Abstract

A new type long period fiber grating is fabricated in all-solid photonic bandgap fiber by periodically drilling microholes using femtosecond laser pulse irradiation. Such a structure introduces a strong refractive index modulation in the waveguide structure and hence exhibits a compact grating dimension. Both the simulation and the experimental results confirm the existence of the light coupling from core mode to the LP11 cladding mode. The refractive index sensing capability of the device has been investigated and the resonant wavelength shift corresponding to the refractive index change from 1.30 to 1.35 is 23.7nm. The average refractive index sensitivity obtained is 537nm/RIU (refractive index unit).

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  1. A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(1), 58–65 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. Steinvurzel, E. D. Moore, E. C. Mägi, B. T. Kuhlmey, and B. J. Eggleton, “Long period grating resonances in photonic bandgap fiber,” Opt. Express 14(7), 3007–3014 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Y. Wang, W. Jin, J. Ju, H. Xuan, H. L. Ho, L. Xiao, and D. N. Wang, “Long period gratings in air-core photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2784–2790 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. L. Jin, Z. Wang, Y. Liu, G. Kai, and X. Dong, “Ultraviolet-inscribed long period gratings in all-solid photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express 16(25), 21119–21131 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. F. Luan, A. K. George, T. D. Hedley, G. J. Pearce, D. M. Bird, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “All-solid photonic bandgap fiber,” Opt. Lett. 29(20), 2369–2371 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Bétourné, G. Bouwmans, Y. Quiquempois, M. Perrin, and M. Douay, “Improvements of solid-core photonic bandgap fibers by means of interstitial air holes,” Opt. Lett. 32(12), 1719–1721 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Y. Li, D. N. Wang, and L. Jin, “Single-mode grating reflection in all-solid photonic bandgap fibers inscribed by use of femtosecond laser pulse irradiation through a phase mask,” Opt. Lett. 34(8), 1264–1266 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. C. Florea and K. A. Winick, “Fabrication and characterization of photonic devices directly written in glass using femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(1), 246–253 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. D. Perry, B. C. Stuart, P. S. Banks, M. D. Feit, V. Yanovsky, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Ultrashort-pulse laser machining of dielectric materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(9), 6803–6810 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Marcinkevičius, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, M. Miwa, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, and J. Nishii, “Femtosecond laser-assisted three-dimensional microfabrication in silica,” Opt. Lett. 26(5), 277–279 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. E. N. Glezer and E. Mazur, “Ultrafast-laser driven micro-explosions in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(7), 882–884 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. Li, K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, K. Yamada, D. Kuroda, J. Nishii, and Y. Jiang, “Three-dimensional hole drilling of silica glass from the rear surface with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 26(23), 1912–1914 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. van Brakel, C. Grivas, M. N. Petrovich, and D. J. Richardson, “Micro-channels machined in microstructured optical fibers by femtosecond laser,” Opt. Express 15(14), 8731–8736 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Y. Kondo, K. Nouchi, T. Mitsuyu, M. Watanabe, P. G. Kazansky, and K. Hirao, “Fabrication of long-period fiber gratings by focused irradiation of infrared femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 24(10), 646–648 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  15. A. I. Kalachev, D. N. Nikogosyan, and G. Brambilla, “Long-period fiber grating fabrication by high-intensity femtosecond pulses at 211 nm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(8), 2568–2578 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. T. Allsop, M. Dubov, A. Martinez, F. Floreani, I. Khrushchev, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Bending characteristics of fiber long-period gratings with cladding index modified by femtosecond laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(8), 3147 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  17. I. M. White and X. Fan, “On the performance quantification of resonant refractive index sensors,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1020–1028 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. J. H. Chong, P. Shum, H. Haryono, A. Yohana, M. K. Rao, and C. Lu, “Measurements of refractive index sensitivity using long-period grating refractometer,” Opt. Commun. 229(1-6), 65–69 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  19. X. Shu, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Sensitivity Characteristics of Long-Period Fiber Gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(2), 255–266 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  20. L. Rindorf and O. Bang, “Highly sensitive refractometer with a photonic-crystal-fiber long-period grating,” Opt. Lett. 33(6), 563–565 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

Y. Li, D. N. Wang, and L. Jin, “Single-mode grating reflection in all-solid photonic bandgap fibers inscribed by use of femtosecond laser pulse irradiation through a phase mask,” Opt. Lett. 34(8), 1264–1266 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

