Abstract

Fs-laser based opto-perforation is a gentle method for gene transfer into sensitive cells such as stem cells or primary cells. The high selectivity and the low damage to the cell lead to a high efficiency of transfection. However, there are side effects which induce stress to the cell due to the exchange of intra- and extracellular media as well as the disintegration of the structure of biomolecules resulting from the laser exposure. Moreover, the mechanisms of the optical transfection are still unclear. In this paper, we present our study on calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis during cell surgery, especially during laser induced membrane perforation. We show that the manipulation of cells can induce an increase in the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration. This increase was not observed if the manipulation of the cells was performed in absence of the extracellular calcium indicating the importance of the Ca2+ uptake. We found, that the uptake of extracellular Ca2+ strongly depends on the repetition rate and the irradiation time of the laser pulses. The exposure for several seconds to kHz pulses even induces Ca2+ induced Ca2+ release. Dependent on the location of perforation, probably in the vicinity of an intracellular Ca2+ stock, an instantaneous intracellular Ca2+ release can be induced. Since Ca2+ could be involved in negative side effect by cell surgery, we propose an application of the optoperforation technique in nominal Ca2+-free external solution.

©2010 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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2009 (1)

J. Baumgart, K. Kuetemeyer, W. Bintig, A. Ngezahayo, W. Ertmer, H. Lubatschowski, and A. Heisterkamp, “Repetition rate dependency of reactive oxygen species formation during femtosecond laser based cell surgery,“ J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 5 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

E.R. Resnik, M. Keck, D.J. Sukovich, J.M. Herron, and D.N. Cornfield, “Chronic intrauterine pulmonary hypertension increases capacitative calcium entry in fetal pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells,” Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol. 292(4), L953–L959 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (5)

D. Day, C. Cranfield, and M. Guenter, “High-speed fluorescence imaging an d intensity profiling of femtosecond-induced calcium transients,” Int. J. Biomed. Imaging 93438, (2006).

C. Cranfield, Z. Bomzon, D. Day, M. Gu, and S. Cartmell, “Mechanical Strains Induced in Osteoblasts by Use of Point Femtosecond Laser Targeting,” Int. J. Biomed. Imaging 21304, 1–6 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Iwanaga, T. Kaneko, K. Fujita, N. I. Smith, O. Nakamura, T. Takamatsu, and S. Kawata, “Location-Dependent Photogeneration of Calcium Waves in HeLa Cells,” Cell Biochem. Biophys. 45, 167–176 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Iwanaga, N.I. Smith, K. Fujita, and S. Kawata, “Slow Ca2+ wave stimulation using low repetition rate femtosecond pulsed irradiation,” Opt. Express 14, 717–725 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Stevenson, B. Agate, X. Tsampoula, P. Fischer, C. T. A. Brown, W. Sibbet, A. Riches, F. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, “Femtosecond optical transfection of cells: viability and efficiency,” Opt. Express 14, 7125–7133 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

B. C. Garret, D. A. Dixon, D. M. Camaioni, D. M. Chipman, M. A. Johnson, C. D. Jonah, G. A. Kimmel, J. H. Miller, T. N. Rescigno, P. J. Rossky, S. S. Xantheas, S. D. Colson, A. H. Laufer, D. Ray, P. F. Barbara, D. M. Bartels, K. H. Becker, K. H. Bowen, S. E. Bradforth, I. Carmichael, J. V. Coe, L. R. Corrales, J. P. Cowin, M. Dupuis, K. B. Eisenthal, J. A. Franz, M. S. Gutowski, K. D. Jordan, B. D. Kay, J. A. La Verne, S. V. Lymar, T. E. Madey, C. W. McCurdy, D. Meisel, S. Mukamel, A. R. Nilsson, T. M. Orlando, N. G. Petrik, S. M. Pimblott, J. R. Rustad, G. K. Schenter, S. J. Singer, A. Tokmakoff, L.-S. Wang, C. Wettig, and T. S. Zwier, “Role of Water in Electron-Initiated Processes and Radical Chemistry: Issues and Scientific Advances,” Chem. Rev. 105, 355–390 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Vogel, J. Noack, G. Huettman, and G. Paltauf, “Mechanisms of femtosecond laser nanosurgery of cells and tissues,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 1015–1047 (2005).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

A. Heisterkamp, T. Ripken, T. Mammom, W. Drommer, H. Welling, W. Ertmer, and H. Lubatschowski, “Nonlinear side effects of fs pulses inside corneal tissue during photodisruption,“ Appl. Phys. B 74, 1–7 (2002).
[Crossref]

U. K. Tirlapur and K. Konig, “Targeted transfection by femtosecond laser,” Nature 418, 290–291 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (2)

N. I. Smith, K. Fujita, T. Kaneko, K. Kato, O. Nakamura, T. Takamatsu, and S. Kawata, “Generation of calcium waves in living cells by pulsed-laser-induced photodisruption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1208–1210 (2001).
[Crossref]

P. K. Frederiksen, M. Jorgensen, and P. R. Ogilby, “Two-Photon Photosensitized Production of Singlet Oxygen,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 1215–1221 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

G. Maatz, A. Heisterkamp, H. Lubatschowski, S. Barcikowski, C. Fallnich, H. Welling, and W. Ertmer, “Chemical and physical side effects at application of ultrashort laser pulses for intrastromal refravtive surgery,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 59–64 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

K. Koenig, I. Riemann, P. Fischer, and K. Halbhuber, “Intracellular Nanosurgery With Near Infrared Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Cell. Mol. Biol. 45, 192–201 (1999).

H. J. Koester, D. Baur, R. Uhl, and S. W. Hell, “Ca2+ fluorescence imaging with pico- and femtosecond two-photon excitation: signal and photodamge,” Biophys. J. 77(4), 2226–2236 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (2)

M. J. Berridge, M. D. Bootman, and P. Lipp, “Calcium - a life and death signal,” Nature 395, 645–648 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Mozhayeva and K. Kiselyov, “Involvement of Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release in the biphasic Ca2+ response evoked by readdition of Ca2+ to the medium after UTP-induced store depletion in A431 cells,” Pflügers Arch. - Eur. J. Physiol. 435, 859–864 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

M.G. Mozhayeva, “[Ca2+]i elevation evoked by Ca2+ readdition to the medium after agonist induced Ca2+ release can involve both IP3-, and ryanodine-sensitive Ca2+ release,” Pflügers Arch. 433(1–2), 180–187 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

W. Denk, J.H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-Photon Laser Scanning Fluorescence Microscopy,” Science 248, 73–76 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Agate, B.

Barbara, P. F.

B. C. Garret, D. A. Dixon, D. M. Camaioni, D. M. Chipman, M. A. Johnson, C. D. Jonah, G. A. Kimmel, J. H. Miller, T. N. Rescigno, P. J. Rossky, S. S. Xantheas, S. D. Colson, A. H. Laufer, D. Ray, P. F. Barbara, D. M. Bartels, K. H. Becker, K. H. Bowen, S. E. Bradforth, I. Carmichael, J. V. Coe, L. R. Corrales, J. P. Cowin, M. Dupuis, K. B. Eisenthal, J. A. Franz, M. S. Gutowski, K. D. Jordan, B. D. Kay, J. A. La Verne, S. V. Lymar, T. E. Madey, C. W. McCurdy, D. Meisel, S. Mukamel, A. R. Nilsson, T. M. Orlando, N. G. Petrik, S. M. Pimblott, J. R. Rustad, G. K. Schenter, S. J. Singer, A. Tokmakoff, L.-S. Wang, C. Wettig, and T. S. Zwier, “Role of Water in Electron-Initiated Processes and Radical Chemistry: Issues and Scientific Advances,” Chem. Rev. 105, 355–390 (2005).
[Crossref]

Barcikowski, S.

G. Maatz, A. Heisterkamp, H. Lubatschowski, S. Barcikowski, C. Fallnich, H. Welling, and W. Ertmer, “Chemical and physical side effects at application of ultrashort laser pulses for intrastromal refravtive surgery,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 59–64 (2000).
[Crossref]

Bartels, D. M.

