel, and M. Haase, “Highly efficient multicolour upconversion emission in transparent colloids of lanthanide-doped NaYF4 nanocrystals,” Adv. Mater. 16(23–24), 2102–2105 (2004).
[Crossref]

K. W. Krämer, D. Biner, G. Frei, H. U. Gudel, M. P. Hehlen, and S. R. Luthi, “Hexagonal sodium yttrium fluoride based green and blue emitting upconversion phosphors,” Chem. Mater. 16(7), 1244–1251 (2004).
[Crossref]

F. Vetrone, J. C. Boyer, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Wet chemical synthesis and luminescence properties of erbium-doped nanocrystalline yttrium oxide,” J. Mater. Res. 19(11), 3398–3407 (2004).
[Crossref]

H. Song, L. Yu, S. Lu, T. Wang, Z. Liu, and L. Yang, “Remarkable differences in photoluminescent properties between LaPO4:Eu one-dimensional nanowires and zero-dimensional nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(3), 470–472 (2004).
[Crossref]

F. Vetrone, J. C. Boyer, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Significance of Yb3+ concentration on the upconversion mechanisms in codoped Y2O3: Er3+, Yb3+ nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(1), 661–667 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (4)

X. Y. Chen, H. Z. Zhuang, H. Z. G. K. Liu, S. Li, and R. S. Niedbala, “Confinement on energy transfer between luminescent centers in nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(9), 5559 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. J. Dejneka, A. Streltsov, S. Pal, A. G. Frutos, C. L. Powell, K. Yost, P. K. Yuen, U. Müller, and J. Lahiri, “Rare earth-doped glass microbarcodes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(2), 389–393 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Zuiderwijk, H. J. Tanke, R. Sam Niedbala, and P. L. Corstjens, “An amplification-free hybridization-based DNA assay to detect Streptococcus pneumoniae utilizing the up-converting phosphor technology,” Clin. Biochem. 36(5), 401–403 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wang, W. W. Yu, J. Zhang, J. Aldana, X. Peng, and M. Xiao, “Photoluminescence upconversion in colloidal CdTe quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 68(12), 125318 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (3)

J. R. Lakowicz, I. Gryczynski, G. Piszczek, and C. J. Murphy, “Emission Spectral Properties of Cadmium Sulfide Nanoparticles with Multiphoton Excitation,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(21), 5365–5370 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. Patra, C. S. Friend, R. Kapoor, and P. N. Prasad, “Upconversion in Er3+: ZrO2 nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(8), 1909–1912 (2002).
[Crossref]

D. Matsuura, “Red, green, and blue upconversion luminescence of trivalent-rare-earth ion-doped Y2O3 nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(24), 4526–4528 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (4)

F. van de Rijke, H. Zijlmans, S. Li, T. Vail, A. K. Raap, R. S. Niedbala, and H. J. Tanke, “Up-converting phosphor reporters for nucleic acid microarrays,” Nat. Biotechnol. 19(3), 273–276 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Silver, M. I. Martinez-Rubio, T. G. Ireland, G. R. Fern, and R. Withnall, “The effect of particle morphology and crystallite size on the upconversion luminescence properties of erbium and ytterbium co-doped yttrium oxide phosphors,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105(5), 948–953 (2001).
[Crossref]

P. Corstjens, M. Zuiderwijk, A. Brink, S. Li, H. Feindt, R. S. Niedbala, and H. Tanke, “Use of up-converting phosphor reporters in lateral-flow assays to detect specific nucleic acid sequences: A rapid, sensitive DNA test to identify human papillomavirus type 16 infection,” Clin. Chem. 47(10), 1885–1893 (2001).
[PubMed]

G. M. Salley, R. Valiente, and H. U. Guedel, “Luminescence upconversion mechanisms in Yb3+-Tb3+ systems,” J. Lumin. 94(2-4), 305–309 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

H. U. Güdel and M. Pollnau, “Near-infrared to visible photon upconversion processes in lanthanide doped chloride, bromide and iodide lattices,” J. Alloy. Comp. 303(1-2), 307–315 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Luthi, H. U. Gudel, and M. P. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B 61(5), 3337–3346 (2000).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

M. P. Hehlen, N. J. Cockroft, T. R. Gosnell, and A. J. Bruce, “Spectroscopic properties of Er3+- and Yb3+-doped soda-lime silicate and aluminosilicate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 56(15), 9302–9318 (1997).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

S. A. Blanton, A. Dehestani, P. C. Lin, and P. Guyot-Sionnest, “Photoluminescence of single semiconductor nanocrystallites by two-photon excitation microscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 229(3), 317–322 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (2)

R. Brede, E. Heumann, J. Koetke, T. Danger, G. Huber, and B. Chai, “Green up-Conversion Laser-Emission in Er-Doped Crystals at Room-Temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(15), 2030–2031 (1993).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Wang and J. Ohwaki, “High-Efficiency Infrared-to-Visible up-Conversion of Er3+ in BaCl2,” J. Appl. Phys. 74(2), 1272–1278 (1993).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

D. C. Hanna, R. M. Percival, I. R. Perry, R. G. Smart, J. E. Townsend, and A. C. Tropper, “Frequency upconversion in Tm- and Yb:Tm-doped silica fibers,” Opt. Commun. 78(2), 187–194 (1990).
[Crossref]

1984 (2)

F. Auzel, “Spectral Narrowing of Excitation-Spectra in N-Photons Upconversion Processes by Energy Transfers,” J. Lumin. 31–32(DEC), 759–761 (1984).
[Crossref]

J. P. Jouart, C. Bissieux, and G. Mary, “Energy-Transfer Upconversion in CdF2:Er3+ and SrxCd1-xF2:Er3+,” J. Lumin. 29(3), 261–274 (1984).

1972 (2)

N. Menyuk, J. W. Pierce, and K. Dwight, “NaYF4:Yb,Er - Efficient Upconversion Phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21(4), 159–161 (1972).
[Crossref]

J. W. Pierce, E. J. Delaney, K. Dwight, and N. Menyuk, “Preparation of Infrared to Visible Upconversion Phosphors Based on Hexagonal NaYF4,” Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society 164, 18 (1972).

1969 (1)

M. R. Brown, H. Thomas, J. M. Williams, and R. J. Woodward, “Experiments on Er3+ in SrF2. III. Coupled-Ion Effects,” J. Chem. Phys. 51(8), 3321 (1969).
[Crossref]

1959 (1)

N. Bloembergen, “Solid State Infrared Quantum Counters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 2(3), 84–85 (1959).
[Crossref]

Abrams, W. R.

Z. Y. Chen, M. G. Mauk, J. Wang, W. R. Abrams, P. Corstjens, R. S. Niedbala, D. Malamud, and H. H. Bau, “A microfluidic system for saliva-based detection of infectious diseases,” Oral-Based Diagnostics 1098, 429–436 (2007).

Aldana, J.

X. Wang, W. W. Yu, J. Zhang, J. Aldana, X. Peng, and M. Xiao, “Photoluminescence upconversion in colloidal CdTe quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 68(12), 125318 (2003).
[Crossref]

An, L.

S. Chen, M. Wu, L. An, Y. Li, and S. Wang, “Strong Green and Red Upconversion Emission in Er3+- Doped Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3 Ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 90(2), 664–666 (2007).
[Crossref]

An, L. Q.

M. Liu, S. W. Wang, J. Zhang, L. Q. An, and L. D. Chen, “Dominant red emission (4F9/2-> 4I15/2) via upconversion in YAG (Y3Al5O12): Yb3+, Er3+ nanopowders,” Opt. Mater. 29(11), 1352–1357 (2007).
[Crossref]

Auzel, F.

F. Auzel, “Spectral Narrowing of Excitation-Spectra in N-Photons Upconversion Processes by Energy Transfers,” J. Lumin. 31–32(DEC), 759–761 (1984).
[Crossref]

Bai, X.

X. Bai, H. W. Song, G. H. Pan, Y. Q. Lei, T. Wang, X. G. Ren, S. Z. Lu, B. Dong, Q. L. Dai, and L. Fan, “Size-dependent upconversion luminescence in Er3+/Yb3+-codoped nanocrystalline yttria: Saturation and thermal effects,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(36), 13611–13617 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Lei, H. Song, L. Yang, L. Yu, Z. Liu, G. Pan, X. Bai, and L. Fan, “Upconversion luminescence, intensity saturation effect, and thermal effect in Gd2O3:Er3+,Yb3+ nanowires,” J. Chem. Phys. 123(17), 174710–174714 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bass, M.

A. Rapaport, J. Milliez, M. Bass, A. Cassanho, and H. Jenssen, “Review of the Properties of Up-Conversion Phosphors for New Emissive Displays,” Journal of Display Technology 2(1), 68–78 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bau, H. H.

Z. Y. Chen, M. G. Mauk, J. Wang, W. R. Abrams, P. Corstjens, R. S. Niedbala, D. Malamud, and H. H. Bau, “A microfluidic system for saliva-based detection of infectious diseases,” Oral-Based Diagnostics 1098, 429–436 (2007).

Benson, O.

S. Schietinger, L. S. Menezes, B. Lauritzen, and O. Benson, “Observation of size dependence in multicolor upconversion in single Yb3+, Er3+ Codoped NaYF4 nanocrystals,” Nano Lett. 9(6), 2477–2481 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bettinelli, M.

F. Vetrone, J. C. Boyer, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Wet chemical synthesis and luminescence properties of erbium-doped nanocrystalline yttrium oxide,” J. Mater. Res. 19(11), 3398–3407 (2004).
[Crossref]

F. Vetrone, J. C. Boyer, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Significance of Yb3+ concentration on the upconversion mechanisms in codoped Y2O3: Er3+, Yb3+ nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(1), 661–667 (2004).
[Crossref]

Biner, D.

