Abstract

This study reports the estimation of the inverted Er fraction in a system of Er doped silicon oxide sensitized by Si nanoclusters, made by magnetron sputtering. Electroluminescence was obtained from the sensitized erbium, with a power efficiency of 10−2%. By estimating the density of Er ions that are in the first excited state, we find that up to 20% of the total Er concentration is inverted in the best device, which is one order of magnitude higher than that achieved by optical pumping of similar materials.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. R. J. Walters, G. I. Bourianoff, and H. A. Atwater, “Field-effect electroluminescence in silicon nanocrystals,” Nat. Mater. 4(2), 143–146 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. Carreras, J. Arbiol, B. Garrido, C. Bonafos, and J. Montserrat, “Direct modulation of electroluminescence from silicon nanocrystals beyond radiative recombination rates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 091103 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Warga, R. Li, S. N. Basu, and L. Dal Negro, “Electroluminescence from silicon-rich nitride/silicon superlattice structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(15), 151116 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. O. Jambois, J. Carreras, A. Pérez-Rodríguez, B. Garrido, C. Bonafos, S. Schamm, and G. B. Assayag, “Field effect white and tunable electroluminescence from ion beam synthesized Si- and C-rich SiO2 layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(21), 211105 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. Iacona, D. Pacifici, A. Irrera, M. Miritello, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, and P. G. Fallica, “Electroluminescence at 1.54 µm in Er-doped Si nanocluster-based devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3242–3244 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. Garrido, C. García, S.-Y. Seo, P. Pellegrino, D. Navarro-Urrios, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Excitable Er fraction and quenching phenomena in Er-doped SiO2 layers containing Si nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 245308 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Franzò, E. Pecora, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, “Role of the Si excess on the excitation of Er doped SiOx,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 183102–183104 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Irrera, D. Pacifici, M. Miritello, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, and P. G. Fallica, “Excitation and de-excitation properties of silicon quantum dots under electrical pumping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(10), 1866–1868 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Valenta, N. Lalic, and J. Linnros, “Electroluminescence of single silicon nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(9), 1459–1461 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. O. Jambois, Y. Berencen, K. Hijazi, M. Wojdak, A. J. Kenyon, F. Gourbilleau, R. Rizk, and B. Garrido, “Current transport and electroluminescence mechanisms in thin SiO2 films containing Si nanocluster-sensitized erbium ions,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(6), 063526 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. Horak, W. H. Loh, and A. J. Kenyon, “Modification of the Er3+ radiative lifetime from proximity to silicon nanoclusters in silicon-rich silicon oxide,” Opt. Express 17(2), 906–911 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. Wojdak, M. Klik, M. Forcales, O. B. Gusev, T. Gregorkiewicz, D. Pacifici, G. Franzo, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, “Sensitization of Er luminescence by Si nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. B 69(23), 233315 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. J. Kenyon, M. Wojdak, I. Ahmad, W. H. Loh, and C. J. Oton, “Generalized rate-equation analysis of excitation exchange between silicon nanoclusters and erbium ions,” Phys. Rev. B 77(3), 035318 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. Hijazi, R. Rizk, J. Cardin, L. Khomenkova, and F. Gourbilleau, “Towards an optimum coupling between Er ions and Si-based sensitizers for integrated active photonics,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 024311 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. Navarro-Urrios, Y. Lebour, O. Jambois, B. Garrido, A. Pitanti, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, J. Cardin, K. Hijazi, L. Khomenkova, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Optically active Er[sup 3+] ions in SiO[sub 2] codoped with Si nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(9), 093107 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (4)

O. Jambois, Y. Berencen, K. Hijazi, M. Wojdak, A. J. Kenyon, F. Gourbilleau, R. Rizk, and B. Garrido, “Current transport and electroluminescence mechanisms in thin SiO2 films containing Si nanocluster-sensitized erbium ions,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(6), 063526 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Horak, W. H. Loh, and A. J. Kenyon, “Modification of the Er3+ radiative lifetime from proximity to silicon nanoclusters in silicon-rich silicon oxide,” Opt. Express 17(2), 906–911 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Hijazi, R. Rizk, J. Cardin, L. Khomenkova, and F. Gourbilleau, “Towards an optimum coupling between Er ions and Si-based sensitizers for integrated active photonics,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 024311 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Navarro-Urrios, Y. Lebour, O. Jambois, B. Garrido, A. Pitanti, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, J. Cardin, K. Hijazi, L. Khomenkova, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Optically active Er[sup 3+] ions in SiO[sub 2] codoped with Si nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(9), 093107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