B. C. Garret, D. A. Dixon, D. M. Camaioni, D. M. Chipman, M. A. Johnson, C. D. Jonah, G. A. Kimmel, J. H. Miller, T. N. Rescigno, P. J. Rossky, S. S. Xantheas, S. D. Colson, A. H. Laufer, D. Ray, P. F. Barbara, D. M. Bartels, K. H. Becker, K. H. Bowen, S. E. Bradforth, I. Carmichael, J. V. Coe, L. R. Corrales, J. P. Cowin, M. Dupuis, K. B. Eisenthal, J. A. Franz, M. S. Gutowski, K. D. Jordan, B. D. Kay, J. A. La Verne, S. V. Lymar, T. E. Madey, C. W. McCurdy, D. Meisel, S. Mukamel, A. R. Nilsson, T. M. Orlando, N. G. Petrik, S. M. Pimblott, J. R. Rustad, G. K. Schenter, S. J. Singer, A. Tokmakoff, L.-S. Wang, C. Wettig, and T. S. Zwier, “Role of Water in Electron-Initiated Processes and Radical Chemistry: Issues and Scientific Advances,” Chem. Rev. 105, 355–390 (2005).
[Crossref]

Baumgart, J.

J. Baumgart, K. Kuetemeyer, W. Bintig, A. Ngezahayo, W. Ertmer, H. Lubatschowski, and A. Heisterkamp, “Repetition rate dependency of reactive oxygen species formation during femtosecond laser based cell surgery,“ J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 5 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Baumgart, W. Bintig, A. Ngezahayo, S. Willenbrock, H. Murua Escobar, W. Ertmer, H. Lubatschowski, and A. Heisterkamp, “Quantified femtosecond laser based opto-perforation of living GFSHR-17 and MTH53a cells,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3021–3031 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baur, D.

H. J. Koester, D. Baur, R. Uhl, and S. W. Hell, “Ca2+ fluorescence imaging with pico- and femtosecond two-photon excitation: signal and photodamge,” Biophys. J. 77(4), 2226–2236 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Becker, K. H.

B. C. Garret, D. A. Dixon, D. M. Camaioni, D. M. Chipman, M. A. Johnson, C. D. Jonah, G. A. Kimmel, J. H. Miller, T. N. Rescigno, P. J. Rossky, S. S. Xantheas, S. D. Colson, A. H. Laufer, D. Ray, P. F. Barbara, D. M. Bartels, K. H. Becker, K. H. Bowen, S. E. Bradforth, I. Carmichael, J. V. Coe, L. R. Corrales, J. P. Cowin, M. Dupuis, K. B. Eisenthal, J. A. Franz, M. S. Gutowski, K. D. Jordan, B. D. Kay, J. A. La Verne, S. V. Lymar, T. E. Madey, C. W. McCurdy, D. Meisel, S. Mukamel, A. R. Nilsson, T. M. Orlando, N. G. Petrik, S. M. Pimblott, J. R. Rustad, G. K. Schenter, S. J. Singer, A. Tokmakoff, L.-S. Wang, C. Wettig, and T. S. Zwier, “Role of Water in Electron-Initiated Processes and Radical Chemistry: Issues and Scientific Advances,” Chem. Rev. 105, 355–390 (2005).
[Crossref]

Berridge, M. J.

M. J. Berridge, M. D. Bootman, and P. Lipp, “Calcium - a life and death signal,” Nature 395, 645–648 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bintig, W.

J. Baumgart, K. Kuetemeyer, W. Bintig, A. Ngezahayo, W. Ertmer, H. Lubatschowski, and A. Heisterkamp, “Repetition rate dependency of reactive oxygen species formation during femtosecond laser based cell surgery,“ J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 5 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Baumgart, W. Bintig, A. Ngezahayo, S. Willenbrock, H. Murua Escobar, W. Ertmer, H. Lubatschowski, and A. Heisterkamp, “Quantified femtosecond laser based opto-perforation of living GFSHR-17 and MTH53a cells,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3021–3031 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bomzon, Z.

C. Cranfield, Z. Bomzon, D. Day, M. Gu, and S. Cartmell, “Mechanical Strains Induced in Osteoblasts by Use of Point Femtosecond Laser Targeting,” Int. J. Biomed. Imaging 21304, 1–6 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bootman, M. D.

M. J. Berridge, M. D. Bootman, and P. Lipp, “Calcium - a life and death signal,” Nature 395, 645–648 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bowen, K. H.

B. C. Garret, D. A. Dixon, D. M. Camaioni, D. M. Chipman, M. A. Johnson, C. D. Jonah, G. A. Kimmel, J. H. Miller, T. N. Rescigno, P. J. Rossky, S. S. Xantheas, S. D. Colson, A. H. Laufer, D. Ray, P. F. Barbara, D. M. Bartels, K. H. Becker, K. H. Bowen, S. E. Bradforth, I. Carmichael, J. V. Coe, L. R. Corrales, J. P. Cowin, M. Dupuis, K. B. Eisenthal, J. A. Franz, M. S. Gutowski, K. D. Jordan, B. D. Kay, J. A. La Verne, S. V. Lymar, T. E. Madey, C. W. McCurdy, D. Meisel, S. Mukamel, A. R. Nilsson, T. M. Orlando, N. G. Petrik, S. M. Pimblott, J. R. Rustad, G. K. Schenter, S. J. Singer, A. Tokmakoff, L.-S. Wang, C. Wettig, and T. S. Zwier, “Role of Water in Electron-Initiated Processes and Radical Chemistry: Issues and Scientific Advances,” Chem. Rev. 105, 355–390 (2005).
[Crossref]

Bradforth, S. E.

B. C. Garret, D. A. Dixon, D. M. Camaioni, D. M. Chipman, M. A. Johnson, C. D. Jonah, G. A. Kimmel, J. H. Miller, T. N. Rescigno, P. J. Rossky, S. S. Xantheas, S. D. Colson, A. H. Laufer, D. Ray, P. F. Barbara, D. M. Bartels, K. H. Becker, K. H. Bowen, S. E. Bradforth, I. Carmichael, J. V. Coe, L. R. Corrales, J. P. Cowin, M. Dupuis, K. B. Eisenthal, J. A. Franz, M. S. Gutowski, K. D. Jordan, B. D. Kay, J. A. La Verne, S. V. Lymar, T. E. Madey, C. W. McCurdy, D. Meisel, S. Mukamel, A. R. Nilsson, T. M. Orlando, N. G. Petrik, S. M. Pimblott, J. R. Rustad, G. K. Schenter, S. J. Singer, A. Tokmakoff, L.-S. Wang, C. Wettig, and T. S. Zwier, “Role of Water in Electron-Initiated Processes and Radical Chemistry: Issues and Scientific Advances,” Chem. Rev. 105, 355–390 (2005).
[Crossref]

Brown, C. T. A.

Camaioni, D. M.

B. C. Garret, D. A. Dixon, D. M. Camaioni, D. M. Chipman, M. A. Johnson, C. D. Jonah, G. A. Kimmel, J. H. Miller, T. N. Rescigno, P. J. Rossky, S. S. Xantheas, S. D. Colson, A. H. Laufer, D. Ray, P. F. Barbara, D. M. Bartels, K. H. Becker, K. H. Bowen, S. E. Bradforth, I. Carmichael, J. V. Coe, L. R. Corrales, J. P. Cowin, M. Dupuis, K. B. Eisenthal, J. A. Franz, M. S. Gutowski, K. D. Jordan, B. D. Kay, J. A. La Verne, S. V. Lymar, T. E. Madey, C. W. McCurdy, D. Meisel, S. Mukamel, A. R. Nilsson, T. M. Orlando, N. G. Petrik, S. M. Pimblott, J. R. Rustad, G. K. Schenter, S. J. Singer, A. Tokmakoff, L.-S. Wang, C. Wettig, and T. S. Zwier, “Role of Water in Electron-Initiated Processes and Radical Chemistry: Issues and Scientific Advances,” Chem. Rev. 105, 355–390 (2005).
[Crossref]

Carmichael, I.