K. W. Krämer, D. Biner, G. Frei, H. U. Gudel, M. P. Hehlen, and S. R. Luthi, “Hexagonal sodium yttrium fluoride based green and blue emitting upconversion phosphors,” Chem. Mater. 16(7), 1244–1251 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bissieux, C.

J. P. Jouart, C. Bissieux, and G. Mary, “Energy-Transfer Upconversion in CdF2:Er3+ and SrxCd1-xF2:Er3+,” J. Lumin. 29(3), 261–274 (1984).

Blanton, S. A.

S. A. Blanton, A. Dehestani, P. C. Lin, and P. Guyot-Sionnest, “Photoluminescence of single semiconductor nanocrystallites by two-photon excitation microscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 229(3), 317–322 (1994).
[Crossref]

Bloembergen, N.

N. Bloembergen, “Solid State Infrared Quantum Counters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 2(3), 84–85 (1959).
[Crossref]

Bovin, J.-O.

A. G. Joly, W. Chen, D. E. McCready, J.-O. Malm, and J.-O. Bovin, “Upconversion luminescence of CdTe nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 71(16), 165304 (2005).
[Crossref]

Boyer, J. C.

J. C. Boyer, F. Vetrone, L. A. Cuccia, and J. A. Capobianco, “Synthesis of colloidal upconverting NaYF4 nanocrystals doped with Er3+, Yb3+ and Tm3+, Yb3+ via thermal decomposition of lanthanide trifluoroacetate precursors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(23), 7444–7445 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Vetrone, J. C. Boyer, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Significance of Yb3+ concentration on the upconversion mechanisms in codoped Y2O3: Er3+, Yb3+ nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(1), 661–667 (2004).
[Crossref]

F. Vetrone, J. C. Boyer, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Wet chemical synthesis and luminescence properties of erbium-doped nanocrystalline yttrium oxide,” J. Mater. Res. 19(11), 3398–3407 (2004).
[Crossref]

Brede, R.

R. Brede, E. Heumann, J. Koetke, T. Danger, G. Huber, and B. Chai, “Green up-Conversion Laser-Emission in Er-Doped Crystals at Room-Temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(15), 2030–2031 (1993).
[Crossref]

Brink, A.

P. Corstjens, M. Zuiderwijk, A. Brink, S. Li, H. Feindt, R. S. Niedbala, and H. Tanke, “Use of up-converting phosphor reporters in lateral-flow assays to detect specific nucleic acid sequences: A rapid, sensitive DNA test to identify human papillomavirus type 16 infection,” Clin. Chem. 47(10), 1885–1893 (2001).
[PubMed]

Brown, M. R.

M. R. Brown, H. Thomas, J. M. Williams, and R. J. Woodward, “Experiments on Er3+ in SrF2. III. Coupled-Ion Effects,” J. Chem. Phys. 51(8), 3321 (1969).
[Crossref]

Bruce, A. J.

M. P. Hehlen, N. J. Cockroft, T. R. Gosnell, and A. J. Bruce, “Spectroscopic properties of Er3+- and Yb3+-doped soda-lime silicate and aluminosilicate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 56(15), 9302–9318 (1997).
[Crossref]

Cao, C. Y.

G. J. De, W. P. Qin, J. S. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Y. Cao, and Y. Cui, “Effect of OH- on the upconversion luminescent efficiency of Y2O3: Yb3+, Er3+ nanostructures,” Solid State Commun. 137(9), 483–487 (2006).
[Crossref]

Capobianco, J. A.

J. C. Boyer, F. Vetrone, L. A. Cuccia, and J. A. Capobianco, “Synthesis of colloidal upconverting NaYF4 nanocrystals doped with Er3+, Yb3+ and Tm3+, Yb3+ via thermal decomposition of lanthanide trifluoroacetate precursors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(23), 7444–7445 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Vetrone, J. C. Boyer, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Wet chemical synthesis and luminescence properties of erbium-doped nanocrystalline yttrium oxide,” J. Mater. Res. 19(11), 3398–3407 (2004).
[Crossref]

F. Vetrone, J. C. Boyer, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Significance of Yb3+ concentration on the upconversion mechanisms in codoped Y2O3: Er3+, Yb3+ nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(1), 661–667 (2004).
[Crossref]

Cassanho, A.

A. Rapaport, J. Milliez, M. Bass, A. Cassanho, and H. Jenssen, “Review of the Properties of Up-Conversion Phosphors for New Emissive Displays,” Journal of Display Technology 2(1), 68–78 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chai, B.

R. Brede, E. Heumann, J. Koetke, T. Danger, G. Huber, and B. Chai, “Green up-Conversion Laser-Emission in Er-Doped Crystals at Room-Temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(15), 2030–2031 (1993).
[Crossref]

Chen, D. P.

G. S. Yi, H. C. Lu, S. Y. Zhao, G. Yue, W. J. Yang, D. P. Chen, and L. H. Guo, “Synthesis, characterization, and biological application of size-controlled nanocrystalline NaYF4: Yb,Er infrared-to-visible up-conversion phosphors,” Nano Lett. 4(11), 2191–2196 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chen, L. D.

M. Liu, S. W. Wang, J. Zhang, L. Q. An, and L. D. Chen, “Dominant red emission (4F9/2-> 4I15/2) via upconversion in YAG (Y3Al5O12): Yb3+, Er3+ nanopowders,” Opt. Mater. 29(11), 1352–1357 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chen, S.

S. Chen, M. Wu, L. An, Y. Li, and S. Wang, “Strong Green and Red Upconversion Emission in Er3+- Doped Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3 Ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 90(2), 664–666 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chen, W.

W. Chen, A. G. Joly, and D. E. McCready, “Upconversion luminescence from CdSe nanoparticles,” J. Chem. Phys. 122(22), 224708 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. G. Joly, W. Chen, D. E. McCready, J.-O. Malm, and J.-O. Bovin, “Upconversion luminescence of CdTe nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 71(16), 165304 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chen, X. Y.

X. Y. Chen, H. Z. Zhuang, H. Z. G. K. Liu, S. Li, and R. S. Niedbala, “Confinement on energy transfer between luminescent centers in nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(9), 5559 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z. Y.

Z. Y. Chen, M. G. Mauk, J. Wang, W. R. Abrams, P. Corstjens, R. S. Niedbala, D. Malamud, and H. H. Bau, “A microfluidic system for saliva-based detection of infectious diseases,” Oral-Based Diagnostics 1098, 429–436 (2007).

Chow, G. M.

G. S. Yi and G. M. Chow, “Synthesis of hexagonal-phase NaYF4: Yb,Er and NaYF4: Yb,Tm nanocrystals with efficient up-conversion fluorescence,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16(18), 2324–2329 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cockroft, N. J.

M. P. Hehlen, N. J. Cockroft, T. R. Gosnell, and A. J. Bruce, “Spectroscopic properties of Er3+- and Yb3+-doped soda-lime silicate and aluminosilicate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 56(15), 9302–9318 (1997).
[Crossref]

Corstjens, P.

Z. Y. Chen, M. G. Mauk, J. Wang, W. R. Abrams, P. Corstjens, R. S. Niedbala, D. Malamud, and H. H. Bau, “A microfluidic system for saliva-based detection of infectious diseases,” Oral-Based Diagnostics 1098, 429–436 (2007).

P. Corstjens, M. Zuiderwijk, A. Brink, S. Li, H. Feindt, R. S. Niedbala, and H. Tanke, “Use of up-converting phosphor reporters in lateral-flow assays to detect specific nucleic acid sequences: A rapid, sensitive DNA test to identify human papillomavirus type 16 infection,” Clin. Chem. 47(10), 1885–1893 (2001).
[PubMed]

Corstjens, P. L.

M. Zuiderwijk, H. J. Tanke, R. Sam Niedbala, and P. L. Corstjens, “An amplification-free hybridization-based DNA assay to detect Streptococcus pneumoniae utilizing the up-converting phosphor technology,” Clin. Biochem. 36(5), 401–403 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cuccia, L. A.

J. C. Boyer, F. Vetrone, L. A. Cuccia, and J. A. Capobianco, “Synthesis of colloidal upconverting NaYF4 nanocrystals doped with Er3+, Yb3+ and Tm3+, Yb3+ via thermal decomposition of lanthanide trifluoroacetate precursors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(23), 7444–7445 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cui, Y.

G. J. De, W. P. Qin, J. S. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Y. Cao, and Y. Cui, “Effect of OH- on the upconversion luminescent efficiency of Y2O3: Yb3+, Er3+ nanostructures,” Solid State Commun. 137(9), 483–487 (2006).
[Crossref]

Dai, Q. L.

X. Bai, H. W. Song, G. H. Pan, Y. Q. Lei, T. Wang, X. G. Ren, S. Z. Lu, B. Dong, Q. L. Dai, and L. Fan, “Size-dependent upconversion luminescence in Er3+/Yb3+-codoped nanocrystalline yttria: Saturation and thermal effects,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(36), 13611–13617 (2007).
[Crossref]

Danger, T.

R. Brede, E. Heumann, J. Koetke, T. Danger, G. Huber, and B. Chai, “Green up-Conversion Laser-Emission in Er-Doped Crystals at Room-Temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(15), 2030–2031 (1993).
[Crossref]

De, G. J.

G. J. De, W. P. Qin, J. S. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Y. Cao, and Y. Cui, “Effect of OH- on the upconversion luminescent efficiency of Y2O3: Yb3+, Er3+ nanostructures,” Solid State Commun. 137(9), 483–487 (2006).
[Crossref]

Dehestani, A.

S. A. Blanton, A. Dehestani, P. C. Lin, and P. Guyot-Sionnest, “Photoluminescence of single semiconductor nanocrystallites by two-photon excitation microscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 229(3), 317–322 (1994).
[Crossref]

Dejneka, M. J.

M. J. Dejneka, A. Streltsov, S. Pal, A. G. Frutos, C. L. Powell, K. Yost, P. K. Yuen, U. Müller, and J. Lahiri, “Rare earth-doped glass microbarcodes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(2), 389–393 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Delaney, E. J.