Y. Wang, W. Jin, J. Ju, H. Xuan, H. L. Ho, L. Xiao, and D. N. Wang, “Long period gratings in air-core photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2784–2790 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Jin, Z. Wang, Y. Liu, G. Kai, and X. Dong, “Ultraviolet-inscribed long period gratings in all-solid photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express 16(25), 21119–21131 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. M. White and X. Fan, “On the performance quantification of resonant refractive index sensors,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1020–1028 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Rindorf and O. Bang, “Highly sensitive refractometer with a photonic-crystal-fiber long-period grating,” Opt. Lett. 33(6), 563–565 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

A. Bétourné, G. Bouwmans, Y. Quiquempois, M. Perrin, and M. Douay, “Improvements of solid-core photonic bandgap fibers by means of interstitial air holes,” Opt. Lett. 32(12), 1719–1721 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. van Brakel, C. Grivas, M. N. Petrovich, and D. J. Richardson, “Micro-channels machined in microstructured optical fibers by femtosecond laser,” Opt. Express 15(14), 8731–8736 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

T. Allsop, M. Dubov, A. Martinez, F. Floreani, I. Khrushchev, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Bending characteristics of fiber long-period gratings with cladding index modified by femtosecond laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(8), 3147 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Steinvurzel, E. D. Moore, E. C. Mägi, B. T. Kuhlmey, and B. J. Eggleton, “Long period grating resonances in photonic bandgap fiber,” Opt. Express 14(7), 3007–3014 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

A. I. Kalachev, D. N. Nikogosyan, and G. Brambilla, “Long-period fiber grating fabrication by high-intensity femtosecond pulses at 211 nm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(8), 2568–2578 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

J. H. Chong, P. Shum, H. Haryono, A. Yohana, M. K. Rao, and C. Lu, “Measurements of refractive index sensitivity using long-period grating refractometer,” Opt. Commun. 229(1-6), 65–69 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Luan, A. K. George, T. D. Hedley, G. J. Pearce, D. M. Bird, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “All-solid photonic bandgap fiber,” Opt. Lett. 29(20), 2369–2371 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

C. Florea and K. A. Winick, “Fabrication and characterization of photonic devices directly written in glass using femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(1), 246–253 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

X. Shu, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Sensitivity Characteristics of Long-Period Fiber Gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(2), 255–266 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

Y. Li, K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, K. Yamada, D. Kuroda, J. Nishii, and Y. Jiang, “Three-dimensional hole drilling of silica glass from the rear surface with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 26(23), 1912–1914 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Marcinkevičius, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, M. Miwa, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, and J. Nishii, “Femtosecond laser-assisted three-dimensional microfabrication in silica,” Opt. Lett. 26(5), 277–279 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

M. D. Perry, B. C. Stuart, P. S. Banks, M. D. Feit, V. Yanovsky, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Ultrashort-pulse laser machining of dielectric materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(9), 6803–6810 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kondo, K. Nouchi, T. Mitsuyu, M. Watanabe, P. G. Kazansky, and K. Hirao, “Fabrication of long-period fiber gratings by focused irradiation of infrared femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 24(10), 646–648 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

E. N. Glezer and E. Mazur, “Ultrafast-laser driven micro-explosions in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(7), 882–884 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(1), 58–65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Allsop, T.

T. Allsop, M. Dubov, A. Martinez, F. Floreani, I. Khrushchev, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Bending characteristics of fiber long-period gratings with cladding index modified by femtosecond laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(8), 3147 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bang, O.

L. Rindorf and O. Bang, “Highly sensitive refractometer with a photonic-crystal-fiber long-period grating,” Opt. Lett. 33(6), 563–565 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Banks, P. S.

M. D. Perry, B. C. Stuart, P. S. Banks, M. D. Feit, V. Yanovsky, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Ultrashort-pulse laser machining of dielectric materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(9), 6803–6810 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bennion, I.

T. Allsop, M. Dubov, A. Martinez, F. Floreani, I. Khrushchev, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Bending characteristics of fiber long-period gratings with cladding index modified by femtosecond laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(8), 3147 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Shu, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Sensitivity Characteristics of Long-Period Fiber Gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(2), 255–266 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bétourné, A.

A. Bétourné, G. Bouwmans, Y. Quiquempois, M. Perrin, and M. Douay, “Improvements of solid-core photonic bandgap fibers by means of interstitial air holes,” Opt. Lett. 32(12), 1719–1721 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bhatia, V.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(1), 58–65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bird, D. M.