B. C. Garret, D. A. Dixon, D. M. Camaioni, D. M. Chipman, M. A. Johnson, C. D. Jonah, G. A. Kimmel, J. H. Miller, T. N. Rescigno, P. J. Rossky, S. S. Xantheas, S. D. Colson, A. H. Laufer, D. Ray, P. F. Barbara, D. M. Bartels, K. H. Becker, K. H. Bowen, S. E. Bradforth, I. Carmichael, J. V. Coe, L. R. Corrales, J. P. Cowin, M. Dupuis, K. B. Eisenthal, J. A. Franz, M. S. Gutowski, K. D. Jordan, B. D. Kay, J. A. La Verne, S. V. Lymar, T. E. Madey, C. W. McCurdy, D. Meisel, S. Mukamel, A. R. Nilsson, T. M. Orlando, N. G. Petrik, S. M. Pimblott, J. R. Rustad, G. K. Schenter, S. J. Singer, A. Tokmakoff, L.-S. Wang, C. Wettig, and T. S. Zwier, “Role of Water in Electron-Initiated Processes and Radical Chemistry: Issues and Scientific Advances,” Chem. Rev. 105, 355–390 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cartmell, S.

C. Cranfield, Z. Bomzon, D. Day, M. Gu, and S. Cartmell, “Mechanical Strains Induced in Osteoblasts by Use of Point Femtosecond Laser Targeting,” Int. J. Biomed. Imaging 21304, 1–6 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chipman, D. M.

B. C. Garret, D. A. Dixon, D. M. Camaioni, D. M. Chipman, M. A. Johnson, C. D. Jonah, G. A. Kimmel, J. H. Miller, T. N. Rescigno, P. J. Rossky, S. S. Xantheas, S. D. Colson, A. H. Laufer, D. Ray, P. F. Barbara, D. M. Bartels, K. H. Becker, K. H. Bowen, S. E. Bradforth, I. Carmichael, J. V. Coe, L. R. Corrales, J. P. Cowin, M. Dupuis, K. B. Eisenthal, J. A. Franz, M. S. Gutowski, K. D. Jordan, B. D. Kay, J. A. La Verne, S. V. Lymar, T. E. Madey, C. W. McCurdy, D. Meisel, S. Mukamel, A. R. Nilsson, T. M. Orlando, N. G. Petrik, S. M. Pimblott, J. R. Rustad, G. K. Schenter, S. J. Singer, A. Tokmakoff, L.-S. Wang, C. Wettig, and T. S. Zwier, “Role of Water in Electron-Initiated Processes and Radical Chemistry: Issues and Scientific Advances,” Chem. Rev. 105, 355–390 (2005).
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Coe, J. V.

B. C. Garret, D. A. Dixon, D. M. Camaioni, D. M. Chipman, M. A. Johnson, C. D. Jonah, G. A. Kimmel, J. H. Miller, T. N. Rescigno, P. J. Rossky, S. S. Xantheas, S. D. Colson, A. H. Laufer, D. Ray, P. F. Barbara, D. M. Bartels, K. H. Becker, K. H. Bowen, S. E. Bradforth, I. Carmichael, J. V. Coe, L. R. Corrales, J. P. Cowin, M. Dupuis, K. B. Eisenthal, J. A. Franz, M. S. Gutowski, K. D. Jordan, B. D. Kay, J. A. La Verne, S. V. Lymar, T. E. Madey, C. W. McCurdy, D. Meisel, S. Mukamel, A. R. Nilsson, T. M. Orlando, N. G. Petrik, S. M. Pimblott, J. R. Rustad, G. K. Schenter, S. J. Singer, A. Tokmakoff, L.-S. Wang, C. Wettig, and T. S. Zwier, “Role of Water in Electron-Initiated Processes and Radical Chemistry: Issues and Scientific Advances,” Chem. Rev. 105, 355–390 (2005).
[Crossref]

Colson, S. D.

B. C. Garret, D. A. Dixon, D. M. Camaioni, D. M. Chipman, M. A. Johnson, C. D. Jonah, G. A. Kimmel, J. H. Miller, T. N. Rescigno, P. J. Rossky, S. S. Xantheas, S. D. Colson, A. H. Laufer, D. Ray, P. F. Barbara, D. M. Bartels, K. H. Becker, K. H. Bowen, S. E. Bradforth, I. Carmichael, J. V. Coe, L. R. Corrales, J. P. Cowin, M. Dupuis, K. B. Eisenthal, J. A. Franz, M. S. Gutowski, K. D. Jordan, B. D. Kay, J. A. La Verne, S. V. Lymar, T. E. Madey, C. W. McCurdy, D. Meisel, S. Mukamel, A. R. Nilsson, T. M. Orlando, N. G. Petrik, S. M. Pimblott, J. R. Rustad, G. K. Schenter, S. J. Singer, A. Tokmakoff, L.-S. Wang, C. Wettig, and T. S. Zwier, “Role of Water in Electron-Initiated Processes and Radical Chemistry: Issues and Scientific Advances,” Chem. Rev. 105, 355–390 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cornfield, D.N.

E.R. Resnik, M. Keck, D.J. Sukovich, J.M. Herron, and D.N. Cornfield, “Chronic intrauterine pulmonary hypertension increases capacitative calcium entry in fetal pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells,” Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol. 292(4), L953–L959 (2007).
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Corrales, L. R.

B. C. Garret, D. A. Dixon, D. M. Camaioni, D. M. Chipman, M. A. Johnson, C. D. Jonah, G. A. Kimmel, J. H. Miller, T. N. Rescigno, P. J. Rossky, S. S. Xantheas, S. D. Colson, A. H. Laufer, D. Ray, P. F. Barbara, D. M. Bartels, K. H. Becker, K. H. Bowen, S. E. Bradforth, I. Carmichael, J. V. Coe, L. R. Corrales, J. P. Cowin, M. Dupuis, K. B. Eisenthal, J. A. Franz, M. S. Gutowski, K. D. Jordan, B. D. Kay, J. A. La Verne, S. V. Lymar, T. E. Madey, C. W. McCurdy, D. Meisel, S. Mukamel, A. R. Nilsson, T. M. Orlando, N. G. Petrik, S. M. Pimblott, J. R. Rustad, G. K. Schenter, S. J. Singer, A. Tokmakoff, L.-S. Wang, C. Wettig, and T. S. Zwier, “Role of Water in Electron-Initiated Processes and Radical Chemistry: Issues and Scientific Advances,” Chem. Rev. 105, 355–390 (2005).
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Cowin, J. P.

B. C. Garret, D. A. Dixon, D. M. Camaioni, D. M. Chipman, M. A. Johnson, C. D. Jonah, G. A. Kimmel, J. H. Miller, T. N. Rescigno, P. J. Rossky, S. S. Xantheas, S. D. Colson, A. H. Laufer, D. Ray, P. F. Barbara, D. M. Bartels, K. H. Becker, K. H. Bowen, S. E. Bradforth, I. Carmichael, J. V. Coe, L. R. Corrales, J. P. Cowin, M. Dupuis, K. B. Eisenthal, J. A. Franz, M. S. Gutowski, K. D. Jordan, B. D. Kay, J. A. La Verne, S. V. Lymar, T. E. Madey, C. W. McCurdy, D. Meisel, S. Mukamel, A. R. Nilsson, T. M. Orlando, N. G. Petrik, S. M. Pimblott, J. R. Rustad, G. K. Schenter, S. J. Singer, A. Tokmakoff, L.-S. Wang, C. Wettig, and T. S. Zwier, “Role of Water in Electron-Initiated Processes and Radical Chemistry: Issues and Scientific Advances,” Chem. Rev. 105, 355–390 (2005).
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Cranfield, C.

D. Day, C. Cranfield, and M. Guenter, “High-speed fluorescence imaging an d intensity profiling of femtosecond-induced calcium transients,” Int. J. Biomed. Imaging 93438, (2006).

C. Cranfield, Z. Bomzon, D. Day, M. Gu, and S. Cartmell, “Mechanical Strains Induced in Osteoblasts by Use of Point Femtosecond Laser Targeting,” Int. J. Biomed. Imaging 21304, 1–6 (2006).
[Crossref]

Day, D.

D. Day, C. Cranfield, and M. Guenter, “High-speed fluorescence imaging an d intensity profiling of femtosecond-induced calcium transients,” Int. J. Biomed. Imaging 93438, (2006).

C. Cranfield, Z. Bomzon, D. Day, M. Gu, and S. Cartmell, “Mechanical Strains Induced in Osteoblasts by Use of Point Femtosecond Laser Targeting,” Int. J. Biomed. Imaging 21304, 1–6 (2006).
[Crossref]

Denk, W.

W. Denk, J.H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-Photon Laser Scanning Fluorescence Microscopy,” Science 248, 73–76 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dholakia, K.