J. W. Pierce, E. J. Delaney, K. Dwight, and N. Menyuk, “Preparation of Infrared to Visible Upconversion Phosphors Based on Hexagonal NaYF4,” Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society 164, 18 (1972).

Demirbilek, R.

A. B. Kutsenko, J. Heber, S. E. Kapphan, R. Demirbilek, and R. I. Zakharchenya, “Energy migration and energy transfer processes in RE3+ doped nanocrystalline yttrium oxide,” Phys. Status Solidi 2(1), 685–688 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ding, F.

G. Wang, W. Qin, L. Wang, G. Wei, P. Zhu, D. Zhang, and F. Ding, “Synthesis and upconversion luminescence properties of NaYF4:Yb3+/Er3+ microspheres,” J. Rare Earths 27(3), 394–397 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dong, B.

X. Bai, H. W. Song, G. H. Pan, Y. Q. Lei, T. Wang, X. G. Ren, S. Z. Lu, B. Dong, Q. L. Dai, and L. Fan, “Size-dependent upconversion luminescence in Er3+/Yb3+-codoped nanocrystalline yttria: Saturation and thermal effects,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(36), 13611–13617 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dwight, K.

J. W. Pierce, E. J. Delaney, K. Dwight, and N. Menyuk, “Preparation of Infrared to Visible Upconversion Phosphors Based on Hexagonal NaYF4,” Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society 164, 18 (1972).

N. Menyuk, J. W. Pierce, and K. Dwight, “NaYF4:Yb,Er - Efficient Upconversion Phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21(4), 159–161 (1972).
[Crossref]

Fan, L.

X. Bai, H. W. Song, G. H. Pan, Y. Q. Lei, T. Wang, X. G. Ren, S. Z. Lu, B. Dong, Q. L. Dai, and L. Fan, “Size-dependent upconversion luminescence in Er3+/Yb3+-codoped nanocrystalline yttria: Saturation and thermal effects,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(36), 13611–13617 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Lei, H. Song, L. Yang, L. Yu, Z. Liu, G. Pan, X. Bai, and L. Fan, “Upconversion luminescence, intensity saturation effect, and thermal effect in Gd2O3:Er3+,Yb3+ nanowires,” J. Chem. Phys. 123(17), 174710–174714 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feindt, H.

P. Corstjens, M. Zuiderwijk, A. Brink, S. Li, H. Feindt, R. S. Niedbala, and H. Tanke, “Use of up-converting phosphor reporters in lateral-flow assays to detect specific nucleic acid sequences: A rapid, sensitive DNA test to identify human papillomavirus type 16 infection,” Clin. Chem. 47(10), 1885–1893 (2001).
[PubMed]

Fern, G. R.

J. Silver, M. I. Martinez-Rubio, T. G. Ireland, G. R. Fern, and R. Withnall, “The effect of particle morphology and crystallite size on the upconversion luminescence properties of erbium and ytterbium co-doped yttrium oxide phosphors,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105(5), 948–953 (2001).
[Crossref]

Frei, G.

K. W. Krämer, D. Biner, G. Frei, H. U. Gudel, M. P. Hehlen, and S. R. Luthi, “Hexagonal sodium yttrium fluoride based green and blue emitting upconversion phosphors,” Chem. Mater. 16(7), 1244–1251 (2004).
[Crossref]

Friend, C. S.

A. Patra, C. S. Friend, R. Kapoor, and P. N. Prasad, “Upconversion in Er3+: ZrO2 nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(8), 1909–1912 (2002).
[Crossref]

Frutos, A. G.

M. J. Dejneka, A. Streltsov, S. Pal, A. G. Frutos, C. L. Powell, K. Yost, P. K. Yuen, U. Müller, and J. Lahiri, “Rare earth-doped glass microbarcodes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(2), 389–393 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gamelin, D. R.

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Luthi, H. U. Gudel, and M. P. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B 61(5), 3337–3346 (2000).
[Crossref]

Gosnell, T. R.

M. P. Hehlen, N. J. Cockroft, T. R. Gosnell, and A. J. Bruce, “Spectroscopic properties of Er3+- and Yb3+-doped soda-lime silicate and aluminosilicate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 56(15), 9302–9318 (1997).
[Crossref]

Grimm, J.

J. F. Suyver, J. Grimm, K. W. Kramer, and H. U. Gudel, “Highly efficient near-infrared to visible up-conversion process in NaYF4: Er3+,Yb3+,” J. Lumin. 114(1), 53–59 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gryczynski, I.

J. R. Lakowicz, I. Gryczynski, G. Piszczek, and C. J. Murphy, “Emission Spectral Properties of Cadmium Sulfide Nanoparticles with Multiphoton Excitation,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(21), 5365–5370 (2002).
[Crossref]

Gudel, H. U.

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, T. Trupke, K. W. Kramer, and H. U. Gudel, “Application of NaYF4: Er3+ up-converting phosphors for enhanced near-infrared silicon solar cell response,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(1), 013505 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. F. Suyver, J. Grimm, K. W. Kramer, and H. U. Gudel, “Highly efficient near-infrared to visible up-conversion process in NaYF4: Er3+,Yb3+,” J. Lumin. 114(1), 53–59 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Heer, K. Kompe, H. U. Gudel, and M. Haase, “Highly efficient multicolour upconversion emission in transparent colloids of lanthanide-doped NaYF4 nanocrystals,” Adv. Mater. 16(23–24), 2102–2105 (2004).
[Crossref]

K. W. Krämer, D. Biner, G. Frei, H. U. Gudel, M. P. Hehlen, and S. R. Luthi, “Hexagonal sodium yttrium fluoride based green and blue emitting upconversion phosphors,” Chem. Mater. 16(7), 1244–1251 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Luthi, H. U. Gudel, and M. P. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B 61(5), 3337–3346 (2000).
[Crossref]

Güdel, H. U.

H. U. Güdel and M. Pollnau, “Near-infrared to visible photon upconversion processes in lanthanide doped chloride, bromide and iodide lattices,” J. Alloy. Comp. 303(1-2), 307–315 (2000).
[Crossref]

Guedel, H. U.

G. M. Salley, R. Valiente, and H. U. Guedel, “Luminescence upconversion mechanisms in Yb3+-Tb3+ systems,” J. Lumin. 94(2-4), 305–309 (2001).
[Crossref]

Guo, L. H.

G. S. Yi, H. C. Lu, S. Y. Zhao, G. Yue, W. J. Yang, D. P. Chen, and L. H. Guo, “Synthesis, characterization, and biological application of size-controlled nanocrystalline NaYF4: Yb,Er infrared-to-visible up-conversion phosphors,” Nano Lett. 4(11), 2191–2196 (2004).
[Crossref]

Guyot-Sionnest, P.

S. A. Blanton, A. Dehestani, P. C. Lin, and P. Guyot-Sionnest, “Photoluminescence of single semiconductor nanocrystallites by two-photon excitation microscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 229(3), 317–322 (1994).
[Crossref]

Haase, M.

S. Heer, K. Kompe, H. U. Gudel, and M. Haase, “Highly efficient multicolour upconversion emission in transparent colloids of lanthanide-doped NaYF4 nanocrystals,” Adv. Mater. 16(23–24), 2102–2105 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hanna, D. C.

D. C. Hanna, R. M. Percival, I. R. Perry, R. G. Smart, J. E. Townsend, and A. C. Tropper, “Frequency upconversion in Tm- and Yb:Tm-doped silica fibers,” Opt. Commun. 78(2), 187–194 (1990).
[Crossref]

Heber, J.

A. B. Kutsenko, J. Heber, S. E. Kapphan, R. Demirbilek, and R. I. Zakharchenya, “Energy migration and energy transfer processes in RE3+ doped nanocrystalline yttrium oxide,” Phys. Status Solidi 2(1), 685–688 (2005).
[Crossref]

Heer, S.

S. Heer, K. Kompe, H. U. Gudel, and M. Haase, “Highly efficient multicolour upconversion emission in transparent colloids of lanthanide-doped NaYF4 nanocrystals,” Adv. Mater. 16(23–24), 2102–2105 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hehlen, M. P.

K. W. Krämer, D. Biner, G. Frei, H. U. Gudel, M. P. Hehlen, and S. R. Luthi, “Hexagonal sodium yttrium fluoride based green and blue emitting upconversion phosphors,” Chem. Mater. 16(7), 1244–1251 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Luthi, H. U. Gudel, and M. P. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B 61(5), 3337–3346 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. P. Hehlen, N. J. Cockroft, T. R. Gosnell, and A. J. Bruce, “Spectroscopic properties of Er3+- and Yb3+-doped soda-lime silicate and aluminosilicate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 56(15), 9302–9318 (1997).
[Crossref]

Heumann, E.

R. Brede, E. Heumann, J. Koetke, T. Danger, G. Huber, and B. Chai, “Green up-Conversion Laser-Emission in Er-Doped Crystals at Room-Temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(15), 2030–2031 (1993).
[Crossref]

Huber, G.

R. Brede, E. Heumann, J. Koetke, T. Danger, G. Huber, and B. Chai, “Green up-Conversion Laser-Emission in Er-Doped Crystals at Room-Temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(15), 2030–2031 (1993).
[Crossref]

Ireland, T. G.

J. Silver, M. I. Martinez-Rubio, T. G. Ireland, G. R. Fern, and R. Withnall, “The effect of particle morphology and crystallite size on the upconversion luminescence properties of erbium and ytterbium co-doped yttrium oxide phosphors,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105(5), 948–953 (2001).
[Crossref]

Jenssen, H.

A. Rapaport, J. Milliez, M. Bass, A. Cassanho, and H. Jenssen, “Review of the Properties of Up-Conversion Phosphors for New Emissive Displays,” Journal of Display Technology 2(1), 68–78 (2006).
[Crossref]

Joly, A. G.