A. J. Kenyon, M. Wojdak, I. Ahmad, W. H. Loh, and C. J. Oton, “Generalized rate-equation analysis of excitation exchange between silicon nanoclusters and erbium ions,” Phys. Rev. B 77(3), 035318 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Carreras, J. Arbiol, B. Garrido, C. Bonafos, and J. Montserrat, “Direct modulation of electroluminescence from silicon nanocrystals beyond radiative recombination rates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 091103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Warga, R. Li, S. N. Basu, and L. Dal Negro, “Electroluminescence from silicon-rich nitride/silicon superlattice structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(15), 151116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

O. Jambois, J. Carreras, A. Pérez-Rodríguez, B. Garrido, C. Bonafos, S. Schamm, and G. B. Assayag, “Field effect white and tunable electroluminescence from ion beam synthesized Si- and C-rich SiO2 layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(21), 211105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Garrido, C. García, S.-Y. Seo, P. Pellegrino, D. Navarro-Urrios, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Excitable Er fraction and quenching phenomena in Er-doped SiO2 layers containing Si nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 245308 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Franzò, E. Pecora, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, “Role of the Si excess on the excitation of Er doped SiOx,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 183102–183104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

R. J. Walters, G. I. Bourianoff, and H. A. Atwater, “Field-effect electroluminescence in silicon nanocrystals,” Nat. Mater. 4(2), 143–146 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

J. Valenta, N. Lalic, and J. Linnros, “Electroluminescence of single silicon nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(9), 1459–1461 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojdak, M. Klik, M. Forcales, O. B. Gusev, T. Gregorkiewicz, D. Pacifici, G. Franzo, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, “Sensitization of Er luminescence by Si nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. B 69(23), 233315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

A. Irrera, D. Pacifici, M. Miritello, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, and P. G. Fallica, “Excitation and de-excitation properties of silicon quantum dots under electrical pumping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(10), 1866–1868 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Iacona, D. Pacifici, A. Irrera, M. Miritello, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, and P. G. Fallica, “Electroluminescence at 1.54 µm in Er-doped Si nanocluster-based devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3242–3244 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ahmad, I.

A. J. Kenyon, M. Wojdak, I. Ahmad, W. H. Loh, and C. J. Oton, “Generalized rate-equation analysis of excitation exchange between silicon nanoclusters and erbium ions,” Phys. Rev. B 77(3), 035318 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Arbiol, J.

J. Carreras, J. Arbiol, B. Garrido, C. Bonafos, and J. Montserrat, “Direct modulation of electroluminescence from silicon nanocrystals beyond radiative recombination rates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 091103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Assayag, G. B.

O. Jambois, J. Carreras, A. Pérez-Rodríguez, B. Garrido, C. Bonafos, S. Schamm, and G. B. Assayag, “Field effect white and tunable electroluminescence from ion beam synthesized Si- and C-rich SiO2 layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(21), 211105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

R. J. Walters, G. I. Bourianoff, and H. A. Atwater, “Field-effect electroluminescence in silicon nanocrystals,” Nat. Mater. 4(2), 143–146 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Basu, S. N.

J. Warga, R. Li, S. N. Basu, and L. Dal Negro, “Electroluminescence from silicon-rich nitride/silicon superlattice structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(15), 151116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Berencen, Y.

O. Jambois, Y. Berencen, K. Hijazi, M. Wojdak, A. J. Kenyon, F. Gourbilleau, R. Rizk, and B. Garrido, “Current transport and electroluminescence mechanisms in thin SiO2 films containing Si nanocluster-sensitized erbium ions,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(6), 063526 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bonafos, C.