Dixon, D. A.

B. C. Garret, D. A. Dixon, D. M. Camaioni, D. M. Chipman, M. A. Johnson, C. D. Jonah, G. A. Kimmel, J. H. Miller, T. N. Rescigno, P. J. Rossky, S. S. Xantheas, S. D. Colson, A. H. Laufer, D. Ray, P. F. Barbara, D. M. Bartels, K. H. Becker, K. H. Bowen, S. E. Bradforth, I. Carmichael, J. V. Coe, L. R. Corrales, J. P. Cowin, M. Dupuis, K. B. Eisenthal, J. A. Franz, M. S. Gutowski, K. D. Jordan, B. D. Kay, J. A. La Verne, S. V. Lymar, T. E. Madey, C. W. McCurdy, D. Meisel, S. Mukamel, A. R. Nilsson, T. M. Orlando, N. G. Petrik, S. M. Pimblott, J. R. Rustad, G. K. Schenter, S. J. Singer, A. Tokmakoff, L.-S. Wang, C. Wettig, and T. S. Zwier, “Role of Water in Electron-Initiated Processes and Radical Chemistry: Issues and Scientific Advances,” Chem. Rev. 105, 355–390 (2005).
[Crossref]

Drommer, W.

A. Heisterkamp, T. Ripken, T. Mammom, W. Drommer, H. Welling, W. Ertmer, and H. Lubatschowski, “Nonlinear side effects of fs pulses inside corneal tissue during photodisruption,“ Appl. Phys. B 74, 1–7 (2002).
[Crossref]

Dupuis, M.

B. C. Garret, D. A. Dixon, D. M. Camaioni, D. M. Chipman, M. A. Johnson, C. D. Jonah, G. A. Kimmel, J. H. Miller, T. N. Rescigno, P. J. Rossky, S. S. Xantheas, S. D. Colson, A. H. Laufer, D. Ray, P. F. Barbara, D. M. Bartels, K. H. Becker, K. H. Bowen, S. E. Bradforth, I. Carmichael, J. V. Coe, L. R. Corrales, J. P. Cowin, M. Dupuis, K. B. Eisenthal, J. A. Franz, M. S. Gutowski, K. D. Jordan, B. D. Kay, J. A. La Verne, S. V. Lymar, T. E. Madey, C. W. McCurdy, D. Meisel, S. Mukamel, A. R. Nilsson, T. M. Orlando, N. G. Petrik, S. M. Pimblott, J. R. Rustad, G. K. Schenter, S. J. Singer, A. Tokmakoff, L.-S. Wang, C. Wettig, and T. S. Zwier, “Role of Water in Electron-Initiated Processes and Radical Chemistry: Issues and Scientific Advances,” Chem. Rev. 105, 355–390 (2005).
[Crossref]

Eisenthal, K. B.

B. C. Garret, D. A. Dixon, D. M. Camaioni, D. M. Chipman, M. A. Johnson, C. D. Jonah, G. A. Kimmel, J. H. Miller, T. N. Rescigno, P. J. Rossky, S. S. Xantheas, S. D. Colson, A. H. Laufer, D. Ray, P. F. Barbara, D. M. Bartels, K. H. Becker, K. H. Bowen, S. E. Bradforth, I. Carmichael, J. V. Coe, L. R. Corrales, J. P. Cowin, M. Dupuis, K. B. Eisenthal, J. A. Franz, M. S. Gutowski, K. D. Jordan, B. D. Kay, J. A. La Verne, S. V. Lymar, T. E. Madey, C. W. McCurdy, D. Meisel, S. Mukamel, A. R. Nilsson, T. M. Orlando, N. G. Petrik, S. M. Pimblott, J. R. Rustad, G. K. Schenter, S. J. Singer, A. Tokmakoff, L.-S. Wang, C. Wettig, and T. S. Zwier, “Role of Water in Electron-Initiated Processes and Radical Chemistry: Issues and Scientific Advances,” Chem. Rev. 105, 355–390 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ertmer, W.

J. Baumgart, K. Kuetemeyer, W. Bintig, A. Ngezahayo, W. Ertmer, H. Lubatschowski, and A. Heisterkamp, “Repetition rate dependency of reactive oxygen species formation during femtosecond laser based cell surgery,“ J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 5 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Baumgart, W. Bintig, A. Ngezahayo, S. Willenbrock, H. Murua Escobar, W. Ertmer, H. Lubatschowski, and A. Heisterkamp, “Quantified femtosecond laser based opto-perforation of living GFSHR-17 and MTH53a cells,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3021–3031 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Heisterkamp, T. Ripken, T. Mammom, W. Drommer, H. Welling, W. Ertmer, and H. Lubatschowski, “Nonlinear side effects of fs pulses inside corneal tissue during photodisruption,“ Appl. Phys. B 74, 1–7 (2002).
[Crossref]

G. Maatz, A. Heisterkamp, H. Lubatschowski, S. Barcikowski, C. Fallnich, H. Welling, and W. Ertmer, “Chemical and physical side effects at application of ultrashort laser pulses for intrastromal refravtive surgery,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 59–64 (2000).
[Crossref]

Fallnich, C.

G. Maatz, A. Heisterkamp, H. Lubatschowski, S. Barcikowski, C. Fallnich, H. Welling, and W. Ertmer, “Chemical and physical side effects at application of ultrashort laser pulses for intrastromal refravtive surgery,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 59–64 (2000).
[Crossref]

Fischer, P.

D. Stevenson, B. Agate, X. Tsampoula, P. Fischer, C. T. A. Brown, W. Sibbet, A. Riches, F. Gunn-Moore, and K. Dholakia, “Femtosecond optical transfection of cells: viability and efficiency,” Opt. Express 14, 7125–7133 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Koenig, I. Riemann, P. Fischer, and K. Halbhuber, “Intracellular Nanosurgery With Near Infrared Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Cell. Mol. Biol. 45, 192–201 (1999).

Franz, J. A.

B. C. Garret, D. A. Dixon, D. M. Camaioni, D. M. Chipman, M. A. Johnson, C. D. Jonah, G. A. Kimmel, J. H. Miller, T. N. Rescigno, P. J. Rossky, S. S. Xantheas, S. D. Colson, A. H. Laufer, D. Ray, P. F. Barbara, D. M. Bartels, K. H. Becker, K. H. Bowen, S. E. Bradforth, I. Carmichael, J. V. Coe, L. R. Corrales, J. P. Cowin, M. Dupuis, K. B. Eisenthal, J. A. Franz, M. S. Gutowski, K. D. Jordan, B. D. Kay, J. A. La Verne, S. V. Lymar, T. E. Madey, C. W. McCurdy, D. Meisel, S. Mukamel, A. R. Nilsson, T. M. Orlando, N. G. Petrik, S. M. Pimblott, J. R. Rustad, G. K. Schenter, S. J. Singer, A. Tokmakoff, L.-S. Wang, C. Wettig, and T. S. Zwier, “Role of Water in Electron-Initiated Processes and Radical Chemistry: Issues and Scientific Advances,” Chem. Rev. 105, 355–390 (2005).
[Crossref]

Frederiksen, P. K.

P. K. Frederiksen, M. Jorgensen, and P. R. Ogilby, “Two-Photon Photosensitized Production of Singlet Oxygen,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 1215–1221 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujita, K.

S. Iwanaga, N.I. Smith, K. Fujita, and S. Kawata, “Slow Ca2+ wave stimulation using low repetition rate femtosecond pulsed irradiation,” Opt. Express 14, 717–725 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Iwanaga, T. Kaneko, K. Fujita, N. I. Smith, O. Nakamura, T. Takamatsu, and S. Kawata, “Location-Dependent Photogeneration of Calcium Waves in HeLa Cells,” Cell Biochem. Biophys. 45, 167–176 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. I. Smith, K. Fujita, T. Kaneko, K. Kato, O. Nakamura, T. Takamatsu, and S. Kawata, “Generation of calcium waves in living cells by pulsed-laser-induced photodisruption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1208–1210 (2001).
[Crossref]

Garret, B. C.