A. G. Joly, W. Chen, D. E. McCready, J.-O. Malm, and J.-O. Bovin, “Upconversion luminescence of CdTe nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 71(16), 165304 (2005).
[Crossref]

W. Chen, A. G. Joly, and D. E. McCready, “Upconversion luminescence from CdSe nanoparticles,” J. Chem. Phys. 122(22), 224708 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jouart, J. P.

J. P. Jouart, C. Bissieux, and G. Mary, “Energy-Transfer Upconversion in CdF2:Er3+ and SrxCd1-xF2:Er3+,” J. Lumin. 29(3), 261–274 (1984).

Ju, Y.

J. Shan and Y. Ju, “A single-step synthesis and the kinetic mechanism for monodisperse and hexagonal-phase NaYF4:Yb, Er upconversion nanophosphors,” Nanotechnology 20(27), 275603 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ju, Y. G.

J. N. Shan and Y. G. Ju, “Controlled synthesis of lanthanide-doped NaYF4 upconversion nanocrystals via ligand induced crystal phase transition and silica coating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123103–123105 (2007).
[Crossref]

X. Qin, T. Yokomori, and Y. G. Ju, “Flame synthesis and characterization of rare-earth (Er3+, Ho3+, and Tm3+) doped upconversion nanophosphors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(7), 073104 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kapoor, R.

A. Patra, C. S. Friend, R. Kapoor, and P. N. Prasad, “Upconversion in Er3+: ZrO2 nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(8), 1909–1912 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kapphan, S. E.

A. B. Kutsenko, J. Heber, S. E. Kapphan, R. Demirbilek, and R. I. Zakharchenya, “Energy migration and energy transfer processes in RE3+ doped nanocrystalline yttrium oxide,” Phys. Status Solidi 2(1), 685–688 (2005).
[Crossref]

Karhunen, U.

K. Kuningas, T. Rantanen, U. Karhunen, T. Lövgren, and T. Soukka, “Simultaneous use of time-resolved fluorescence and anti-stokes photoluminescence in a bioaffinity assay,” Anal. Chem. 77(9), 2826–2834 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koetke, J.

R. Brede, E. Heumann, J. Koetke, T. Danger, G. Huber, and B. Chai, “Green up-Conversion Laser-Emission in Er-Doped Crystals at Room-Temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(15), 2030–2031 (1993).
[Crossref]

Kompe, K.

S. Heer, K. Kompe, H. U. Gudel, and M. Haase, “Highly efficient multicolour upconversion emission in transparent colloids of lanthanide-doped NaYF4 nanocrystals,” Adv. Mater. 16(23–24), 2102–2105 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kramer, K. W.

J. F. Suyver, J. Grimm, K. W. Kramer, and H. U. Gudel, “Highly efficient near-infrared to visible up-conversion process in NaYF4: Er3+,Yb3+,” J. Lumin. 114(1), 53–59 (2005).
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A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, T. Trupke, K. W. Kramer, and H. U. Gudel, “Application of NaYF4: Er3+ up-converting phosphors for enhanced near-infrared silicon solar cell response,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(1), 013505 (2005).
[Crossref]

Krämer, K. W.

K. W. Krämer, D. Biner, G. Frei, H. U. Gudel, M. P. Hehlen, and S. R. Luthi, “Hexagonal sodium yttrium fluoride based green and blue emitting upconversion phosphors,” Chem. Mater. 16(7), 1244–1251 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kuningas, K.

K. Kuningas, T. Rantanen, U. Karhunen, T. Lövgren, and T. Soukka, “Simultaneous use of time-resolved fluorescence and anti-stokes photoluminescence in a bioaffinity assay,” Anal. Chem. 77(9), 2826–2834 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kutsenko, A. B.

A. B. Kutsenko, J. Heber, S. E. Kapphan, R. Demirbilek, and R. I. Zakharchenya, “Energy migration and energy transfer processes in RE3+ doped nanocrystalline yttrium oxide,” Phys. Status Solidi 2(1), 685–688 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lahiri, J.

M. J. Dejneka, A. Streltsov, S. Pal, A. G. Frutos, C. L. Powell, K. Yost, P. K. Yuen, U. Müller, and J. Lahiri, “Rare earth-doped glass microbarcodes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(2), 389–393 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lakowicz, J. R.

J. R. Lakowicz, I. Gryczynski, G. Piszczek, and C. J. Murphy, “Emission Spectral Properties of Cadmium Sulfide Nanoparticles with Multiphoton Excitation,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(21), 5365–5370 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lauritzen, B.

S. Schietinger, L. S. Menezes, B. Lauritzen, and O. Benson, “Observation of size dependence in multicolor upconversion in single Yb3+, Er3+ Codoped NaYF4 nanocrystals,” Nano Lett. 9(6), 2477–2481 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lei, Y.

Y. Lei, H. Song, L. Yang, L. Yu, Z. Liu, G. Pan, X. Bai, and L. Fan, “Upconversion luminescence, intensity saturation effect, and thermal effect in Gd2O3:Er3+,Yb3+ nanowires,” J. Chem. Phys. 123(17), 174710–174714 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lei, Y. Q.

X. Bai, H. W. Song, G. H. Pan, Y. Q. Lei, T. Wang, X. G. Ren, S. Z. Lu, B. Dong, Q. L. Dai, and L. Fan, “Size-dependent upconversion luminescence in Er3+/Yb3+-codoped nanocrystalline yttria: Saturation and thermal effects,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(36), 13611–13617 (2007).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

F. Zhang, J. Li, J. Shan, L. Xu, and D. Zhao, “Shape, Size, and Phase-Controlled Rare-Earth Fluoride Nanocrystals with Optical Up-Conversion Properties,” Chemistry 15(41), 11010–11019 (2009).
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Li, S.

X. Y. Chen, H. Z. Zhuang, H. Z. G. K. Liu, S. Li, and R. S. Niedbala, “Confinement on energy transfer between luminescent centers in nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(9), 5559 (2003).
[Crossref]

F. van de Rijke, H. Zijlmans, S. Li, T. Vail, A. K. Raap, R. S. Niedbala, and H. J. Tanke, “Up-converting phosphor reporters for nucleic acid microarrays,” Nat. Biotechnol. 19(3), 273–276 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Corstjens, M. Zuiderwijk, A. Brink, S. Li, H. Feindt, R. S. Niedbala, and H. Tanke, “Use of up-converting phosphor reporters in lateral-flow assays to detect specific nucleic acid sequences: A rapid, sensitive DNA test to identify human papillomavirus type 16 infection,” Clin. Chem. 47(10), 1885–1893 (2001).
[PubMed]

Li, Y.

S. Chen, M. Wu, L. An, Y. Li, and S. Wang, “Strong Green and Red Upconversion Emission in Er3+- Doped Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3 Ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 90(2), 664–666 (2007).
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Li, Y. D.

J. H. Zeng, J. Su, Z. H. Li, R. X. Yan, and Y. D. Li, “Synthesis and upconversion luminescence of hexagonal-phase NaYF4: Yb, Er phosphors of controlled size and morphology,” Adv. Mater. 17(17), 2119–2123 (2005).
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Li, Z. H.

J. H. Zeng, J. Su, Z. H. Li, R. X. Yan, and Y. D. Li, “Synthesis and upconversion luminescence of hexagonal-phase NaYF4: Yb, Er phosphors of controlled size and morphology,” Adv. Mater. 17(17), 2119–2123 (2005).
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Lin, P. C.

S. A. Blanton, A. Dehestani, P. C. Lin, and P. Guyot-Sionnest, “Photoluminescence of single semiconductor nanocrystallites by two-photon excitation microscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 229(3), 317–322 (1994).
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Liu, H. Z. G. K.

X. Y. Chen, H. Z. Zhuang, H. Z. G. K. Liu, S. Li, and R. S. Niedbala, “Confinement on energy transfer between luminescent centers in nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(9), 5559 (2003).
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Liu, M.

M. Liu, S. W. Wang, J. Zhang, L. Q. An, and L. D. Chen, “Dominant red emission (4F9/2-> 4I15/2) via upconversion in YAG (Y3Al5O12): Yb3+, Er3+ nanopowders,” Opt. Mater. 29(11), 1352–1357 (2007).
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Liu, Z.

Y. Lei, H. Song, L. Yang, L. Yu, Z. Liu, G. Pan, X. Bai, and L. Fan, “Upconversion luminescence, intensity saturation effect, and thermal effect in Gd2O3:Er3+,Yb3+ nanowires,” J. Chem. Phys. 123(17), 174710–174714 (2005).
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H. Song, L. Yu, S. Lu, T. Wang, Z. Liu, and L. Yang, “Remarkable differences in photoluminescent properties between LaPO4:Eu one-dimensional nanowires and zero-dimensional nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(3), 470–472 (2004).
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Liu, Z. X.

H. W. Song, H. P. Xia, B. J. Sun, S. Z. Lu, Z. X. Liu, and L. X. Yu, “Upconversion luminescence dynamics in Er3+/Yb3+ codoped nanocrystalline yttria,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 23(2), 474–477 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lövgren, T.

K. Kuningas, T. Rantanen, U. Karhunen, T. Lövgren, and T. Soukka, “Simultaneous use of time-resolved fluorescence and anti-stokes photoluminescence in a bioaffinity assay,” Anal. Chem. 77(9), 2826–2834 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, H. C.

G. S. Yi, H. C. Lu, S. Y. Zhao, G. Yue, W. J. Yang, D. P. Chen, and L. H. Guo, “Synthesis, characterization, and biological application of size-controlled nanocrystalline NaYF4: Yb,Er infrared-to-visible up-conversion phosphors,” Nano Lett. 4(11), 2191–2196 (2004).
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Lu, S.