J. Carreras, J. Arbiol, B. Garrido, C. Bonafos, and J. Montserrat, “Direct modulation of electroluminescence from silicon nanocrystals beyond radiative recombination rates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 091103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Jambois, J. Carreras, A. Pérez-Rodríguez, B. Garrido, C. Bonafos, S. Schamm, and G. B. Assayag, “Field effect white and tunable electroluminescence from ion beam synthesized Si- and C-rich SiO2 layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(21), 211105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bourianoff, G. I.

R. J. Walters, G. I. Bourianoff, and H. A. Atwater, “Field-effect electroluminescence in silicon nanocrystals,” Nat. Mater. 4(2), 143–146 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cardin, J.

K. Hijazi, R. Rizk, J. Cardin, L. Khomenkova, and F. Gourbilleau, “Towards an optimum coupling between Er ions and Si-based sensitizers for integrated active photonics,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 024311 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Navarro-Urrios, Y. Lebour, O. Jambois, B. Garrido, A. Pitanti, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, J. Cardin, K. Hijazi, L. Khomenkova, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Optically active Er[sup 3+] ions in SiO[sub 2] codoped with Si nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(9), 093107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Carreras, J.

J. Carreras, J. Arbiol, B. Garrido, C. Bonafos, and J. Montserrat, “Direct modulation of electroluminescence from silicon nanocrystals beyond radiative recombination rates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 091103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Jambois, J. Carreras, A. Pérez-Rodríguez, B. Garrido, C. Bonafos, S. Schamm, and G. B. Assayag, “Field effect white and tunable electroluminescence from ion beam synthesized Si- and C-rich SiO2 layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(21), 211105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dal Negro, L.

J. Warga, R. Li, S. N. Basu, and L. Dal Negro, “Electroluminescence from silicon-rich nitride/silicon superlattice structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(15), 151116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Daldosso, N.

D. Navarro-Urrios, Y. Lebour, O. Jambois, B. Garrido, A. Pitanti, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, J. Cardin, K. Hijazi, L. Khomenkova, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Optically active Er[sup 3+] ions in SiO[sub 2] codoped with Si nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(9), 093107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Garrido, C. García, S.-Y. Seo, P. Pellegrino, D. Navarro-Urrios, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Excitable Er fraction and quenching phenomena in Er-doped SiO2 layers containing Si nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 245308 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Di Stefano, G.

F. Iacona, D. Pacifici, A. Irrera, M. Miritello, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, and P. G. Fallica, “Electroluminescence at 1.54 µm in Er-doped Si nanocluster-based devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3242–3244 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Irrera, D. Pacifici, M. Miritello, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, and P. G. Fallica, “Excitation and de-excitation properties of silicon quantum dots under electrical pumping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(10), 1866–1868 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fallica, P. G.

A. Irrera, D. Pacifici, M. Miritello, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, and P. G. Fallica, “Excitation and de-excitation properties of silicon quantum dots under electrical pumping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(10), 1866–1868 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Iacona, D. Pacifici, A. Irrera, M. Miritello, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, and P. G. Fallica, “Electroluminescence at 1.54 µm in Er-doped Si nanocluster-based devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3242–3244 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Forcales, M.

M. Wojdak, M. Klik, M. Forcales, O. B. Gusev, T. Gregorkiewicz, D. Pacifici, G. Franzo, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, “Sensitization of Er luminescence by Si nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. B 69(23), 233315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Franzo, G.

M. Wojdak, M. Klik, M. Forcales, O. B. Gusev, T. Gregorkiewicz, D. Pacifici, G. Franzo, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, “Sensitization of Er luminescence by Si nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. B 69(23), 233315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Franzò, G.

G. Franzò, E. Pecora, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, “Role of the Si excess on the excitation of Er doped SiOx,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 183102–183104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Irrera, D. Pacifici, M. Miritello, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, and P. G. Fallica, “Excitation and de-excitation properties of silicon quantum dots under electrical pumping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(10), 1866–1868 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Iacona, D. Pacifici, A. Irrera, M. Miritello, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, and P. G. Fallica, “Electroluminescence at 1.54 µm in Er-doped Si nanocluster-based devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3242–3244 (2002).
[CrossRef]

García, C.