B. C. Garret, D. A. Dixon, D. M. Camaioni, D. M. Chipman, M. A. Johnson, C. D. Jonah, G. A. Kimmel, J. H. Miller, T. N. Rescigno, P. J. Rossky, S. S. Xantheas, S. D. Colson, A. H. Laufer, D. Ray, P. F. Barbara, D. M. Bartels, K. H. Becker, K. H. Bowen, S. E. Bradforth, I. Carmichael, J. V. Coe, L. R. Corrales, J. P. Cowin, M. Dupuis, K. B. Eisenthal, J. A. Franz, M. S. Gutowski, K. D. Jordan, B. D. Kay, J. A. La Verne, S. V. Lymar, T. E. Madey, C. W. McCurdy, D. Meisel, S. Mukamel, A. R. Nilsson, T. M. Orlando, N. G. Petrik, S. M. Pimblott, J. R. Rustad, G. K. Schenter, S. J. Singer, A. Tokmakoff, L.-S. Wang, C. Wettig, and T. S. Zwier, “Role of Water in Electron-Initiated Processes and Radical Chemistry: Issues and Scientific Advances,” Chem. Rev. 105, 355–390 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gu, M.

C. Cranfield, Z. Bomzon, D. Day, M. Gu, and S. Cartmell, “Mechanical Strains Induced in Osteoblasts by Use of Point Femtosecond Laser Targeting,” Int. J. Biomed. Imaging 21304, 1–6 (2006).
[Crossref]

Guenter, M.

D. Day, C. Cranfield, and M. Guenter, “High-speed fluorescence imaging an d intensity profiling of femtosecond-induced calcium transients,” Int. J. Biomed. Imaging 93438, (2006).

Gunn-Moore, F.

Gutowski, M. S.

B. C. Garret, D. A. Dixon, D. M. Camaioni, D. M. Chipman, M. A. Johnson, C. D. Jonah, G. A. Kimmel, J. H. Miller, T. N. Rescigno, P. J. Rossky, S. S. Xantheas, S. D. Colson, A. H. Laufer, D. Ray, P. F. Barbara, D. M. Bartels, K. H. Becker, K. H. Bowen, S. E. Bradforth, I. Carmichael, J. V. Coe, L. R. Corrales, J. P. Cowin, M. Dupuis, K. B. Eisenthal, J. A. Franz, M. S. Gutowski, K. D. Jordan, B. D. Kay, J. A. La Verne, S. V. Lymar, T. E. Madey, C. W. McCurdy, D. Meisel, S. Mukamel, A. R. Nilsson, T. M. Orlando, N. G. Petrik, S. M. Pimblott, J. R. Rustad, G. K. Schenter, S. J. Singer, A. Tokmakoff, L.-S. Wang, C. Wettig, and T. S. Zwier, “Role of Water in Electron-Initiated Processes and Radical Chemistry: Issues and Scientific Advances,” Chem. Rev. 105, 355–390 (2005).
[Crossref]

Halbhuber, K.

K. Koenig, I. Riemann, P. Fischer, and K. Halbhuber, “Intracellular Nanosurgery With Near Infrared Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Cell. Mol. Biol. 45, 192–201 (1999).

Heisterkamp, A.

J. Baumgart, K. Kuetemeyer, W. Bintig, A. Ngezahayo, W. Ertmer, H. Lubatschowski, and A. Heisterkamp, “Repetition rate dependency of reactive oxygen species formation during femtosecond laser based cell surgery,“ J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 5 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Baumgart, W. Bintig, A. Ngezahayo, S. Willenbrock, H. Murua Escobar, W. Ertmer, H. Lubatschowski, and A. Heisterkamp, “Quantified femtosecond laser based opto-perforation of living GFSHR-17 and MTH53a cells,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3021–3031 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Heisterkamp, T. Ripken, T. Mammom, W. Drommer, H. Welling, W. Ertmer, and H. Lubatschowski, “Nonlinear side effects of fs pulses inside corneal tissue during photodisruption,“ Appl. Phys. B 74, 1–7 (2002).
[Crossref]

G. Maatz, A. Heisterkamp, H. Lubatschowski, S. Barcikowski, C. Fallnich, H. Welling, and W. Ertmer, “Chemical and physical side effects at application of ultrashort laser pulses for intrastromal refravtive surgery,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 59–64 (2000).
[Crossref]

Hell, S. W.

H. J. Koester, D. Baur, R. Uhl, and S. W. Hell, “Ca2+ fluorescence imaging with pico- and femtosecond two-photon excitation: signal and photodamge,” Biophys. J. 77(4), 2226–2236 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Herron, J.M.

E.R. Resnik, M. Keck, D.J. Sukovich, J.M. Herron, and D.N. Cornfield, “Chronic intrauterine pulmonary hypertension increases capacitative calcium entry in fetal pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells,” Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol. 292(4), L953–L959 (2007).
[Crossref]

Huettman, G.

A. Vogel, J. Noack, G. Huettman, and G. Paltauf, “Mechanisms of femtosecond laser nanosurgery of cells and tissues,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 1015–1047 (2005).
[Crossref]

Iwanaga, S.

S. Iwanaga, N.I. Smith, K. Fujita, and S. Kawata, “Slow Ca2+ wave stimulation using low repetition rate femtosecond pulsed irradiation,” Opt. Express 14, 717–725 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Iwanaga, T. Kaneko, K. Fujita, N. I. Smith, O. Nakamura, T. Takamatsu, and S. Kawata, “Location-Dependent Photogeneration of Calcium Waves in HeLa Cells,” Cell Biochem. Biophys. 45, 167–176 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Johnson, M. A.

B. C. Garret, D. A. Dixon, D. M. Camaioni, D. M. Chipman, M. A. Johnson, C. D. Jonah, G. A. Kimmel, J. H. Miller, T. N. Rescigno, P. J. Rossky, S. S. Xantheas, S. D. Colson, A. H. Laufer, D. Ray, P. F. Barbara, D. M. Bartels, K. H. Becker, K. H. Bowen, S. E. Bradforth, I. Carmichael, J. V. Coe, L. R. Corrales, J. P. Cowin, M. Dupuis, K. B. Eisenthal, J. A. Franz, M. S. Gutowski, K. D. Jordan, B. D. Kay, J. A. La Verne, S. V. Lymar, T. E. Madey, C. W. McCurdy, D. Meisel, S. Mukamel, A. R. Nilsson, T. M. Orlando, N. G. Petrik, S. M. Pimblott, J. R. Rustad, G. K. Schenter, S. J. Singer, A. Tokmakoff, L.-S. Wang, C. Wettig, and T. S. Zwier, “Role of Water in Electron-Initiated Processes and Radical Chemistry: Issues and Scientific Advances,” Chem. Rev. 105, 355–390 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jonah, C. D.

B. C. Garret, D. A. Dixon, D. M. Camaioni, D. M. Chipman, M. A. Johnson, C. D. Jonah, G. A. Kimmel, J. H. Miller, T. N. Rescigno, P. J. Rossky, S. S. Xantheas, S. D. Colson, A. H. Laufer, D. Ray, P. F. Barbara, D. M. Bartels, K. H. Becker, K. H. Bowen, S. E. Bradforth, I. Carmichael, J. V. Coe, L. R. Corrales, J. P. Cowin, M. Dupuis, K. B. Eisenthal, J. A. Franz, M. S. Gutowski, K. D. Jordan, B. D. Kay, J. A. La Verne, S. V. Lymar, T. E. Madey, C. W. McCurdy, D. Meisel, S. Mukamel, A. R. Nilsson, T. M. Orlando, N. G. Petrik, S. M. Pimblott, J. R. Rustad, G. K. Schenter, S. J. Singer, A. Tokmakoff, L.-S. Wang, C. Wettig, and T. S. Zwier, “Role of Water in Electron-Initiated Processes and Radical Chemistry: Issues and Scientific Advances,” Chem. Rev. 105, 355–390 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jordan, K. D.

