Abstract

A large-area photosensor is presented that uses the coupling of light into the planar waveguide mode of a polycarbonate foil by luminescent dyes to extend the active area of silicon photodiodes attached to the surface of the foil in a regular pattern. The photodiode signal is directly related to the distance between the point where light is coupled into the foil and the photodiode, thus enabling a precise recovery of the position of a localized light signal hitting the foil. We present a large-area device that can trace the movement of a light point generated by a laser pointer hitting its surface.

© 2010 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. C. Kalonia, G. Mitra, A. Kumar, R. K. Varma, M. Singh, and V. S. Sethi, “Laser-based projectile speed measurement system,” Opt. Eng. 46(4), 044303 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. N. S. Sariciftci, D. Braun, C. Zhang, V. I. Srdanov, A. J. Heeger, G. Stucky, and F. Wudl, “Semiconducting Polymer-Buckminsterfullerene Heterojunctions - Diodes, Photodiodes and Photovoltaic Cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(6), 585 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. Peumans, A. Yakimov, and S. R. Forrest, “Small molecular weight organic thin-film photodetectors and solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(7), 3693 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. Koeppe, P. Bartu, S. Bauer, and N. S. Sariciftci, “Light- and Touch-Point Localization using Flexible Large Area Organic Photodiodes and Elastomer Waveguides,” Adv. Mater. 21(34), 3510–3514 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Goetzberger and W. Greube, “Solar-Energy conversion with fluorescent collectors,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 14(2), 123–139 (1977).
  6. H. Weber and J. Lambe, “Luminescent greenhouse collector for solar radiation,” Appl. Opt. 15(10), 2299 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. I. S. Melnik and A. H. Rawicz, “Thin-film luminescent concentrators for position-sensitive devices,” Appl. Opt. 36(34), 9025–9033 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. S. Evenson, Integrated luminescent-concentrator photodetectors, Master thesis at Simon Fraser University (1994)
  9. P. Bartu, R. Koeppe, A. Neulinger, N. Arnold, and S. Bauer, Department of Soft Matter Physics JKU Linz, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Conformable large-area position-sensitive photodetectors based on luminescence-collecting silicone waveguides”
  10. Application examples can be found at www.isiqiri.com

2009 (1)

R. Koeppe, P. Bartu, S. Bauer, and N. S. Sariciftci, “Light- and Touch-Point Localization using Flexible Large Area Organic Photodiodes and Elastomer Waveguides,” Adv. Mater. 21(34), 3510–3514 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

R. C. Kalonia, G. Mitra, A. Kumar, R. K. Varma, M. Singh, and V. S. Sethi, “Laser-based projectile speed measurement system,” Opt. Eng. 46(4), 044303 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

P. Peumans, A. Yakimov, and S. R. Forrest, “Small molecular weight organic thin-film photodetectors and solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(7), 3693 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

I. S. Melnik and A. H. Rawicz, “Thin-film luminescent concentrators for position-sensitive devices,” Appl. Opt. 36(34), 9025–9033 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

N. S. Sariciftci, D. Braun, C. Zhang, V. I. Srdanov, A. J. Heeger, G. Stucky, and F. Wudl, “Semiconducting Polymer-Buckminsterfullerene Heterojunctions - Diodes, Photodiodes and Photovoltaic Cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(6), 585 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

A. Goetzberger and W. Greube, “Solar-Energy conversion with fluorescent collectors,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 14(2), 123–139 (1977).

1976 (1)

H. Weber and J. Lambe, “Luminescent greenhouse collector for solar radiation,” Appl. Opt. 15(10), 2299 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartu, P.

R. Koeppe, P. Bartu, S. Bauer, and N. S. Sariciftci, “Light- and Touch-Point Localization using Flexible Large Area Organic Photodiodes and Elastomer Waveguides,” Adv. Mater. 21(34), 3510–3514 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, S.

R. Koeppe, P. Bartu, S. Bauer, and N. S. Sariciftci, “Light- and Touch-Point Localization using Flexible Large Area Organic Photodiodes and Elastomer Waveguides,” Adv. Mater. 21(34), 3510–3514 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Braun, D.

N. S. Sariciftci, D. Braun, C. Zhang, V. I. Srdanov, A. J. Heeger, G. Stucky, and F. Wudl, “Semiconducting Polymer-Buckminsterfullerene Heterojunctions - Diodes, Photodiodes and Photovoltaic Cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(6), 585 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S. R.