B. Garrido, C. García, S.-Y. Seo, P. Pellegrino, D. Navarro-Urrios, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Excitable Er fraction and quenching phenomena in Er-doped SiO2 layers containing Si nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 245308 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Garrido, B.

O. Jambois, Y. Berencen, K. Hijazi, M. Wojdak, A. J. Kenyon, F. Gourbilleau, R. Rizk, and B. Garrido, “Current transport and electroluminescence mechanisms in thin SiO2 films containing Si nanocluster-sensitized erbium ions,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(6), 063526 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Navarro-Urrios, Y. Lebour, O. Jambois, B. Garrido, A. Pitanti, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, J. Cardin, K. Hijazi, L. Khomenkova, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Optically active Er[sup 3+] ions in SiO[sub 2] codoped with Si nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(9), 093107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Carreras, J. Arbiol, B. Garrido, C. Bonafos, and J. Montserrat, “Direct modulation of electroluminescence from silicon nanocrystals beyond radiative recombination rates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 091103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Jambois, J. Carreras, A. Pérez-Rodríguez, B. Garrido, C. Bonafos, S. Schamm, and G. B. Assayag, “Field effect white and tunable electroluminescence from ion beam synthesized Si- and C-rich SiO2 layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(21), 211105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Garrido, C. García, S.-Y. Seo, P. Pellegrino, D. Navarro-Urrios, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Excitable Er fraction and quenching phenomena in Er-doped SiO2 layers containing Si nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 245308 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gourbilleau, F.

O. Jambois, Y. Berencen, K. Hijazi, M. Wojdak, A. J. Kenyon, F. Gourbilleau, R. Rizk, and B. Garrido, “Current transport and electroluminescence mechanisms in thin SiO2 films containing Si nanocluster-sensitized erbium ions,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(6), 063526 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Hijazi, R. Rizk, J. Cardin, L. Khomenkova, and F. Gourbilleau, “Towards an optimum coupling between Er ions and Si-based sensitizers for integrated active photonics,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 024311 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Navarro-Urrios, Y. Lebour, O. Jambois, B. Garrido, A. Pitanti, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, J. Cardin, K. Hijazi, L. Khomenkova, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Optically active Er[sup 3+] ions in SiO[sub 2] codoped with Si nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(9), 093107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Garrido, C. García, S.-Y. Seo, P. Pellegrino, D. Navarro-Urrios, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Excitable Er fraction and quenching phenomena in Er-doped SiO2 layers containing Si nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 245308 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gregorkiewicz, T.

M. Wojdak, M. Klik, M. Forcales, O. B. Gusev, T. Gregorkiewicz, D. Pacifici, G. Franzo, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, “Sensitization of Er luminescence by Si nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. B 69(23), 233315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gusev, O. B.

M. Wojdak, M. Klik, M. Forcales, O. B. Gusev, T. Gregorkiewicz, D. Pacifici, G. Franzo, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, “Sensitization of Er luminescence by Si nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. B 69(23), 233315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hijazi, K.

O. Jambois, Y. Berencen, K. Hijazi, M. Wojdak, A. J. Kenyon, F. Gourbilleau, R. Rizk, and B. Garrido, “Current transport and electroluminescence mechanisms in thin SiO2 films containing Si nanocluster-sensitized erbium ions,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(6), 063526 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Hijazi, R. Rizk, J. Cardin, L. Khomenkova, and F. Gourbilleau, “Towards an optimum coupling between Er ions and Si-based sensitizers for integrated active photonics,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 024311 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Navarro-Urrios, Y. Lebour, O. Jambois, B. Garrido, A. Pitanti, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, J. Cardin, K. Hijazi, L. Khomenkova, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Optically active Er[sup 3+] ions in SiO[sub 2] codoped with Si nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(9), 093107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Horak, P.