F. Luan, A. K. George, T. D. Hedley, G. J. Pearce, D. M. Bird, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “All-solid photonic bandgap fiber,” Opt. Lett. 29(20), 2369–2371 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouwmans, G.

A. Bétourné, G. Bouwmans, Y. Quiquempois, M. Perrin, and M. Douay, “Improvements of solid-core photonic bandgap fibers by means of interstitial air holes,” Opt. Lett. 32(12), 1719–1721 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brambilla, G.

A. I. Kalachev, D. N. Nikogosyan, and G. Brambilla, “Long-period fiber grating fabrication by high-intensity femtosecond pulses at 211 nm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(8), 2568–2578 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chong, J. H.

J. H. Chong, P. Shum, H. Haryono, A. Yohana, M. K. Rao, and C. Lu, “Measurements of refractive index sensitivity using long-period grating refractometer,” Opt. Commun. 229(1-6), 65–69 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dong, X.

L. Jin, Z. Wang, Y. Liu, G. Kai, and X. Dong, “Ultraviolet-inscribed long period gratings in all-solid photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express 16(25), 21119–21131 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Douay, M.

A. Bétourné, G. Bouwmans, Y. Quiquempois, M. Perrin, and M. Douay, “Improvements of solid-core photonic bandgap fibers by means of interstitial air holes,” Opt. Lett. 32(12), 1719–1721 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dubov, M.

T. Allsop, M. Dubov, A. Martinez, F. Floreani, I. Khrushchev, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Bending characteristics of fiber long-period gratings with cladding index modified by femtosecond laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(8), 3147 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

P. Steinvurzel, E. D. Moore, E. C. Mägi, B. T. Kuhlmey, and B. J. Eggleton, “Long period grating resonances in photonic bandgap fiber,” Opt. Express 14(7), 3007–3014 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Erdogan, T.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(1), 58–65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fan, X.

I. M. White and X. Fan, “On the performance quantification of resonant refractive index sensors,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1020–1028 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feit, M. D.

M. D. Perry, B. C. Stuart, P. S. Banks, M. D. Feit, V. Yanovsky, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Ultrashort-pulse laser machining of dielectric materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(9), 6803–6810 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Florea, C.

C. Florea and K. A. Winick, “Fabrication and characterization of photonic devices directly written in glass using femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(1), 246–253 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Floreani, F.

T. Allsop, M. Dubov, A. Martinez, F. Floreani, I. Khrushchev, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Bending characteristics of fiber long-period gratings with cladding index modified by femtosecond laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(8), 3147 (2006).
[CrossRef]

George, A. K.

F. Luan, A. K. George, T. D. Hedley, G. J. Pearce, D. M. Bird, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “All-solid photonic bandgap fiber,” Opt. Lett. 29(20), 2369–2371 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glezer, E. N.

E. N. Glezer and E. Mazur, “Ultrafast-laser driven micro-explosions in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(7), 882–884 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Grivas, C.

A. van Brakel, C. Grivas, M. N. Petrovich, and D. J. Richardson, “Micro-channels machined in microstructured optical fibers by femtosecond laser,” Opt. Express 15(14), 8731–8736 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haryono, H.

J. H. Chong, P. Shum, H. Haryono, A. Yohana, M. K. Rao, and C. Lu, “Measurements of refractive index sensitivity using long-period grating refractometer,” Opt. Commun. 229(1-6), 65–69 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hedley, T. D.

F. Luan, A. K. George, T. D. Hedley, G. J. Pearce, D. M. Bird, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “All-solid photonic bandgap fiber,” Opt. Lett. 29(20), 2369–2371 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hirao, K.

Y. Kondo, K. Nouchi, T. Mitsuyu, M. Watanabe, P. G. Kazansky, and K. Hirao, “Fabrication of long-period fiber gratings by focused irradiation of infrared femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 24(10), 646–648 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ho, H. L.

Y. Wang, W. Jin, J. Ju, H. Xuan, H. L. Ho, L. Xiao, and D. N. Wang, “Long period gratings in air-core photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2784–2790 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itoh, K.

Y. Li, K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, K. Yamada, D. Kuroda, J. Nishii, and Y. Jiang, “Three-dimensional hole drilling of silica glass from the rear surface with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 26(23), 1912–1914 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Y.

Y. Li, K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, K. Yamada, D. Kuroda, J. Nishii, and Y. Jiang, “Three-dimensional hole drilling of silica glass from the rear surface with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 26(23), 1912–1914 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jin, L.