P. Peumans, A. Yakimov, and S. R. Forrest, “Small molecular weight organic thin-film photodetectors and solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(7), 3693 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Goetzberger, A.

A. Goetzberger and W. Greube, “Solar-Energy conversion with fluorescent collectors,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 14(2), 123–139 (1977).

Greube, W.

A. Goetzberger and W. Greube, “Solar-Energy conversion with fluorescent collectors,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 14(2), 123–139 (1977).

Heeger, A. J.

N. S. Sariciftci, D. Braun, C. Zhang, V. I. Srdanov, A. J. Heeger, G. Stucky, and F. Wudl, “Semiconducting Polymer-Buckminsterfullerene Heterojunctions - Diodes, Photodiodes and Photovoltaic Cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(6), 585 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kalonia, R. C.

R. C. Kalonia, G. Mitra, A. Kumar, R. K. Varma, M. Singh, and V. S. Sethi, “Laser-based projectile speed measurement system,” Opt. Eng. 46(4), 044303 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Koeppe, R.

R. Koeppe, P. Bartu, S. Bauer, and N. S. Sariciftci, “Light- and Touch-Point Localization using Flexible Large Area Organic Photodiodes and Elastomer Waveguides,” Adv. Mater. 21(34), 3510–3514 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, A.

R. C. Kalonia, G. Mitra, A. Kumar, R. K. Varma, M. Singh, and V. S. Sethi, “Laser-based projectile speed measurement system,” Opt. Eng. 46(4), 044303 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lambe, J.

H. Weber and J. Lambe, “Luminescent greenhouse collector for solar radiation,” Appl. Opt. 15(10), 2299 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Melnik, I. S.

I. S. Melnik and A. H. Rawicz, “Thin-film luminescent concentrators for position-sensitive devices,” Appl. Opt. 36(34), 9025–9033 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mitra, G.

R. C. Kalonia, G. Mitra, A. Kumar, R. K. Varma, M. Singh, and V. S. Sethi, “Laser-based projectile speed measurement system,” Opt. Eng. 46(4), 044303 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Peumans, P.

P. Peumans, A. Yakimov, and S. R. Forrest, “Small molecular weight organic thin-film photodetectors and solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(7), 3693 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rawicz, A. H.

I. S. Melnik and A. H. Rawicz, “Thin-film luminescent concentrators for position-sensitive devices,” Appl. Opt. 36(34), 9025–9033 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sariciftci, N. S.

R. Koeppe, P. Bartu, S. Bauer, and N. S. Sariciftci, “Light- and Touch-Point Localization using Flexible Large Area Organic Photodiodes and Elastomer Waveguides,” Adv. Mater. 21(34), 3510–3514 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. S. Sariciftci, D. Braun, C. Zhang, V. I. Srdanov, A. J. Heeger, G. Stucky, and F. Wudl, “Semiconducting Polymer-Buckminsterfullerene Heterojunctions - Diodes, Photodiodes and Photovoltaic Cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(6), 585 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sethi, V. S.

R. C. Kalonia, G. Mitra, A. Kumar, R. K. Varma, M. Singh, and V. S. Sethi, “Laser-based projectile speed measurement system,” Opt. Eng. 46(4), 044303 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Singh, M.

R. C. Kalonia, G. Mitra, A. Kumar, R. K. Varma, M. Singh, and V. S. Sethi, “Laser-based projectile speed measurement system,” Opt. Eng. 46(4), 044303 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Srdanov, V. I.

N. S. Sariciftci, D. Braun, C. Zhang, V. I. Srdanov, A. J. Heeger, G. Stucky, and F. Wudl, “Semiconducting Polymer-Buckminsterfullerene Heterojunctions - Diodes, Photodiodes and Photovoltaic Cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(6), 585 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Stucky, G.

N. S. Sariciftci, D. Braun, C. Zhang, V. I. Srdanov, A. J. Heeger, G. Stucky, and F. Wudl, “Semiconducting Polymer-Buckminsterfullerene Heterojunctions - Diodes, Photodiodes and Photovoltaic Cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(6), 585 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Varma, R. K.