P. Horak, W. H. Loh, and A. J. Kenyon, “Modification of the Er3+ radiative lifetime from proximity to silicon nanoclusters in silicon-rich silicon oxide,” Opt. Express 17(2), 906–911 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iacona, F.

G. Franzò, E. Pecora, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, “Role of the Si excess on the excitation of Er doped SiOx,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 183102–183104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojdak, M. Klik, M. Forcales, O. B. Gusev, T. Gregorkiewicz, D. Pacifici, G. Franzo, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, “Sensitization of Er luminescence by Si nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. B 69(23), 233315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Irrera, D. Pacifici, M. Miritello, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, and P. G. Fallica, “Excitation and de-excitation properties of silicon quantum dots under electrical pumping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(10), 1866–1868 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Iacona, D. Pacifici, A. Irrera, M. Miritello, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, and P. G. Fallica, “Electroluminescence at 1.54 µm in Er-doped Si nanocluster-based devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3242–3244 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Irrera, A.

F. Iacona, D. Pacifici, A. Irrera, M. Miritello, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, and P. G. Fallica, “Electroluminescence at 1.54 µm in Er-doped Si nanocluster-based devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3242–3244 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Irrera, D. Pacifici, M. Miritello, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, and P. G. Fallica, “Excitation and de-excitation properties of silicon quantum dots under electrical pumping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(10), 1866–1868 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jambois, O.

O. Jambois, Y. Berencen, K. Hijazi, M. Wojdak, A. J. Kenyon, F. Gourbilleau, R. Rizk, and B. Garrido, “Current transport and electroluminescence mechanisms in thin SiO2 films containing Si nanocluster-sensitized erbium ions,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(6), 063526 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Navarro-Urrios, Y. Lebour, O. Jambois, B. Garrido, A. Pitanti, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, J. Cardin, K. Hijazi, L. Khomenkova, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Optically active Er[sup 3+] ions in SiO[sub 2] codoped with Si nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(9), 093107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Jambois, J. Carreras, A. Pérez-Rodríguez, B. Garrido, C. Bonafos, S. Schamm, and G. B. Assayag, “Field effect white and tunable electroluminescence from ion beam synthesized Si- and C-rich SiO2 layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(21), 211105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kenyon, A. J.

P. Horak, W. H. Loh, and A. J. Kenyon, “Modification of the Er3+ radiative lifetime from proximity to silicon nanoclusters in silicon-rich silicon oxide,” Opt. Express 17(2), 906–911 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Jambois, Y. Berencen, K. Hijazi, M. Wojdak, A. J. Kenyon, F. Gourbilleau, R. Rizk, and B. Garrido, “Current transport and electroluminescence mechanisms in thin SiO2 films containing Si nanocluster-sensitized erbium ions,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(6), 063526 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Kenyon, M. Wojdak, I. Ahmad, W. H. Loh, and C. J. Oton, “Generalized rate-equation analysis of excitation exchange between silicon nanoclusters and erbium ions,” Phys. Rev. B 77(3), 035318 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Khomenkova, L.

D. Navarro-Urrios, Y. Lebour, O. Jambois, B. Garrido, A. Pitanti, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, J. Cardin, K. Hijazi, L. Khomenkova, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Optically active Er[sup 3+] ions in SiO[sub 2] codoped with Si nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(9), 093107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Hijazi, R. Rizk, J. Cardin, L. Khomenkova, and F. Gourbilleau, “Towards an optimum coupling between Er ions and Si-based sensitizers for integrated active photonics,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 024311 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Klik, M.

M. Wojdak, M. Klik, M. Forcales, O. B. Gusev, T. Gregorkiewicz, D. Pacifici, G. Franzo, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, “Sensitization of Er luminescence by Si nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. B 69(23), 233315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lalic, N.

J. Valenta, N. Lalic, and J. Linnros, “Electroluminescence of single silicon nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(9), 1459–1461 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lebour, Y.

D. Navarro-Urrios, Y. Lebour, O. Jambois, B. Garrido, A. Pitanti, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, J. Cardin, K. Hijazi, L. Khomenkova, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Optically active Er[sup 3+] ions in SiO[sub 2] codoped with Si nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(9), 093107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, R.