Y. Li, D. N. Wang, and L. Jin, “Single-mode grating reflection in all-solid photonic bandgap fibers inscribed by use of femtosecond laser pulse irradiation through a phase mask,” Opt. Lett. 34(8), 1264–1266 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Jin, Z. Wang, Y. Liu, G. Kai, and X. Dong, “Ultraviolet-inscribed long period gratings in all-solid photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express 16(25), 21119–21131 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jin, W.

Y. Wang, W. Jin, J. Ju, H. Xuan, H. L. Ho, L. Xiao, and D. N. Wang, “Long period gratings in air-core photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2784–2790 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ju, J.

Y. Wang, W. Jin, J. Ju, H. Xuan, H. L. Ho, L. Xiao, and D. N. Wang, “Long period gratings in air-core photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2784–2790 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Judkins, J. B.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(1), 58–65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Juodkazis, S.

A. Marcinkevičius, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, M. Miwa, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, and J. Nishii, “Femtosecond laser-assisted three-dimensional microfabrication in silica,” Opt. Lett. 26(5), 277–279 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kai, G.

L. Jin, Z. Wang, Y. Liu, G. Kai, and X. Dong, “Ultraviolet-inscribed long period gratings in all-solid photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express 16(25), 21119–21131 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kalachev, A. I.

A. I. Kalachev, D. N. Nikogosyan, and G. Brambilla, “Long-period fiber grating fabrication by high-intensity femtosecond pulses at 211 nm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(8), 2568–2578 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kazansky, P. G.

Y. Kondo, K. Nouchi, T. Mitsuyu, M. Watanabe, P. G. Kazansky, and K. Hirao, “Fabrication of long-period fiber gratings by focused irradiation of infrared femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 24(10), 646–648 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Khrushchev, I.

T. Allsop, M. Dubov, A. Martinez, F. Floreani, I. Khrushchev, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Bending characteristics of fiber long-period gratings with cladding index modified by femtosecond laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(8), 3147 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J. C.

F. Luan, A. K. George, T. D. Hedley, G. J. Pearce, D. M. Bird, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “All-solid photonic bandgap fiber,” Opt. Lett. 29(20), 2369–2371 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kondo, Y.

Y. Kondo, K. Nouchi, T. Mitsuyu, M. Watanabe, P. G. Kazansky, and K. Hirao, “Fabrication of long-period fiber gratings by focused irradiation of infrared femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 24(10), 646–648 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kuhlmey, B. T.

P. Steinvurzel, E. D. Moore, E. C. Mägi, B. T. Kuhlmey, and B. J. Eggleton, “Long period grating resonances in photonic bandgap fiber,” Opt. Express 14(7), 3007–3014 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuroda, D.

Y. Li, K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, K. Yamada, D. Kuroda, J. Nishii, and Y. Jiang, “Three-dimensional hole drilling of silica glass from the rear surface with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 26(23), 1912–1914 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lemaire, P. J.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(1), 58–65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Y. Li, D. N. Wang, and L. Jin, “Single-mode grating reflection in all-solid photonic bandgap fibers inscribed by use of femtosecond laser pulse irradiation through a phase mask,” Opt. Lett. 34(8), 1264–1266 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Li, K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, K. Yamada, D. Kuroda, J. Nishii, and Y. Jiang, “Three-dimensional hole drilling of silica glass from the rear surface with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 26(23), 1912–1914 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

L. Jin, Z. Wang, Y. Liu, G. Kai, and X. Dong, “Ultraviolet-inscribed long period gratings in all-solid photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express 16(25), 21119–21131 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, C.

J. H. Chong, P. Shum, H. Haryono, A. Yohana, M. K. Rao, and C. Lu, “Measurements of refractive index sensitivity using long-period grating refractometer,” Opt. Commun. 229(1-6), 65–69 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Luan, F.

F. Luan, A. K. George, T. D. Hedley, G. J. Pearce, D. M. Bird, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “All-solid photonic bandgap fiber,” Opt. Lett. 29(20), 2369–2371 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mägi, E. C.

P. Steinvurzel, E. D. Moore, E. C. Mägi, B. T. Kuhlmey, and B. J. Eggleton, “Long period grating resonances in photonic bandgap fiber,” Opt. Express 14(7), 3007–3014 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marcinkevicius, A.

A. Marcinkevičius, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, M. Miwa, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, and J. Nishii, “Femtosecond laser-assisted three-dimensional microfabrication in silica,” Opt. Lett. 26(5), 277–279 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Martinez, A.