H. Song, L. Yu, S. Lu, T. Wang, Z. Liu, and L. Yang, “Remarkable differences in photoluminescent properties between LaPO4:Eu one-dimensional nanowires and zero-dimensional nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(3), 470–472 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lu, S. Z.

X. Bai, H. W. Song, G. H. Pan, Y. Q. Lei, T. Wang, X. G. Ren, S. Z. Lu, B. Dong, Q. L. Dai, and L. Fan, “Size-dependent upconversion luminescence in Er3+/Yb3+-codoped nanocrystalline yttria: Saturation and thermal effects,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(36), 13611–13617 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. W. Song, H. P. Xia, B. J. Sun, S. Z. Lu, Z. X. Liu, and L. X. Yu, “Upconversion luminescence dynamics in Er3+/Yb3+ codoped nanocrystalline yttria,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 23(2), 474–477 (2006).
[Crossref]

Luthi, S. R.

K. W. Krämer, D. Biner, G. Frei, H. U. Gudel, M. P. Hehlen, and S. R. Luthi, “Hexagonal sodium yttrium fluoride based green and blue emitting upconversion phosphors,” Chem. Mater. 16(7), 1244–1251 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Luthi, H. U. Gudel, and M. P. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B 61(5), 3337–3346 (2000).
[Crossref]

Mai, H. X.

H. X. Mai, Y. W. Zhang, R. Si, Z. G. Yan, L. D. Sun, L. P. You, and C. H. Yan, “High-quality sodium rare-earth fluoride nanocrystals: Controlled synthesis and optical properties,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(19), 6426–6436 (2006).
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Malamud, D.

Z. Y. Chen, M. G. Mauk, J. Wang, W. R. Abrams, P. Corstjens, R. S. Niedbala, D. Malamud, and H. H. Bau, “A microfluidic system for saliva-based detection of infectious diseases,” Oral-Based Diagnostics 1098, 429–436 (2007).

Malm, J.-O.

A. G. Joly, W. Chen, D. E. McCready, J.-O. Malm, and J.-O. Bovin, “Upconversion luminescence of CdTe nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 71(16), 165304 (2005).
[Crossref]

Martinez-Rubio, M. I.

J. Silver, M. I. Martinez-Rubio, T. G. Ireland, G. R. Fern, and R. Withnall, “The effect of particle morphology and crystallite size on the upconversion luminescence properties of erbium and ytterbium co-doped yttrium oxide phosphors,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105(5), 948–953 (2001).
[Crossref]

Mary, G.

J. P. Jouart, C. Bissieux, and G. Mary, “Energy-Transfer Upconversion in CdF2:Er3+ and SrxCd1-xF2:Er3+,” J. Lumin. 29(3), 261–274 (1984).

Matsuura, D.

D. Matsuura, “Red, green, and blue upconversion luminescence of trivalent-rare-earth ion-doped Y2O3 nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(24), 4526–4528 (2002).
[Crossref]

Mauk, M. G.

Z. Y. Chen, M. G. Mauk, J. Wang, W. R. Abrams, P. Corstjens, R. S. Niedbala, D. Malamud, and H. H. Bau, “A microfluidic system for saliva-based detection of infectious diseases,” Oral-Based Diagnostics 1098, 429–436 (2007).

McCready, D. E.

A. G. Joly, W. Chen, D. E. McCready, J.-O. Malm, and J.-O. Bovin, “Upconversion luminescence of CdTe nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 71(16), 165304 (2005).
[Crossref]

W. Chen, A. G. Joly, and D. E. McCready, “Upconversion luminescence from CdSe nanoparticles,” J. Chem. Phys. 122(22), 224708 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Menezes, L. S.

S. Schietinger, L. S. Menezes, B. Lauritzen, and O. Benson, “Observation of size dependence in multicolor upconversion in single Yb3+, Er3+ Codoped NaYF4 nanocrystals,” Nano Lett. 9(6), 2477–2481 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Menyuk, N.

N. Menyuk, J. W. Pierce, and K. Dwight, “NaYF4:Yb,Er - Efficient Upconversion Phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21(4), 159–161 (1972).
[Crossref]

J. W. Pierce, E. J. Delaney, K. Dwight, and N. Menyuk, “Preparation of Infrared to Visible Upconversion Phosphors Based on Hexagonal NaYF4,” Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society 164, 18 (1972).

Milliez, J.

A. Rapaport, J. Milliez, M. Bass, A. Cassanho, and H. Jenssen, “Review of the Properties of Up-Conversion Phosphors for New Emissive Displays,” Journal of Display Technology 2(1), 68–78 (2006).
[Crossref]

Müller, U.

M. J. Dejneka, A. Streltsov, S. Pal, A. G. Frutos, C. L. Powell, K. Yost, P. K. Yuen, U. Müller, and J. Lahiri, “Rare earth-doped glass microbarcodes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(2), 389–393 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Murphy, C. J.

J. R. Lakowicz, I. Gryczynski, G. Piszczek, and C. J. Murphy, “Emission Spectral Properties of Cadmium Sulfide Nanoparticles with Multiphoton Excitation,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(21), 5365–5370 (2002).
[Crossref]

Niedbala, R. S.

Z. Y. Chen, M. G. Mauk, J. Wang, W. R. Abrams, P. Corstjens, R. S. Niedbala, D. Malamud, and H. H. Bau, “A microfluidic system for saliva-based detection of infectious diseases,” Oral-Based Diagnostics 1098, 429–436 (2007).

X. Y. Chen, H. Z. Zhuang, H. Z. G. K. Liu, S. Li, and R. S. Niedbala, “Confinement on energy transfer between luminescent centers in nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(9), 5559 (2003).
[Crossref]

P. Corstjens, M. Zuiderwijk, A. Brink, S. Li, H. Feindt, R. S. Niedbala, and H. Tanke, “Use of up-converting phosphor reporters in lateral-flow assays to detect specific nucleic acid sequences: A rapid, sensitive DNA test to identify human papillomavirus type 16 infection,” Clin. Chem. 47(10), 1885–1893 (2001).
[PubMed]

F. van de Rijke, H. Zijlmans, S. Li, T. Vail, A. K. Raap, R. S. Niedbala, and H. J. Tanke, “Up-converting phosphor reporters for nucleic acid microarrays,” Nat. Biotechnol. 19(3), 273–276 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ohwaki, J.

Y. H. Wang and J. Ohwaki, “High-Efficiency Infrared-to-Visible up-Conversion of Er3+ in BaCl2,” J. Appl. Phys. 74(2), 1272–1278 (1993).
[Crossref]

Pal, S.

M. J. Dejneka, A. Streltsov, S. Pal, A. G. Frutos, C. L. Powell, K. Yost, P. K. Yuen, U. Müller, and J. Lahiri, “Rare earth-doped glass microbarcodes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(2), 389–393 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pan, G.

Y. Lei, H. Song, L. Yang, L. Yu, Z. Liu, G. Pan, X. Bai, and L. Fan, “Upconversion luminescence, intensity saturation effect, and thermal effect in Gd2O3:Er3+,Yb3+ nanowires,” J. Chem. Phys. 123(17), 174710–174714 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pan, G. H.

X. Bai, H. W. Song, G. H. Pan, Y. Q. Lei, T. Wang, X. G. Ren, S. Z. Lu, B. Dong, Q. L. Dai, and L. Fan, “Size-dependent upconversion luminescence in Er3+/Yb3+-codoped nanocrystalline yttria: Saturation and thermal effects,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(36), 13611–13617 (2007).
[Crossref]

Patra, A.

A. Patra, C. S. Friend, R. Kapoor, and P. N. Prasad, “Upconversion in Er3+: ZrO2 nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(8), 1909–1912 (2002).
[Crossref]

Peng, X.

X. Wang, W. W. Yu, J. Zhang, J. Aldana, X. Peng, and M. Xiao, “Photoluminescence upconversion in colloidal CdTe quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 68(12), 125318 (2003).
[Crossref]

Percival, R. M.

D. C. Hanna, R. M. Percival, I. R. Perry, R. G. Smart, J. E. Townsend, and A. C. Tropper, “Frequency upconversion in Tm- and Yb:Tm-doped silica fibers,” Opt. Commun. 78(2), 187–194 (1990).
[Crossref]

Perry, I. R.

D. C. Hanna, R. M. Percival, I. R. Perry, R. G. Smart, J. E. Townsend, and A. C. Tropper, “Frequency upconversion in Tm- and Yb:Tm-doped silica fibers,” Opt. Commun. 78(2), 187–194 (1990).
[Crossref]

Pierce, J. W.

N. Menyuk, J. W. Pierce, and K. Dwight, “NaYF4:Yb,Er - Efficient Upconversion Phosphor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21(4), 159–161 (1972).
[Crossref]

J. W. Pierce, E. J. Delaney, K. Dwight, and N. Menyuk, “Preparation of Infrared to Visible Upconversion Phosphors Based on Hexagonal NaYF4,” Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society 164, 18 (1972).

Piszczek, G.

J. R. Lakowicz, I. Gryczynski, G. Piszczek, and C. J. Murphy, “Emission Spectral Properties of Cadmium Sulfide Nanoparticles with Multiphoton Excitation,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(21), 5365–5370 (2002).
[Crossref]

Pollnau, M.

H. U. Güdel and M. Pollnau, “Near-infrared to visible photon upconversion processes in lanthanide doped chloride, bromide and iodide lattices,” J. Alloy. Comp. 303(1-2), 307–315 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Luthi, H. U. Gudel, and M. P. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B 61(5), 3337–3346 (2000).
[Crossref]

Powell, C. L.

M. J. Dejneka, A. Streltsov, S. Pal, A. G. Frutos, C. L. Powell, K. Yost, P. K. Yuen, U. Müller, and J. Lahiri, “Rare earth-doped glass microbarcodes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(2), 389–393 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Prasad, P. N.

A. Patra, C. S. Friend, R. Kapoor, and P. N. Prasad, “Upconversion in Er3+: ZrO2 nanocrystals,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(8), 1909–1912 (2002).
[Crossref]

Qin, W.