J. Warga, R. Li, S. N. Basu, and L. Dal Negro, “Electroluminescence from silicon-rich nitride/silicon superlattice structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(15), 151116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Linnros, J.

J. Valenta, N. Lalic, and J. Linnros, “Electroluminescence of single silicon nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(9), 1459–1461 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Loh, W. H.

P. Horak, W. H. Loh, and A. J. Kenyon, “Modification of the Er3+ radiative lifetime from proximity to silicon nanoclusters in silicon-rich silicon oxide,” Opt. Express 17(2), 906–911 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Kenyon, M. Wojdak, I. Ahmad, W. H. Loh, and C. J. Oton, “Generalized rate-equation analysis of excitation exchange between silicon nanoclusters and erbium ions,” Phys. Rev. B 77(3), 035318 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miritello, M.

A. Irrera, D. Pacifici, M. Miritello, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, and P. G. Fallica, “Excitation and de-excitation properties of silicon quantum dots under electrical pumping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(10), 1866–1868 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Iacona, D. Pacifici, A. Irrera, M. Miritello, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, and P. G. Fallica, “Electroluminescence at 1.54 µm in Er-doped Si nanocluster-based devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3242–3244 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Montserrat, J.

J. Carreras, J. Arbiol, B. Garrido, C. Bonafos, and J. Montserrat, “Direct modulation of electroluminescence from silicon nanocrystals beyond radiative recombination rates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 091103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Navarro-Urrios, D.

D. Navarro-Urrios, Y. Lebour, O. Jambois, B. Garrido, A. Pitanti, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, J. Cardin, K. Hijazi, L. Khomenkova, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Optically active Er[sup 3+] ions in SiO[sub 2] codoped with Si nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(9), 093107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Garrido, C. García, S.-Y. Seo, P. Pellegrino, D. Navarro-Urrios, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Excitable Er fraction and quenching phenomena in Er-doped SiO2 layers containing Si nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 245308 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Oton, C. J.

A. J. Kenyon, M. Wojdak, I. Ahmad, W. H. Loh, and C. J. Oton, “Generalized rate-equation analysis of excitation exchange between silicon nanoclusters and erbium ions,” Phys. Rev. B 77(3), 035318 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pacifici, D.

M. Wojdak, M. Klik, M. Forcales, O. B. Gusev, T. Gregorkiewicz, D. Pacifici, G. Franzo, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, “Sensitization of Er luminescence by Si nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. B 69(23), 233315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Irrera, D. Pacifici, M. Miritello, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, and P. G. Fallica, “Excitation and de-excitation properties of silicon quantum dots under electrical pumping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(10), 1866–1868 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Iacona, D. Pacifici, A. Irrera, M. Miritello, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, and P. G. Fallica, “Electroluminescence at 1.54 µm in Er-doped Si nanocluster-based devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3242–3244 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Pavesi, L.

D. Navarro-Urrios, Y. Lebour, O. Jambois, B. Garrido, A. Pitanti, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, J. Cardin, K. Hijazi, L. Khomenkova, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Optically active Er[sup 3+] ions in SiO[sub 2] codoped with Si nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(9), 093107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Garrido, C. García, S.-Y. Seo, P. Pellegrino, D. Navarro-Urrios, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Excitable Er fraction and quenching phenomena in Er-doped SiO2 layers containing Si nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 245308 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pecora, E.

G. Franzò, E. Pecora, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, “Role of the Si excess on the excitation of Er doped SiOx,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 183102–183104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pellegrino, P.

B. Garrido, C. García, S.-Y. Seo, P. Pellegrino, D. Navarro-Urrios, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Excitable Er fraction and quenching phenomena in Er-doped SiO2 layers containing Si nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 245308 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pérez-Rodríguez, A.

O. Jambois, J. Carreras, A. Pérez-Rodríguez, B. Garrido, C. Bonafos, S. Schamm, and G. B. Assayag, “Field effect white and tunable electroluminescence from ion beam synthesized Si- and C-rich SiO2 layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(21), 211105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pitanti, A.