T. Allsop, M. Dubov, A. Martinez, F. Floreani, I. Khrushchev, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Bending characteristics of fiber long-period gratings with cladding index modified by femtosecond laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(8), 3147 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Matsuo, S.

A. Marcinkevičius, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, M. Miwa, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, and J. Nishii, “Femtosecond laser-assisted three-dimensional microfabrication in silica,” Opt. Lett. 26(5), 277–279 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

E. N. Glezer and E. Mazur, “Ultrafast-laser driven micro-explosions in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(7), 882–884 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Misawa, H.

A. Marcinkevičius, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, M. Miwa, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, and J. Nishii, “Femtosecond laser-assisted three-dimensional microfabrication in silica,” Opt. Lett. 26(5), 277–279 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mitsuyu, T.

Y. Kondo, K. Nouchi, T. Mitsuyu, M. Watanabe, P. G. Kazansky, and K. Hirao, “Fabrication of long-period fiber gratings by focused irradiation of infrared femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 24(10), 646–648 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Miwa, M.

A. Marcinkevičius, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, M. Miwa, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, and J. Nishii, “Femtosecond laser-assisted three-dimensional microfabrication in silica,” Opt. Lett. 26(5), 277–279 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Moore, E. D.

P. Steinvurzel, E. D. Moore, E. C. Mägi, B. T. Kuhlmey, and B. J. Eggleton, “Long period grating resonances in photonic bandgap fiber,” Opt. Express 14(7), 3007–3014 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nikogosyan, D. N.

A. I. Kalachev, D. N. Nikogosyan, and G. Brambilla, “Long-period fiber grating fabrication by high-intensity femtosecond pulses at 211 nm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(8), 2568–2578 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nishii, J.

Y. Li, K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, K. Yamada, D. Kuroda, J. Nishii, and Y. Jiang, “Three-dimensional hole drilling of silica glass from the rear surface with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 26(23), 1912–1914 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Marcinkevičius, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, M. Miwa, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, and J. Nishii, “Femtosecond laser-assisted three-dimensional microfabrication in silica,” Opt. Lett. 26(5), 277–279 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nouchi, K.

Y. Kondo, K. Nouchi, T. Mitsuyu, M. Watanabe, P. G. Kazansky, and K. Hirao, “Fabrication of long-period fiber gratings by focused irradiation of infrared femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 24(10), 646–648 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pearce, G. J.

F. Luan, A. K. George, T. D. Hedley, G. J. Pearce, D. M. Bird, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “All-solid photonic bandgap fiber,” Opt. Lett. 29(20), 2369–2371 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perrin, M.

A. Bétourné, G. Bouwmans, Y. Quiquempois, M. Perrin, and M. Douay, “Improvements of solid-core photonic bandgap fibers by means of interstitial air holes,” Opt. Lett. 32(12), 1719–1721 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perry, M. D.

M. D. Perry, B. C. Stuart, P. S. Banks, M. D. Feit, V. Yanovsky, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Ultrashort-pulse laser machining of dielectric materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(9), 6803–6810 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Petrovich, M. N.

A. van Brakel, C. Grivas, M. N. Petrovich, and D. J. Richardson, “Micro-channels machined in microstructured optical fibers by femtosecond laser,” Opt. Express 15(14), 8731–8736 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quiquempois, Y.

A. Bétourné, G. Bouwmans, Y. Quiquempois, M. Perrin, and M. Douay, “Improvements of solid-core photonic bandgap fibers by means of interstitial air holes,” Opt. Lett. 32(12), 1719–1721 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rao, M. K.

J. H. Chong, P. Shum, H. Haryono, A. Yohana, M. K. Rao, and C. Lu, “Measurements of refractive index sensitivity using long-period grating refractometer,” Opt. Commun. 229(1-6), 65–69 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D. J.

A. van Brakel, C. Grivas, M. N. Petrovich, and D. J. Richardson, “Micro-channels machined in microstructured optical fibers by femtosecond laser,” Opt. Express 15(14), 8731–8736 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rindorf, L.

L. Rindorf and O. Bang, “Highly sensitive refractometer with a photonic-crystal-fiber long-period grating,” Opt. Lett. 33(6), 563–565 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rubenchik, A. M.

M. D. Perry, B. C. Stuart, P. S. Banks, M. D. Feit, V. Yanovsky, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Ultrashort-pulse laser machining of dielectric materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(9), 6803–6810 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. St. J.