B. C. Garret, D. A. Dixon, D. M. Camaioni, D. M. Chipman, M. A. Johnson, C. D. Jonah, G. A. Kimmel, J. H. Miller, T. N. Rescigno, P. J. Rossky, S. S. Xantheas, S. D. Colson, A. H. Laufer, D. Ray, P. F. Barbara, D. M. Bartels, K. H. Becker, K. H. Bowen, S. E. Bradforth, I. Carmichael, J. V. Coe, L. R. Corrales, J. P. Cowin, M. Dupuis, K. B. Eisenthal, J. A. Franz, M. S. Gutowski, K. D. Jordan, B. D. Kay, J. A. La Verne, S. V. Lymar, T. E. Madey, C. W. McCurdy, D. Meisel, S. Mukamel, A. R. Nilsson, T. M. Orlando, N. G. Petrik, S. M. Pimblott, J. R. Rustad, G. K. Schenter, S. J. Singer, A. Tokmakoff, L.-S. Wang, C. Wettig, and T. S. Zwier, “Role of Water in Electron-Initiated Processes and Radical Chemistry: Issues and Scientific Advances,” Chem. Rev. 105, 355–390 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jorgensen, M.

P. K. Frederiksen, M. Jorgensen, and P. R. Ogilby, “Two-Photon Photosensitized Production of Singlet Oxygen,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 1215–1221 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kaneko, T.

S. Iwanaga, T. Kaneko, K. Fujita, N. I. Smith, O. Nakamura, T. Takamatsu, and S. Kawata, “Location-Dependent Photogeneration of Calcium Waves in HeLa Cells,” Cell Biochem. Biophys. 45, 167–176 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. I. Smith, K. Fujita, T. Kaneko, K. Kato, O. Nakamura, T. Takamatsu, and S. Kawata, “Generation of calcium waves in living cells by pulsed-laser-induced photodisruption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1208–1210 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kato, K.

N. I. Smith, K. Fujita, T. Kaneko, K. Kato, O. Nakamura, T. Takamatsu, and S. Kawata, “Generation of calcium waves in living cells by pulsed-laser-induced photodisruption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1208–1210 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kawata, S.

S. Iwanaga, T. Kaneko, K. Fujita, N. I. Smith, O. Nakamura, T. Takamatsu, and S. Kawata, “Location-Dependent Photogeneration of Calcium Waves in HeLa Cells,” Cell Biochem. Biophys. 45, 167–176 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

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K. Koenig, I. Riemann, P. Fischer, and K. Halbhuber, “Intracellular Nanosurgery With Near Infrared Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Cell. Mol. Biol. 45, 192–201 (1999).

Ripken, T.

A. Heisterkamp, T. Ripken, T. Mammom, W. Drommer, H. Welling, W. Ertmer, and H. Lubatschowski, “Nonlinear side effects of fs pulses inside corneal tissue during photodisruption,“ Appl. Phys. B 74, 1–7 (2002).
[Crossref]

Rossky, P. J.

B. C. Garret, D. A. Dixon, D. M. Camaioni, D. M. Chipman, M. A. Johnson, C. D. Jonah, G. A. Kimmel, J. H. Miller, T. N. Rescigno, P. J. Rossky, S. S. Xantheas, S. D. Colson, A. H. Laufer, D. Ray, P. F. Barbara, D. M. Bartels, K. H. Becker, K. H. Bowen, S. E. Bradforth, I. Carmichael, J. V. Coe, L. R. Corrales, J. P. Cowin, M. Dupuis, K. B. Eisenthal, J. A. Franz, M. S. Gutowski, K. D. Jordan, B. D. Kay, J. A. La Verne, S. V. Lymar, T. E. Madey, C. W. McCurdy, D. Meisel, S. Mukamel, A. R. Nilsson, T. M. Orlando, N. G. Petrik, S. M. Pimblott, J. R. Rustad, G. K. Schenter, S. J. Singer, A. Tokmakoff, L.-S. Wang, C. Wettig, and T. S. Zwier, “Role of Water in Electron-Initiated Processes and Radical Chemistry: Issues and Scientific Advances,” Chem. Rev. 105, 355–390 (2005).
[Crossref]

Rustad, J. R.

B. C. Garret, D. A. Dixon, D. M. Camaioni, D. M. Chipman, M. A. Johnson, C. D. Jonah, G. A. Kimmel, J. H. Miller, T. N. Rescigno, P. J. Rossky, S. S. Xantheas, S. D. Colson, A. H. Laufer, D. Ray, P. F. Barbara, D. M. Bartels, K. H. Becker, K. H. Bowen, S. E. Bradforth, I. Carmichael, J. V. Coe, L. R. Corrales, J. P. Cowin, M. Dupuis, K. B. Eisenthal, J. A. Franz, M. S. Gutowski, K. D. Jordan, B. D. Kay, J. A. La Verne, S. V. Lymar, T. E. Madey, C. W. McCurdy, D. Meisel, S. Mukamel, A. R. Nilsson, T. M. Orlando, N. G. Petrik, S. M. Pimblott, J. R. Rustad, G. K. Schenter, S. J. Singer, A. Tokmakoff, L.-S. Wang, C. Wettig, and T. S. Zwier, “Role of Water in Electron-Initiated Processes and Radical Chemistry: Issues and Scientific Advances,” Chem. Rev. 105, 355–390 (2005).
[Crossref]

Schenter, G. K.

B. C. Garret, D. A. Dixon, D. M. Camaioni, D. M. Chipman, M. A. Johnson, C. D. Jonah, G. A. Kimmel, J. H. Miller, T. N. Rescigno, P. J. Rossky, S. S. Xantheas, S. D. Colson, A. H. Laufer, D. Ray, P. F. Barbara, D. M. Bartels, K. H. Becker, K. H. Bowen, S. E. Bradforth, I. Carmichael, J. V. Coe, L. R. Corrales, J. P. Cowin, M. Dupuis, K. B. Eisenthal, J. A. Franz, M. S. Gutowski, K. D. Jordan, B. D. Kay, J. A. La Verne, S. V. Lymar, T. E. Madey, C. W. McCurdy, D. Meisel, S. Mukamel, A. R. Nilsson, T. M. Orlando, N. G. Petrik, S. M. Pimblott, J. R. Rustad, G. K. Schenter, S. J. Singer, A. Tokmakoff, L.-S. Wang, C. Wettig, and T. S. Zwier, “Role of Water in Electron-Initiated Processes and Radical Chemistry: Issues and Scientific Advances,” Chem. Rev. 105, 355–390 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sibbet, W.

Singer, S. J.

B. C. Garret, D. A. Dixon, D. M. Camaioni, D. M. Chipman, M. A. Johnson, C. D. Jonah, G. A. Kimmel, J. H. Miller, T. N. Rescigno, P. J. Rossky, S. S. Xantheas, S. D. Colson, A. H. Laufer, D. Ray, P. F. Barbara, D. M. Bartels, K. H. Becker, K. H. Bowen, S. E. Bradforth, I. Carmichael, J. V. Coe, L. R. Corrales, J. P. Cowin, M. Dupuis, K. B. Eisenthal, J. A. Franz, M. S. Gutowski, K. D. Jordan, B. D. Kay, J. A. La Verne, S. V. Lymar, T. E. Madey, C. W. McCurdy, D. Meisel, S. Mukamel, A. R. Nilsson, T. M. Orlando, N. G. Petrik, S. M. Pimblott, J. R. Rustad, G. K. Schenter, S. J. Singer, A. Tokmakoff, L.-S. Wang, C. Wettig, and T. S. Zwier, “Role of Water in Electron-Initiated Processes and Radical Chemistry: Issues and Scientific Advances,” Chem. Rev. 105, 355–390 (2005).
[Crossref]

Smith, N. I.

S. Iwanaga, T. Kaneko, K. Fujita, N. I. Smith, O. Nakamura, T. Takamatsu, and S. Kawata, “Location-Dependent Photogeneration of Calcium Waves in HeLa Cells,” Cell Biochem. Biophys. 45, 167–176 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. I. Smith, K. Fujita, T. Kaneko, K. Kato, O. Nakamura, T. Takamatsu, and S. Kawata, “Generation of calcium waves in living cells by pulsed-laser-induced photodisruption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1208–1210 (2001).
[Crossref]

Smith, N.I.

Stevenson, D.

Strickler, J.H.

W. Denk, J.H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-Photon Laser Scanning Fluorescence Microscopy,” Science 248, 73–76 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sukovich, D.J.

E.R. Resnik, M. Keck, D.J. Sukovich, J.M. Herron, and D.N. Cornfield, “Chronic intrauterine pulmonary hypertension increases capacitative calcium entry in fetal pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells,” Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol. 292(4), L953–L959 (2007).
[Crossref]

Takamatsu, T.