D. Navarro-Urrios, Y. Lebour, O. Jambois, B. Garrido, A. Pitanti, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, J. Cardin, K. Hijazi, L. Khomenkova, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Optically active Er[sup 3+] ions in SiO[sub 2] codoped with Si nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(9), 093107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Priolo, F.

G. Franzò, E. Pecora, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, “Role of the Si excess on the excitation of Er doped SiOx,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 183102–183104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojdak, M. Klik, M. Forcales, O. B. Gusev, T. Gregorkiewicz, D. Pacifici, G. Franzo, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, “Sensitization of Er luminescence by Si nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. B 69(23), 233315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Irrera, D. Pacifici, M. Miritello, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, and P. G. Fallica, “Excitation and de-excitation properties of silicon quantum dots under electrical pumping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(10), 1866–1868 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Iacona, D. Pacifici, A. Irrera, M. Miritello, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, and P. G. Fallica, “Electroluminescence at 1.54 µm in Er-doped Si nanocluster-based devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3242–3244 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rizk, R.

O. Jambois, Y. Berencen, K. Hijazi, M. Wojdak, A. J. Kenyon, F. Gourbilleau, R. Rizk, and B. Garrido, “Current transport and electroluminescence mechanisms in thin SiO2 films containing Si nanocluster-sensitized erbium ions,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(6), 063526 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Hijazi, R. Rizk, J. Cardin, L. Khomenkova, and F. Gourbilleau, “Towards an optimum coupling between Er ions and Si-based sensitizers for integrated active photonics,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 024311 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Navarro-Urrios, Y. Lebour, O. Jambois, B. Garrido, A. Pitanti, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, J. Cardin, K. Hijazi, L. Khomenkova, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Optically active Er[sup 3+] ions in SiO[sub 2] codoped with Si nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(9), 093107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Garrido, C. García, S.-Y. Seo, P. Pellegrino, D. Navarro-Urrios, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Excitable Er fraction and quenching phenomena in Er-doped SiO2 layers containing Si nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 245308 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sanfilippo, D.

F. Iacona, D. Pacifici, A. Irrera, M. Miritello, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, and P. G. Fallica, “Electroluminescence at 1.54 µm in Er-doped Si nanocluster-based devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3242–3244 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Irrera, D. Pacifici, M. Miritello, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, and P. G. Fallica, “Excitation and de-excitation properties of silicon quantum dots under electrical pumping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(10), 1866–1868 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schamm, S.

O. Jambois, J. Carreras, A. Pérez-Rodríguez, B. Garrido, C. Bonafos, S. Schamm, and G. B. Assayag, “Field effect white and tunable electroluminescence from ion beam synthesized Si- and C-rich SiO2 layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(21), 211105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Seo, S.-Y.

B. Garrido, C. García, S.-Y. Seo, P. Pellegrino, D. Navarro-Urrios, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Excitable Er fraction and quenching phenomena in Er-doped SiO2 layers containing Si nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 245308 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Valenta, J.

J. Valenta, N. Lalic, and J. Linnros, “Electroluminescence of single silicon nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(9), 1459–1461 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Walters, R. J.

R. J. Walters, G. I. Bourianoff, and H. A. Atwater, “Field-effect electroluminescence in silicon nanocrystals,” Nat. Mater. 4(2), 143–146 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Warga, J.

J. Warga, R. Li, S. N. Basu, and L. Dal Negro, “Electroluminescence from silicon-rich nitride/silicon superlattice structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(15), 151116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wojdak, M.