G. Wang, W. Qin, L. Wang, G. Wei, P. Zhu, D. Zhang, and F. Ding, “Synthesis and upconversion luminescence properties of NaYF4:Yb3+/Er3+ microspheres,” J. Rare Earths 27(3), 394–397 (2009).
[Crossref]

Qin, W. P.

G. J. De, W. P. Qin, J. S. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Y. Cao, and Y. Cui, “Effect of OH- on the upconversion luminescent efficiency of Y2O3: Yb3+, Er3+ nanostructures,” Solid State Commun. 137(9), 483–487 (2006).
[Crossref]

Qin, X.

X. Qin, T. Yokomori, and Y. G. Ju, “Flame synthesis and characterization of rare-earth (Er3+, Ho3+, and Tm3+) doped upconversion nanophosphors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(7), 073104 (2007).
[Crossref]

Raap, A. K.

F. van de Rijke, H. Zijlmans, S. Li, T. Vail, A. K. Raap, R. S. Niedbala, and H. J. Tanke, “Up-converting phosphor reporters for nucleic acid microarrays,” Nat. Biotechnol. 19(3), 273–276 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rantanen, T.

K. Kuningas, T. Rantanen, U. Karhunen, T. Lövgren, and T. Soukka, “Simultaneous use of time-resolved fluorescence and anti-stokes photoluminescence in a bioaffinity assay,” Anal. Chem. 77(9), 2826–2834 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rapaport, A.

A. Rapaport, J. Milliez, M. Bass, A. Cassanho, and H. Jenssen, “Review of the Properties of Up-Conversion Phosphors for New Emissive Displays,” Journal of Display Technology 2(1), 68–78 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ren, X. G.

X. Bai, H. W. Song, G. H. Pan, Y. Q. Lei, T. Wang, X. G. Ren, S. Z. Lu, B. Dong, Q. L. Dai, and L. Fan, “Size-dependent upconversion luminescence in Er3+/Yb3+-codoped nanocrystalline yttria: Saturation and thermal effects,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(36), 13611–13617 (2007).
[Crossref]

Richards, B. S.

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, T. Trupke, K. W. Kramer, and H. U. Gudel, “Application of NaYF4: Er3+ up-converting phosphors for enhanced near-infrared silicon solar cell response,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(1), 013505 (2005).
[Crossref]

Salley, G. M.

G. M. Salley, R. Valiente, and H. U. Guedel, “Luminescence upconversion mechanisms in Yb3+-Tb3+ systems,” J. Lumin. 94(2-4), 305–309 (2001).
[Crossref]

Sam Niedbala, R.

M. Zuiderwijk, H. J. Tanke, R. Sam Niedbala, and P. L. Corstjens, “An amplification-free hybridization-based DNA assay to detect Streptococcus pneumoniae utilizing the up-converting phosphor technology,” Clin. Biochem. 36(5), 401–403 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schietinger, S.

S. Schietinger, L. S. Menezes, B. Lauritzen, and O. Benson, “Observation of size dependence in multicolor upconversion in single Yb3+, Er3+ Codoped NaYF4 nanocrystals,” Nano Lett. 9(6), 2477–2481 (2009).
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Shalav, A.

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, T. Trupke, K. W. Kramer, and H. U. Gudel, “Application of NaYF4: Er3+ up-converting phosphors for enhanced near-infrared silicon solar cell response,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(1), 013505 (2005).
[Crossref]

Shan, J.

J. Shan and Y. Ju, “A single-step synthesis and the kinetic mechanism for monodisperse and hexagonal-phase NaYF4:Yb, Er upconversion nanophosphors,” Nanotechnology 20(27), 275603 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Zhang, J. Li, J. Shan, L. Xu, and D. Zhao, “Shape, Size, and Phase-Controlled Rare-Earth Fluoride Nanocrystals with Optical Up-Conversion Properties,” Chemistry 15(41), 11010–11019 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shan, J. N.

J. N. Shan and Y. G. Ju, “Controlled synthesis of lanthanide-doped NaYF4 upconversion nanocrystals via ligand induced crystal phase transition and silica coating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123103–123105 (2007).
[Crossref]

Si, R.

H. X. Mai, Y. W. Zhang, R. Si, Z. G. Yan, L. D. Sun, L. P. You, and C. H. Yan, “High-quality sodium rare-earth fluoride nanocrystals: Controlled synthesis and optical properties,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(19), 6426–6436 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Silver, J.

J. Silver, M. I. Martinez-Rubio, T. G. Ireland, G. R. Fern, and R. Withnall, “The effect of particle morphology and crystallite size on the upconversion luminescence properties of erbium and ytterbium co-doped yttrium oxide phosphors,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105(5), 948–953 (2001).
[Crossref]

Smart, R. G.

D. C. Hanna, R. M. Percival, I. R. Perry, R. G. Smart, J. E. Townsend, and A. C. Tropper, “Frequency upconversion in Tm- and Yb:Tm-doped silica fibers,” Opt. Commun. 78(2), 187–194 (1990).
[Crossref]

Song, H.

Y. Lei, H. Song, L. Yang, L. Yu, Z. Liu, G. Pan, X. Bai, and L. Fan, “Upconversion luminescence, intensity saturation effect, and thermal effect in Gd2O3:Er3+,Yb3+ nanowires,” J. Chem. Phys. 123(17), 174710–174714 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Song, L. Yu, S. Lu, T. Wang, Z. Liu, and L. Yang, “Remarkable differences in photoluminescent properties between LaPO4:Eu one-dimensional nanowires and zero-dimensional nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(3), 470–472 (2004).
[Crossref]

Song, H. W.

X. Bai, H. W. Song, G. H. Pan, Y. Q. Lei, T. Wang, X. G. Ren, S. Z. Lu, B. Dong, Q. L. Dai, and L. Fan, “Size-dependent upconversion luminescence in Er3+/Yb3+-codoped nanocrystalline yttria: Saturation and thermal effects,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(36), 13611–13617 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. W. Song, H. P. Xia, B. J. Sun, S. Z. Lu, Z. X. Liu, and L. X. Yu, “Upconversion luminescence dynamics in Er3+/Yb3+ codoped nanocrystalline yttria,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 23(2), 474–477 (2006).
[Crossref]

Soukka, T.

K. Kuningas, T. Rantanen, U. Karhunen, T. Lövgren, and T. Soukka, “Simultaneous use of time-resolved fluorescence and anti-stokes photoluminescence in a bioaffinity assay,” Anal. Chem. 77(9), 2826–2834 (2005).
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Speghini, A.

F. Vetrone, J. C. Boyer, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Wet chemical synthesis and luminescence properties of erbium-doped nanocrystalline yttrium oxide,” J. Mater. Res. 19(11), 3398–3407 (2004).
[Crossref]

F. Vetrone, J. C. Boyer, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Significance of Yb3+ concentration on the upconversion mechanisms in codoped Y2O3: Er3+, Yb3+ nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(1), 661–667 (2004).
[Crossref]

Streltsov, A.

M. J. Dejneka, A. Streltsov, S. Pal, A. G. Frutos, C. L. Powell, K. Yost, P. K. Yuen, U. Müller, and J. Lahiri, “Rare earth-doped glass microbarcodes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(2), 389–393 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Su, J.

J. H. Zeng, J. Su, Z. H. Li, R. X. Yan, and Y. D. Li, “Synthesis and upconversion luminescence of hexagonal-phase NaYF4: Yb, Er phosphors of controlled size and morphology,” Adv. Mater. 17(17), 2119–2123 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sun, B. J.

H. W. Song, H. P. Xia, B. J. Sun, S. Z. Lu, Z. X. Liu, and L. X. Yu, “Upconversion luminescence dynamics in Er3+/Yb3+ codoped nanocrystalline yttria,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 23(2), 474–477 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sun, L. D.

H. X. Mai, Y. W. Zhang, R. Si, Z. G. Yan, L. D. Sun, L. P. You, and C. H. Yan, “High-quality sodium rare-earth fluoride nanocrystals: Controlled synthesis and optical properties,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(19), 6426–6436 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suyver, J. F.

J. F. Suyver, J. Grimm, K. W. Kramer, and H. U. Gudel, “Highly efficient near-infrared to visible up-conversion process in NaYF4: Er3+,Yb3+,” J. Lumin. 114(1), 53–59 (2005).
[Crossref]

Tanke, H.

P. Corstjens, M. Zuiderwijk, A. Brink, S. Li, H. Feindt, R. S. Niedbala, and H. Tanke, “Use of up-converting phosphor reporters in lateral-flow assays to detect specific nucleic acid sequences: A rapid, sensitive DNA test to identify human papillomavirus type 16 infection,” Clin. Chem. 47(10), 1885–1893 (2001).
[PubMed]

Tanke, H. J.

M. Zuiderwijk, H. J. Tanke, R. Sam Niedbala, and P. L. Corstjens, “An amplification-free hybridization-based DNA assay to detect Streptococcus pneumoniae utilizing the up-converting phosphor technology,” Clin. Biochem. 36(5), 401–403 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. van de Rijke, H. Zijlmans, S. Li, T. Vail, A. K. Raap, R. S. Niedbala, and H. J. Tanke, “Up-converting phosphor reporters for nucleic acid microarrays,” Nat. Biotechnol. 19(3), 273–276 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thomas, H.

M. R. Brown, H. Thomas, J. M. Williams, and R. J. Woodward, “Experiments on Er3+ in SrF2. III. Coupled-Ion Effects,” J. Chem. Phys. 51(8), 3321 (1969).
[Crossref]

Townsend, J. E.

D. C. Hanna, R. M. Percival, I. R. Perry, R. G. Smart, J. E. Townsend, and A. C. Tropper, “Frequency upconversion in Tm- and Yb:Tm-doped silica fibers,” Opt. Commun. 78(2), 187–194 (1990).
[Crossref]

Tropper, A. C.