S. Iwanaga, T. Kaneko, K. Fujita, N. I. Smith, O. Nakamura, T. Takamatsu, and S. Kawata, “Location-Dependent Photogeneration of Calcium Waves in HeLa Cells,” Cell Biochem. Biophys. 45, 167–176 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. I. Smith, K. Fujita, T. Kaneko, K. Kato, O. Nakamura, T. Takamatsu, and S. Kawata, “Generation of calcium waves in living cells by pulsed-laser-induced photodisruption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1208–1210 (2001).
[Crossref]

Tirlapur, U. K.

U. K. Tirlapur and K. Konig, “Targeted transfection by femtosecond laser,” Nature 418, 290–291 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tokmakoff, A.

B. C. Garret, D. A. Dixon, D. M. Camaioni, D. M. Chipman, M. A. Johnson, C. D. Jonah, G. A. Kimmel, J. H. Miller, T. N. Rescigno, P. J. Rossky, S. S. Xantheas, S. D. Colson, A. H. Laufer, D. Ray, P. F. Barbara, D. M. Bartels, K. H. Becker, K. H. Bowen, S. E. Bradforth, I. Carmichael, J. V. Coe, L. R. Corrales, J. P. Cowin, M. Dupuis, K. B. Eisenthal, J. A. Franz, M. S. Gutowski, K. D. Jordan, B. D. Kay, J. A. La Verne, S. V. Lymar, T. E. Madey, C. W. McCurdy, D. Meisel, S. Mukamel, A. R. Nilsson, T. M. Orlando, N. G. Petrik, S. M. Pimblott, J. R. Rustad, G. K. Schenter, S. J. Singer, A. Tokmakoff, L.-S. Wang, C. Wettig, and T. S. Zwier, “Role of Water in Electron-Initiated Processes and Radical Chemistry: Issues and Scientific Advances,” Chem. Rev. 105, 355–390 (2005).
[Crossref]

Tsampoula, X.

Uhl, R.

H. J. Koester, D. Baur, R. Uhl, and S. W. Hell, “Ca2+ fluorescence imaging with pico- and femtosecond two-photon excitation: signal and photodamge,” Biophys. J. 77(4), 2226–2236 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vogel, A.

A. Vogel, J. Noack, G. Huettman, and G. Paltauf, “Mechanisms of femtosecond laser nanosurgery of cells and tissues,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 1015–1047 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.-S.

B. C. Garret, D. A. Dixon, D. M. Camaioni, D. M. Chipman, M. A. Johnson, C. D. Jonah, G. A. Kimmel, J. H. Miller, T. N. Rescigno, P. J. Rossky, S. S. Xantheas, S. D. Colson, A. H. Laufer, D. Ray, P. F. Barbara, D. M. Bartels, K. H. Becker, K. H. Bowen, S. E. Bradforth, I. Carmichael, J. V. Coe, L. R. Corrales, J. P. Cowin, M. Dupuis, K. B. Eisenthal, J. A. Franz, M. S. Gutowski, K. D. Jordan, B. D. Kay, J. A. La Verne, S. V. Lymar, T. E. Madey, C. W. McCurdy, D. Meisel, S. Mukamel, A. R. Nilsson, T. M. Orlando, N. G. Petrik, S. M. Pimblott, J. R. Rustad, G. K. Schenter, S. J. Singer, A. Tokmakoff, L.-S. Wang, C. Wettig, and T. S. Zwier, “Role of Water in Electron-Initiated Processes and Radical Chemistry: Issues and Scientific Advances,” Chem. Rev. 105, 355–390 (2005).
[Crossref]

Webb, W. W.

W. Denk, J.H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-Photon Laser Scanning Fluorescence Microscopy,” Science 248, 73–76 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Welling, H.

A. Heisterkamp, T. Ripken, T. Mammom, W. Drommer, H. Welling, W. Ertmer, and H. Lubatschowski, “Nonlinear side effects of fs pulses inside corneal tissue during photodisruption,“ Appl. Phys. B 74, 1–7 (2002).
[Crossref]

G. Maatz, A. Heisterkamp, H. Lubatschowski, S. Barcikowski, C. Fallnich, H. Welling, and W. Ertmer, “Chemical and physical side effects at application of ultrashort laser pulses for intrastromal refravtive surgery,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 59–64 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wettig, C.

B. C. Garret, D. A. Dixon, D. M. Camaioni, D. M. Chipman, M. A. Johnson, C. D. Jonah, G. A. Kimmel, J. H. Miller, T. N. Rescigno, P. J. Rossky, S. S. Xantheas, S. D. Colson, A. H. Laufer, D. Ray, P. F. Barbara, D. M. Bartels, K. H. Becker, K. H. Bowen, S. E. Bradforth, I. Carmichael, J. V. Coe, L. R. Corrales, J. P. Cowin, M. Dupuis, K. B. Eisenthal, J. A. Franz, M. S. Gutowski, K. D. Jordan, B. D. Kay, J. A. La Verne, S. V. Lymar, T. E. Madey, C. W. McCurdy, D. Meisel, S. Mukamel, A. R. Nilsson, T. M. Orlando, N. G. Petrik, S. M. Pimblott, J. R. Rustad, G. K. Schenter, S. J. Singer, A. Tokmakoff, L.-S. Wang, C. Wettig, and T. S. Zwier, “Role of Water in Electron-Initiated Processes and Radical Chemistry: Issues and Scientific Advances,” Chem. Rev. 105, 355–390 (2005).
[Crossref]

Willenbrock, S.

Xantheas, S. S.

B. C. Garret, D. A. Dixon, D. M. Camaioni, D. M. Chipman, M. A. Johnson, C. D. Jonah, G. A. Kimmel, J. H. Miller, T. N. Rescigno, P. J. Rossky, S. S. Xantheas, S. D. Colson, A. H. Laufer, D. Ray, P. F. Barbara, D. M. Bartels, K. H. Becker, K. H. Bowen, S. E. Bradforth, I. Carmichael, J. V. Coe, L. R. Corrales, J. P. Cowin, M. Dupuis, K. B. Eisenthal, J. A. Franz, M. S. Gutowski, K. D. Jordan, B. D. Kay, J. A. La Verne, S. V. Lymar, T. E. Madey, C. W. McCurdy, D. Meisel, S. Mukamel, A. R. Nilsson, T. M. Orlando, N. G. Petrik, S. M. Pimblott, J. R. Rustad, G. K. Schenter, S. J. Singer, A. Tokmakoff, L.-S. Wang, C. Wettig, and T. S. Zwier, “Role of Water in Electron-Initiated Processes and Radical Chemistry: Issues and Scientific Advances,” Chem. Rev. 105, 355–390 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zwier, T. S.

B. C. Garret, D. A. Dixon, D. M. Camaioni, D. M. Chipman, M. A. Johnson, C. D. Jonah, G. A. Kimmel, J. H. Miller, T. N. Rescigno, P. J. Rossky, S. S. Xantheas, S. D. Colson, A. H. Laufer, D. Ray, P. F. Barbara, D. M. Bartels, K. H. Becker, K. H. Bowen, S. E. Bradforth, I. Carmichael, J. V. Coe, L. R. Corrales, J. P. Cowin, M. Dupuis, K. B. Eisenthal, J. A. Franz, M. S. Gutowski, K. D. Jordan, B. D. Kay, J. A. La Verne, S. V. Lymar, T. E. Madey, C. W. McCurdy, D. Meisel, S. Mukamel, A. R. Nilsson, T. M. Orlando, N. G. Petrik, S. M. Pimblott, J. R. Rustad, G. K. Schenter, S. J. Singer, A. Tokmakoff, L.-S. Wang, C. Wettig, and T. S. Zwier, “Role of Water in Electron-Initiated Processes and Radical Chemistry: Issues and Scientific Advances,” Chem. Rev. 105, 355–390 (2005).
[Crossref]

Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol. (1)

E.R. Resnik, M. Keck, D.J. Sukovich, J.M. Herron, and D.N. Cornfield, “Chronic intrauterine pulmonary hypertension increases capacitative calcium entry in fetal pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells,” Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol. 292(4), L953–L959 (2007).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

A. Vogel, J. Noack, G. Huettman, and G. Paltauf, “Mechanisms of femtosecond laser nanosurgery of cells and tissues,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 1015–1047 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. Heisterkamp, T. Ripken, T. Mammom, W. Drommer, H. Welling, W. Ertmer, and H. Lubatschowski, “Nonlinear side effects of fs pulses inside corneal tissue during photodisruption,“ Appl. Phys. B 74, 1–7 (2002).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

N. I. Smith, K. Fujita, T. Kaneko, K. Kato, O. Nakamura, T. Takamatsu, and S. Kawata, “Generation of calcium waves in living cells by pulsed-laser-induced photodisruption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1208–1210 (2001).
[Crossref]

Biophys. J. (1)

H. J. Koester, D. Baur, R. Uhl, and S. W. Hell, “Ca2+ fluorescence imaging with pico- and femtosecond two-photon excitation: signal and photodamge,” Biophys. J. 77(4), 2226–2236 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cell Biochem. Biophys. (1)

S. Iwanaga, T. Kaneko, K. Fujita, N. I. Smith, O. Nakamura, T. Takamatsu, and S. Kawata, “Location-Dependent Photogeneration of Calcium Waves in HeLa Cells,” Cell Biochem. Biophys. 45, 167–176 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cell. Mol. Biol. (1)

K. Koenig, I. Riemann, P. Fischer, and K. Halbhuber, “Intracellular Nanosurgery With Near Infrared Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Cell. Mol. Biol. 45, 192–201 (1999).