R. C. Kalonia, G. Mitra, A. Kumar, R. K. Varma, M. Singh, and V. S. Sethi, “Laser-based projectile speed measurement system,” Opt. Eng. 46(4), 044303 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Weber, H.

H. Weber and J. Lambe, “Luminescent greenhouse collector for solar radiation,” Appl. Opt. 15(10), 2299 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wudl, F.

N. S. Sariciftci, D. Braun, C. Zhang, V. I. Srdanov, A. J. Heeger, G. Stucky, and F. Wudl, “Semiconducting Polymer-Buckminsterfullerene Heterojunctions - Diodes, Photodiodes and Photovoltaic Cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(6), 585 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yakimov, A.

P. Peumans, A. Yakimov, and S. R. Forrest, “Small molecular weight organic thin-film photodetectors and solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(7), 3693 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

N. S. Sariciftci, D. Braun, C. Zhang, V. I. Srdanov, A. J. Heeger, G. Stucky, and F. Wudl, “Semiconducting Polymer-Buckminsterfullerene Heterojunctions - Diodes, Photodiodes and Photovoltaic Cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(6), 585 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

R. Koeppe, P. Bartu, S. Bauer, and N. S. Sariciftci, “Light- and Touch-Point Localization using Flexible Large Area Organic Photodiodes and Elastomer Waveguides,” Adv. Mater. 21(34), 3510–3514 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

H. Weber and J. Lambe, “Luminescent greenhouse collector for solar radiation,” Appl. Opt. 15(10), 2299 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. S. Melnik and A. H. Rawicz, “Thin-film luminescent concentrators for position-sensitive devices,” Appl. Opt. 36(34), 9025–9033 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. (Berl.) (1)

A. Goetzberger and W. Greube, “Solar-Energy conversion with fluorescent collectors,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 14(2), 123–139 (1977).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

N. S. Sariciftci, D. Braun, C. Zhang, V. I. Srdanov, A. J. Heeger, G. Stucky, and F. Wudl, “Semiconducting Polymer-Buckminsterfullerene Heterojunctions - Diodes, Photodiodes and Photovoltaic Cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(6), 585 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

P. Peumans, A. Yakimov, and S. R. Forrest, “Small molecular weight organic thin-film photodetectors and solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(7), 3693 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

R. C. Kalonia, G. Mitra, A. Kumar, R. K. Varma, M. Singh, and V. S. Sethi, “Laser-based projectile speed measurement system,” Opt. Eng. 46(4), 044303 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

A. S. Evenson, Integrated luminescent-concentrator photodetectors, Master thesis at Simon Fraser University (1994)

P. Bartu, R. Koeppe, A. Neulinger, N. Arnold, and S. Bauer, Department of Soft Matter Physics JKU Linz, are preparing a manuscript to be called “Conformable large-area position-sensitive photodetectors based on luminescence-collecting silicone waveguides”

Application examples can be found at www.isiqiri.com

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MOV (5197 KB)     

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

a Schematic of the device viewed from the top b Schematic of the device viewed from the side c Photograph of the device from the top

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Left column: ADC signals taken with the light spot at various distances d from the current photodiode. Right column: corresponding histograms used for determining the amplitude of the signals.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

showing the readout scheme with which the position of the light spot is determined at high speeds. (A) and (B) are threshold values that have to be calibrated for the device depending on the exact operating conditions. A video (Media 1) shows the device in operation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

a Absorbance and Photoluminescence spectrum of the polycarbonate foil doped with luminescent dyes b Sketch of the working principle of the device. The light coupled into the waveguide mode weakens while it spreads in the foil. Thus, more light is coupled out onto photodiode a, which is closer to the light point.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Amplitudes of four diode signals versus the distance of the light spot from the photodiodes. The magnitude A derived from the fit is plotted for each graph.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

a Projection of the fitted ideal amplitudes onto the x-y-plane b Projection of the measured amplitudes onto the x-y-plane

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I = A exp ( α x ) x
X P = log ( I 1 / I 4 ) + log ( I 2 / I 3 ) Y P = log ( I 1 / I 4 ) log ( I 2 / I 3 )
x = 42 . 5 ( X P 0 . 299 ( X P | Y P | ) ) y = 42 . 5 ( Y P 0 . 299 ( Y P | X P | ) )
t c y c l e = n 2 ( N t m + ( 4 n 1 t m ) )

Metrics