D. C. Hanna, R. M. Percival, I. R. Perry, R. G. Smart, J. E. Townsend, and A. C. Tropper, “Frequency upconversion in Tm- and Yb:Tm-doped silica fibers,” Opt. Commun. 78(2), 187–194 (1990).
[Crossref]

Trupke, T.

A. Shalav, B. S. Richards, T. Trupke, K. W. Kramer, and H. U. Gudel, “Application of NaYF4: Er3+ up-converting phosphors for enhanced near-infrared silicon solar cell response,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(1), 013505 (2005).
[Crossref]

Vail, T.

F. van de Rijke, H. Zijlmans, S. Li, T. Vail, A. K. Raap, R. S. Niedbala, and H. J. Tanke, “Up-converting phosphor reporters for nucleic acid microarrays,” Nat. Biotechnol. 19(3), 273–276 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Valiente, R.

G. M. Salley, R. Valiente, and H. U. Guedel, “Luminescence upconversion mechanisms in Yb3+-Tb3+ systems,” J. Lumin. 94(2-4), 305–309 (2001).
[Crossref]

van de Rijke, F.

F. van de Rijke, H. Zijlmans, S. Li, T. Vail, A. K. Raap, R. S. Niedbala, and H. J. Tanke, “Up-converting phosphor reporters for nucleic acid microarrays,” Nat. Biotechnol. 19(3), 273–276 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vetrone, F.

J. C. Boyer, F. Vetrone, L. A. Cuccia, and J. A. Capobianco, “Synthesis of colloidal upconverting NaYF4 nanocrystals doped with Er3+, Yb3+ and Tm3+, Yb3+ via thermal decomposition of lanthanide trifluoroacetate precursors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(23), 7444–7445 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Vetrone, J. C. Boyer, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Wet chemical synthesis and luminescence properties of erbium-doped nanocrystalline yttrium oxide,” J. Mater. Res. 19(11), 3398–3407 (2004).
[Crossref]

F. Vetrone, J. C. Boyer, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Significance of Yb3+ concentration on the upconversion mechanisms in codoped Y2O3: Er3+, Yb3+ nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(1), 661–667 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wang, G.

G. Wang, W. Qin, L. Wang, G. Wei, P. Zhu, D. Zhang, and F. Ding, “Synthesis and upconversion luminescence properties of NaYF4:Yb3+/Er3+ microspheres,” J. Rare Earths 27(3), 394–397 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

Z. Y. Chen, M. G. Mauk, J. Wang, W. R. Abrams, P. Corstjens, R. S. Niedbala, D. Malamud, and H. H. Bau, “A microfluidic system for saliva-based detection of infectious diseases,” Oral-Based Diagnostics 1098, 429–436 (2007).

Wang, L.

G. Wang, W. Qin, L. Wang, G. Wei, P. Zhu, D. Zhang, and F. Ding, “Synthesis and upconversion luminescence properties of NaYF4:Yb3+/Er3+ microspheres,” J. Rare Earths 27(3), 394–397 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, S.

S. Chen, M. Wu, L. An, Y. Li, and S. Wang, “Strong Green and Red Upconversion Emission in Er3+- Doped Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3 Ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 90(2), 664–666 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wang, S. W.

M. Liu, S. W. Wang, J. Zhang, L. Q. An, and L. D. Chen, “Dominant red emission (4F9/2-> 4I15/2) via upconversion in YAG (Y3Al5O12): Yb3+, Er3+ nanopowders,” Opt. Mater. 29(11), 1352–1357 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wang, T.

X. Bai, H. W. Song, G. H. Pan, Y. Q. Lei, T. Wang, X. G. Ren, S. Z. Lu, B. Dong, Q. L. Dai, and L. Fan, “Size-dependent upconversion luminescence in Er3+/Yb3+-codoped nanocrystalline yttria: Saturation and thermal effects,” J. Phys. Chem. C 111(36), 13611–13617 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Song, L. Yu, S. Lu, T. Wang, Z. Liu, and L. Yang, “Remarkable differences in photoluminescent properties between LaPO4:Eu one-dimensional nanowires and zero-dimensional nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(3), 470–472 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, W. W. Yu, J. Zhang, J. Aldana, X. Peng, and M. Xiao, “Photoluminescence upconversion in colloidal CdTe quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 68(12), 125318 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

G. J. De, W. P. Qin, J. S. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Y. Cao, and Y. Cui, “Effect of OH- on the upconversion luminescent efficiency of Y2O3: Yb3+, Er3+ nanostructures,” Solid State Commun. 137(9), 483–487 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y. H.

Y. H. Wang and J. Ohwaki, “High-Efficiency Infrared-to-Visible up-Conversion of Er3+ in BaCl2,” J. Appl. Phys. 74(2), 1272–1278 (1993).
[Crossref]

Wei, G.

G. Wang, W. Qin, L. Wang, G. Wei, P. Zhu, D. Zhang, and F. Ding, “Synthesis and upconversion luminescence properties of NaYF4:Yb3+/Er3+ microspheres,” J. Rare Earths 27(3), 394–397 (2009).
[Crossref]

Williams, J. M.

M. R. Brown, H. Thomas, J. M. Williams, and R. J. Woodward, “Experiments on Er3+ in SrF2. III. Coupled-Ion Effects,” J. Chem. Phys. 51(8), 3321 (1969).
[Crossref]

Withnall, R.

J. Silver, M. I. Martinez-Rubio, T. G. Ireland, G. R. Fern, and R. Withnall, “The effect of particle morphology and crystallite size on the upconversion luminescence properties of erbium and ytterbium co-doped yttrium oxide phosphors,” J. Phys. Chem. B 105(5), 948–953 (2001).
[Crossref]

Woodward, R. J.

M. R. Brown, H. Thomas, J. M. Williams, and R. J. Woodward, “Experiments on Er3+ in SrF2. III. Coupled-Ion Effects,” J. Chem. Phys. 51(8), 3321 (1969).
[Crossref]

Wu, M.

S. Chen, M. Wu, L. An, Y. Li, and S. Wang, “Strong Green and Red Upconversion Emission in Er3+- Doped Na1/2Bi1/2TiO3 Ceramics,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 90(2), 664–666 (2007).
[Crossref]

Xia, H. P.

H. W. Song, H. P. Xia, B. J. Sun, S. Z. Lu, Z. X. Liu, and L. X. Yu, “Upconversion luminescence dynamics in Er3+/Yb3+ codoped nanocrystalline yttria,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 23(2), 474–477 (2006).
[Crossref]

Xiao, M.

X. Wang, W. W. Yu, J. Zhang, J. Aldana, X. Peng, and M. Xiao, “Photoluminescence upconversion in colloidal CdTe quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 68(12), 125318 (2003).
[Crossref]

Xu, L.

F. Zhang, J. Li, J. Shan, L. Xu, and D. Zhao, “Shape, Size, and Phase-Controlled Rare-Earth Fluoride Nanocrystals with Optical Up-Conversion Properties,” Chemistry 15(41), 11010–11019 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yan, C. H.

H. X. Mai, Y. W. Zhang, R. Si, Z. G. Yan, L. D. Sun, L. P. You, and C. H. Yan, “High-quality sodium rare-earth fluoride nanocrystals: Controlled synthesis and optical properties,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(19), 6426–6436 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yan, R. X.

J. H. Zeng, J. Su, Z. H. Li, R. X. Yan, and Y. D. Li, “Synthesis and upconversion luminescence of hexagonal-phase NaYF4: Yb, Er phosphors of controlled size and morphology,” Adv. Mater. 17(17), 2119–2123 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yan, Z. G.

H. X. Mai, Y. W. Zhang, R. Si, Z. G. Yan, L. D. Sun, L. P. You, and C. H. Yan, “High-quality sodium rare-earth fluoride nanocrystals: Controlled synthesis and optical properties,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(19), 6426–6436 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, L.

Y. Lei, H. Song, L. Yang, L. Yu, Z. Liu, G. Pan, X. Bai, and L. Fan, “Upconversion luminescence, intensity saturation effect, and thermal effect in Gd2O3:Er3+,Yb3+ nanowires,” J. Chem. Phys. 123(17), 174710–174714 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Song, L. Yu, S. Lu, T. Wang, Z. Liu, and L. Yang, “Remarkable differences in photoluminescent properties between LaPO4:Eu one-dimensional nanowires and zero-dimensional nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(3), 470–472 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yang, W. J.

G. S. Yi, H. C. Lu, S. Y. Zhao, G. Yue, W. J. Yang, D. P. Chen, and L. H. Guo, “Synthesis, characterization, and biological application of size-controlled nanocrystalline NaYF4: Yb,Er infrared-to-visible up-conversion phosphors,” Nano Lett. 4(11), 2191–2196 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yi, G. S.

G. S. Yi and G. M. Chow, “Synthesis of hexagonal-phase NaYF4: Yb,Er and NaYF4: Yb,Tm nanocrystals with efficient up-conversion fluorescence,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 16(18), 2324–2329 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. S. Yi, H. C. Lu, S. Y. Zhao, G. Yue, W. J. Yang, D. P. Chen, and L. H. Guo, “Synthesis, characterization, and biological application of size-controlled nanocrystalline NaYF4: Yb,Er infrared-to-visible up-conversion phosphors,” Nano Lett. 4(11), 2191–2196 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yokomori, T.

X. Qin, T. Yokomori, and Y. G. Ju, “Flame synthesis and characterization of rare-earth (Er3+, Ho3+, and Tm3+) doped upconversion nanophosphors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(7), 073104 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yost, K.

M. J. Dejneka, A. Streltsov, S. Pal, A. G. Frutos, C. L. Powell, K. Yost, P. K. Yuen, U. Müller, and J. Lahiri, “Rare earth-doped glass microbarcodes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(2), 389–393 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

You, L. P.