Chem. Rev. (1)

B. C. Garret, D. A. Dixon, D. M. Camaioni, D. M. Chipman, M. A. Johnson, C. D. Jonah, G. A. Kimmel, J. H. Miller, T. N. Rescigno, P. J. Rossky, S. S. Xantheas, S. D. Colson, A. H. Laufer, D. Ray, P. F. Barbara, D. M. Bartels, K. H. Becker, K. H. Bowen, S. E. Bradforth, I. Carmichael, J. V. Coe, L. R. Corrales, J. P. Cowin, M. Dupuis, K. B. Eisenthal, J. A. Franz, M. S. Gutowski, K. D. Jordan, B. D. Kay, J. A. La Verne, S. V. Lymar, T. E. Madey, C. W. McCurdy, D. Meisel, S. Mukamel, A. R. Nilsson, T. M. Orlando, N. G. Petrik, S. M. Pimblott, J. R. Rustad, G. K. Schenter, S. J. Singer, A. Tokmakoff, L.-S. Wang, C. Wettig, and T. S. Zwier, “Role of Water in Electron-Initiated Processes and Radical Chemistry: Issues and Scientific Advances,” Chem. Rev. 105, 355–390 (2005).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Biomed. Imaging (2)

D. Day, C. Cranfield, and M. Guenter, “High-speed fluorescence imaging an d intensity profiling of femtosecond-induced calcium transients,” Int. J. Biomed. Imaging 93438, (2006).

C. Cranfield, Z. Bomzon, D. Day, M. Gu, and S. Cartmell, “Mechanical Strains Induced in Osteoblasts by Use of Point Femtosecond Laser Targeting,” Int. J. Biomed. Imaging 21304, 1–6 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

P. K. Frederiksen, M. Jorgensen, and P. R. Ogilby, “Two-Photon Photosensitized Production of Singlet Oxygen,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 123, 1215–1221 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

J. Baumgart, K. Kuetemeyer, W. Bintig, A. Ngezahayo, W. Ertmer, H. Lubatschowski, and A. Heisterkamp, “Repetition rate dependency of reactive oxygen species formation during femtosecond laser based cell surgery,“ J. Biomed. Opt. 14, 5 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

G. Maatz, A. Heisterkamp, H. Lubatschowski, S. Barcikowski, C. Fallnich, H. Welling, and W. Ertmer, “Chemical and physical side effects at application of ultrashort laser pulses for intrastromal refravtive surgery,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 2, 59–64 (2000).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

M. J. Berridge, M. D. Bootman, and P. Lipp, “Calcium - a life and death signal,” Nature 395, 645–648 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. K. Tirlapur and K. Konig, “Targeted transfection by femtosecond laser,” Nature 418, 290–291 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Pflügers Arch. (1)

M.G. Mozhayeva, “[Ca2+]i elevation evoked by Ca2+ readdition to the medium after agonist induced Ca2+ release can involve both IP3-, and ryanodine-sensitive Ca2+ release,” Pflügers Arch. 433(1–2), 180–187 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pflügers Arch. - Eur. J. Physiol. (1)

M. Mozhayeva and K. Kiselyov, “Involvement of Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release in the biphasic Ca2+ response evoked by readdition of Ca2+ to the medium after UTP-induced store depletion in A431 cells,” Pflügers Arch. - Eur. J. Physiol. 435, 859–864 (1998).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

W. Denk, J.H. Strickler, and W. W. Webb, “Two-Photon Laser Scanning Fluorescence Microscopy,” Science 248, 73–76 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic setup for the manipulation and the multiphoton imaging of single cells.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (Color online) The percentage of cells that showed the Ca2+ concentration behavior of the different groups due to membrane perforation (see also Fig. 3) A) at 40 kHz and B) at 4 MHz repetition rate. The membrane was perforated three times at a pulse energy of 1.0 nJ or 1.5 nJ. The blue bars represent the percentage of cells, that were manipulated in NaCl-BS, the red bars represent those cells perforated in Ca2+ free NaCl-Bs containing EGTA. At 1.0 nJ pulse energy: n = 25 and 13 at 40 kHz repetition rate with and without Ca2+ in the NaCl-Bs respectively, n = 29 and 9 at 4 MHz with and without Ca2+ in the NaCl-BS respectively. At 1.5 nJ pulse energy: n = 16 and 12 at 40 kHz repetition rate with and without Ca2+ in the NaCl-Bs respectively, n = 16 and 12 at 4 MHz with and without Ca2+ in the NaCl-BS respectively.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (Color online) Relative Ca2+ concentration increase after membrane perforation. Representative diagrams of the different groups of results obtained at 1.0 nJ pulse energy and 40 kHz repetition rate. A) Behavior of Fluo-4 labeled endothelial cells in group 1, the manipulation was followed by an increase of fluorescence intensity which slowly declined back to the control level. B) Ca2+ induced Ca2+ release due to previous Ca2+ uptake (group 2). C) Group 3 represents the superposition of intra- and extracellular Ca2+ on the concentration change which is characterized by an intensity peak that declines rapidly. The peak was so rapid that we could not discriminate it from the first increase shown in (B). D) Intracellular Ca2+ release due to exposure in Ca2+ free NaCl-BS containing EGTA (group 4). E) The first increase could be suppressed if the manipulation was performed in presence of EGTA in the bath solution in group 5. In this case a continuous slow decline of the fluorescence intensity was observed suggesting a Ca2+ efflux and a probable uptake of EGTA. In this group of cells, the manipulation did not affect the fluorescence of the fluo-4, indicating that the optoperforation could be achieved without change in the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration in the cells. F) No change of the fluorescence intensity due to the manipulation was observed. The laser exposure is indicated by the black dotted line. (n = 3 to 5, error bars represent standard error of the mean)
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (Color online) Relative Ca2+ concentration increase after membrane perforation at 1.5 nJ pulse energy and 4 MHz repetition rate, representing group 3. It shows the superposition of intra- and extracellular Ca2+ on the concentration change which is characterized by an intensity peak that declines rapidly but in 3 cells out of 5, it was not reduced to the initial level. As indicated by the high standard error of the mean, the level to where the Ca2+ concentration is reduced or to which it even increases is not constant. (n = 5, error bars represent standard error of the mean)
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (Color online) Representative example of Ca2+ oscillations after manipulation in group 2. The fluorescence intensity of one perforated (blue rhombus) and one control cell (red square) are shown. The initial fluorescence intensity before manipulation is normalized to zero. The Ca2+ concentration of the control cell stays constant whereas the concentration of the perforated cell oscillates even after the initial level was achieved at about 450 s. The dotted black line indicates the laser irradiation time.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. The different groups of Ca2+ concentration behavior due to the laser exposure and the source of Ca2+ for the concentration change (+ = takes place, - = does not take place): The influx of extracellular Ca2+ (Ca2+ influx), the laser induced intracellular Ca2+ release (LICR), the Ca2+ induced Ca2+ release (CICR), the efflux of intracellular Ca2+ (Ca2+ efflux), the location of the laser focus (+ = location near the nucleus, - = location far from the nucleus), and the presence of extracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]0).

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