O. Jambois, Y. Berencen, K. Hijazi, M. Wojdak, A. J. Kenyon, F. Gourbilleau, R. Rizk, and B. Garrido, “Current transport and electroluminescence mechanisms in thin SiO2 films containing Si nanocluster-sensitized erbium ions,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(6), 063526 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Kenyon, M. Wojdak, I. Ahmad, W. H. Loh, and C. J. Oton, “Generalized rate-equation analysis of excitation exchange between silicon nanoclusters and erbium ions,” Phys. Rev. B 77(3), 035318 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Wojdak, M. Klik, M. Forcales, O. B. Gusev, T. Gregorkiewicz, D. Pacifici, G. Franzo, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, “Sensitization of Er luminescence by Si nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. B 69(23), 233315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

J. Carreras, J. Arbiol, B. Garrido, C. Bonafos, and J. Montserrat, “Direct modulation of electroluminescence from silicon nanocrystals beyond radiative recombination rates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 091103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Warga, R. Li, S. N. Basu, and L. Dal Negro, “Electroluminescence from silicon-rich nitride/silicon superlattice structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(15), 151116 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Jambois, J. Carreras, A. Pérez-Rodríguez, B. Garrido, C. Bonafos, S. Schamm, and G. B. Assayag, “Field effect white and tunable electroluminescence from ion beam synthesized Si- and C-rich SiO2 layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(21), 211105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Iacona, D. Pacifici, A. Irrera, M. Miritello, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, and P. G. Fallica, “Electroluminescence at 1.54 µm in Er-doped Si nanocluster-based devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3242–3244 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Franzò, E. Pecora, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, “Role of the Si excess on the excitation of Er doped SiOx,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(18), 183102–183104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Irrera, D. Pacifici, M. Miritello, G. Franzò, F. Priolo, F. Iacona, D. Sanfilippo, G. Di Stefano, and P. G. Fallica, “Excitation and de-excitation properties of silicon quantum dots under electrical pumping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(10), 1866–1868 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Valenta, N. Lalic, and J. Linnros, “Electroluminescence of single silicon nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(9), 1459–1461 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

O. Jambois, Y. Berencen, K. Hijazi, M. Wojdak, A. J. Kenyon, F. Gourbilleau, R. Rizk, and B. Garrido, “Current transport and electroluminescence mechanisms in thin SiO2 films containing Si nanocluster-sensitized erbium ions,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(6), 063526 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Hijazi, R. Rizk, J. Cardin, L. Khomenkova, and F. Gourbilleau, “Towards an optimum coupling between Er ions and Si-based sensitizers for integrated active photonics,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 024311 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Navarro-Urrios, Y. Lebour, O. Jambois, B. Garrido, A. Pitanti, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, J. Cardin, K. Hijazi, L. Khomenkova, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Optically active Er[sup 3+] ions in SiO[sub 2] codoped with Si nanoclusters,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(9), 093107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (1)

R. J. Walters, G. I. Bourianoff, and H. A. Atwater, “Field-effect electroluminescence in silicon nanocrystals,” Nat. Mater. 4(2), 143–146 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

P. Horak, W. H. Loh, and A. J. Kenyon, “Modification of the Er3+ radiative lifetime from proximity to silicon nanoclusters in silicon-rich silicon oxide,” Opt. Express 17(2), 906–911 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (3)

M. Wojdak, M. Klik, M. Forcales, O. B. Gusev, T. Gregorkiewicz, D. Pacifici, G. Franzo, F. Priolo, and F. Iacona, “Sensitization of Er luminescence by Si nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. B 69(23), 233315 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Kenyon, M. Wojdak, I. Ahmad, W. H. Loh, and C. J. Oton, “Generalized rate-equation analysis of excitation exchange between silicon nanoclusters and erbium ions,” Phys. Rev. B 77(3), 035318 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Garrido, C. García, S.-Y. Seo, P. Pellegrino, D. Navarro-Urrios, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Excitable Er fraction and quenching phenomena in Er-doped SiO2 layers containing Si nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 245308 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

J-E characteristics of the two layers. Inset shows the I-V characteristics in the Poole Frenkel representation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

a) Electroluminescence spectra of layer C352 (squares). A photoluminescence spectrum has been superimposed (red line) for comparison. b) Electroluminescence versus time for increasing flux (as symbolised by the arrow) from 7 × 1013cm−2s−1 to 4 × 1016cm−2s−1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Estimation of the inverted Er fraction for both layers. Inset shows the non linear behaviour of the reciprocal rise rate with flux.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Si excess, Er concentration and thickness of the active layer

Equations (1)

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N 2 = W o p t × τ r a d ω × S × d

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