H. X. Mai, Y. W. Zhang, R. Si, Z. G. Yan, L. D. Sun, L. P. You, and C. H. Yan, “High-quality sodium rare-earth fluoride nanocrystals: Controlled synthesis and optical properties,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(19), 6426–6436 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, L.

Y. Lei, H. Song, L. Yang, L. Yu, Z. Liu, G. Pan, X. Bai, and L. Fan, “Upconversion luminescence, intensity saturation effect, and thermal effect in Gd2O3:Er3+,Yb3+ nanowires,” J. Chem. Phys. 123(17), 174710–174714 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Song, L. Yu, S. Lu, T. Wang, Z. Liu, and L. Yang, “Remarkable differences in photoluminescent properties between LaPO4:Eu one-dimensional nanowires and zero-dimensional nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(3), 470–472 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yu, L. X.

H. W. Song, H. P. Xia, B. J. Sun, S. Z. Lu, Z. X. Liu, and L. X. Yu, “Upconversion luminescence dynamics in Er3+/Yb3+ codoped nanocrystalline yttria,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 23(2), 474–477 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yu, W. W.

X. Wang, W. W. Yu, J. Zhang, J. Aldana, X. Peng, and M. Xiao, “Photoluminescence upconversion in colloidal CdTe quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 68(12), 125318 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yue, G.

G. S. Yi, H. C. Lu, S. Y. Zhao, G. Yue, W. J. Yang, D. P. Chen, and L. H. Guo, “Synthesis, characterization, and biological application of size-controlled nanocrystalline NaYF4: Yb,Er infrared-to-visible up-conversion phosphors,” Nano Lett. 4(11), 2191–2196 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yuen, P. K.

M. J. Dejneka, A. Streltsov, S. Pal, A. G. Frutos, C. L. Powell, K. Yost, P. K. Yuen, U. Müller, and J. Lahiri, “Rare earth-doped glass microbarcodes,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100(2), 389–393 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zakharchenya, R. I.

A. B. Kutsenko, J. Heber, S. E. Kapphan, R. Demirbilek, and R. I. Zakharchenya, “Energy migration and energy transfer processes in RE3+ doped nanocrystalline yttrium oxide,” Phys. Status Solidi 2(1), 685–688 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zeng, J. H.

J. H. Zeng, J. Su, Z. H. Li, R. X. Yan, and Y. D. Li, “Synthesis and upconversion luminescence of hexagonal-phase NaYF4: Yb, Er phosphors of controlled size and morphology,” Adv. Mater. 17(17), 2119–2123 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhang, D.

G. Wang, W. Qin, L. Wang, G. Wei, P. Zhu, D. Zhang, and F. Ding, “Synthesis and upconversion luminescence properties of NaYF4:Yb3+/Er3+ microspheres,” J. Rare Earths 27(3), 394–397 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, F.

F. Zhang, J. Li, J. Shan, L. Xu, and D. Zhao, “Shape, Size, and Phase-Controlled Rare-Earth Fluoride Nanocrystals with Optical Up-Conversion Properties,” Chemistry 15(41), 11010–11019 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

M. Liu, S. W. Wang, J. Zhang, L. Q. An, and L. D. Chen, “Dominant red emission (4F9/2-> 4I15/2) via upconversion in YAG (Y3Al5O12): Yb3+, Er3+ nanopowders,” Opt. Mater. 29(11), 1352–1357 (2007).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, W. W. Yu, J. Zhang, J. Aldana, X. Peng, and M. Xiao, “Photoluminescence upconversion in colloidal CdTe quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 68(12), 125318 (2003).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J. S.

G. J. De, W. P. Qin, J. S. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Y. Cao, and Y. Cui, “Effect of OH- on the upconversion luminescent efficiency of Y2O3: Yb3+, Er3+ nanostructures,” Solid State Commun. 137(9), 483–487 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y. W.

H. X. Mai, Y. W. Zhang, R. Si, Z. G. Yan, L. D. Sun, L. P. You, and C. H. Yan, “High-quality sodium rare-earth fluoride nanocrystals: Controlled synthesis and optical properties,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128(19), 6426–6436 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, D.

F. Zhang, J. Li, J. Shan, L. Xu, and D. Zhao, “Shape, Size, and Phase-Controlled Rare-Earth Fluoride Nanocrystals with Optical Up-Conversion Properties,” Chemistry 15(41), 11010–11019 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, S. Y.

G. S. Yi, H. C. Lu, S. Y. Zhao, G. Yue, W. J. Yang, D. P. Chen, and L. H. Guo, “Synthesis, characterization, and biological application of size-controlled nanocrystalline NaYF4: Yb,Er infrared-to-visible up-conversion phosphors,” Nano Lett. 4(11), 2191–2196 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zhu, P.

G. Wang, W. Qin, L. Wang, G. Wei, P. Zhu, D. Zhang, and F. Ding, “Synthesis and upconversion luminescence properties of NaYF4:Yb3+/Er3+ microspheres,” J. Rare Earths 27(3), 394–397 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhuang, H. Z.

X. Y. Chen, H. Z. Zhuang, H. Z. G. K. Liu, S. Li, and R. S. Niedbala, “Confinement on energy transfer between luminescent centers in nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(9), 5559 (2003).
[Crossref]

Zijlmans, H.

F. van de Rijke, H. Zijlmans, S. Li, T. Vail, A. K. Raap, R. S. Niedbala, and H. J. Tanke, “Up-converting phosphor reporters for nucleic acid microarrays,” Nat. Biotechnol. 19(3), 273–276 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zuiderwijk, M.

M. Zuiderwijk, H. J. Tanke, R. Sam Niedbala, and P. L. Corstjens, “An amplification-free hybridization-based DNA assay to detect Streptococcus pneumoniae utilizing the up-converting phosphor technology,” Clin. Biochem. 36(5), 401–403 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Corstjens, M. Zuiderwijk, A. Brink, S. Li, H. Feindt, R. S. Niedbala, and H. Tanke, “Use of up-converting phosphor reporters in lateral-flow assays to detect specific nucleic acid sequences: A rapid, sensitive DNA test to identify human papillomavirus type 16 infection,” Clin. Chem. 47(10), 1885–1893 (2001).
[PubMed]

Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society (1)

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Chemistry (1)

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H. W. Song, H. P. Xia, B. J. Sun, S. Z. Lu, Z. X. Liu, and L. X. Yu, “Upconversion luminescence dynamics in Er3+/Yb3+ codoped nanocrystalline yttria,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 23(2), 474–477 (2006).
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F. Vetrone, J. C. Boyer, J. A. Capobianco, A. Speghini, and M. Bettinelli, “Significance of Yb3+ concentration on the upconversion mechanisms in codoped Y2O3: Er3+, Yb3+ nanocrystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(1), 661–667 (2004).
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J. Chem. Phys. (3)

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J. Mater. Res. (1)

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J. Phys. Chem. B (3)

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J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

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G. Wang, W. Qin, L. Wang, G. Wei, P. Zhu, D. Zhang, and F. Ding, “Synthesis and upconversion luminescence properties of NaYF4:Yb3+/Er3+ microspheres,” J. Rare Earths 27(3), 394–397 (2009).
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Journal of Display Technology (1)

A. Rapaport, J. Milliez, M. Bass, A. Cassanho, and H. Jenssen, “Review of the Properties of Up-Conversion Phosphors for New Emissive Displays,” Journal of Display Technology 2(1), 68–78 (2006).
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G. S. Yi, H. C. Lu, S. Y. Zhao, G. Yue, W. J. Yang, D. P. Chen, and L. H. Guo, “Synthesis, characterization, and biological application of size-controlled nanocrystalline NaYF4: Yb,Er infrared-to-visible up-conversion phosphors,” Nano Lett. 4(11), 2191–2196 (2004).
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Oral-Based Diagnostics (1)

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A. B. Kutsenko, J. Heber, S. E. Kapphan, R. Demirbilek, and R. I. Zakharchenya, “Energy migration and energy transfer processes in RE3+ doped nanocrystalline yttrium oxide,” Phys. Status Solidi 2(1), 685–688 (2005).
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Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

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G. J. De, W. P. Qin, J. S. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Y. Cao, and Y. Cui, “Effect of OH- on the upconversion luminescent efficiency of Y2O3: Yb3+, Er3+ nanostructures,” Solid State Commun. 137(9), 483–487 (2006).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) to (d), TEM images of sample a) #1, spherical-shape, SA/Vol = 0.14 nm−1, b) #2, rod-shape, SA/Vol = 0.10 nm−1, aspect ratio = 3.3, c) #3, rod-shape, SA/Vol = 0.04 nm−1, aspect ratio = 1.7, and d) #4, spherical, SA/Vol = 0.02 nm−1.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Emission spectra of sample #1 to #4 under 980 nm excitation, where a) shows emission between 500 and 575 nm, b) shows emission between 630 and 700 nm, (c) shows a plot of Green/Red (G/R) ratio and Yb/Er dopant ratio as a function of the SA/Vol, and (d) schematic diagram of Yb3+ sensitized Er3+ upconversion luminescence under 980 nm excitation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Power dependence curves for (a) green, and (b) red emission; plots of slope, as a function of SA/Vol (nm−1) ratio for (c) green, and (d) red emission.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Time-resolved luminescence at 555 nm of samples #1 to #4, (b) fit of luminescence decay for sample #4, (c) plot of decay rate, obtained from fit, as a function of the SA/Vol (nm−1) ratio, and (d) plot of transfer rate, obtained from fit, as a function of the SA/Vol (nm−1) ratio. Figure 3(a) Time-resolved luminescence at 555 nm of samples #1 to #4, (b) fit of luminescence decay for sample #4, (c) plot of decay rate, obtained from fit, as a function of the SA/Vol (nm−1) ratio, and (d) plot of transfer rate, obtained from fit, as a function of the SA/Vol (nm−1) ratio.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The physical properties and emission characteristics of samples #1 to #4.

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