F. Luan, A. K. George, T. D. Hedley, G. J. Pearce, D. M. Bird, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “All-solid photonic bandgap fiber,” Opt. Lett. 29(20), 2369–2371 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shu, X.

X. Shu, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Sensitivity Characteristics of Long-Period Fiber Gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(2), 255–266 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shum, P.

J. H. Chong, P. Shum, H. Haryono, A. Yohana, M. K. Rao, and C. Lu, “Measurements of refractive index sensitivity using long-period grating refractometer,” Opt. Commun. 229(1-6), 65–69 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sipe, J. E.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(1), 58–65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Steinvurzel, P.

P. Steinvurzel, E. D. Moore, E. C. Mägi, B. T. Kuhlmey, and B. J. Eggleton, “Long period grating resonances in photonic bandgap fiber,” Opt. Express 14(7), 3007–3014 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stuart, B. C.

M. D. Perry, B. C. Stuart, P. S. Banks, M. D. Feit, V. Yanovsky, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Ultrashort-pulse laser machining of dielectric materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(9), 6803–6810 (1999).
[CrossRef]

van Brakel, A.

A. van Brakel, C. Grivas, M. N. Petrovich, and D. J. Richardson, “Micro-channels machined in microstructured optical fibers by femtosecond laser,” Opt. Express 15(14), 8731–8736 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vengsarkar, A. M.

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(1), 58–65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D. N.

Y. Li, D. N. Wang, and L. Jin, “Single-mode grating reflection in all-solid photonic bandgap fibers inscribed by use of femtosecond laser pulse irradiation through a phase mask,” Opt. Lett. 34(8), 1264–1266 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, W. Jin, J. Ju, H. Xuan, H. L. Ho, L. Xiao, and D. N. Wang, “Long period gratings in air-core photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2784–2790 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, W. Jin, J. Ju, H. Xuan, H. L. Ho, L. Xiao, and D. N. Wang, “Long period gratings in air-core photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2784–2790 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Z.

L. Jin, Z. Wang, Y. Liu, G. Kai, and X. Dong, “Ultraviolet-inscribed long period gratings in all-solid photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express 16(25), 21119–21131 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watanabe, M.

A. Marcinkevičius, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, M. Miwa, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, and J. Nishii, “Femtosecond laser-assisted three-dimensional microfabrication in silica,” Opt. Lett. 26(5), 277–279 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kondo, K. Nouchi, T. Mitsuyu, M. Watanabe, P. G. Kazansky, and K. Hirao, “Fabrication of long-period fiber gratings by focused irradiation of infrared femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 24(10), 646–648 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, W.

Y. Li, K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, K. Yamada, D. Kuroda, J. Nishii, and Y. Jiang, “Three-dimensional hole drilling of silica glass from the rear surface with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 26(23), 1912–1914 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Webb, D. J.

T. Allsop, M. Dubov, A. Martinez, F. Floreani, I. Khrushchev, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Bending characteristics of fiber long-period gratings with cladding index modified by femtosecond laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(8), 3147 (2006).
[CrossRef]

White, I. M.

I. M. White and X. Fan, “On the performance quantification of resonant refractive index sensors,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1020–1028 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Winick, K. A.

C. Florea and K. A. Winick, “Fabrication and characterization of photonic devices directly written in glass using femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(1), 246–253 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, L.

Y. Wang, W. Jin, J. Ju, H. Xuan, H. L. Ho, L. Xiao, and D. N. Wang, “Long period gratings in air-core photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2784–2790 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xuan, H.

Y. Wang, W. Jin, J. Ju, H. Xuan, H. L. Ho, L. Xiao, and D. N. Wang, “Long period gratings in air-core photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2784–2790 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamada, K.

Y. Li, K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, K. Yamada, D. Kuroda, J. Nishii, and Y. Jiang, “Three-dimensional hole drilling of silica glass from the rear surface with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 26(23), 1912–1914 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yanovsky, V.

M. D. Perry, B. C. Stuart, P. S. Banks, M. D. Feit, V. Yanovsky, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Ultrashort-pulse laser machining of dielectric materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(9), 6803–6810 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yohana, A.

J. H. Chong, P. Shum, H. Haryono, A. Yohana, M. K. Rao, and C. Lu, “Measurements of refractive index sensitivity using long-period grating refractometer,” Opt. Commun. 229(1-6), 65–69 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

X. Shu, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Sensitivity Characteristics of Long-Period Fiber Gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(2), 255–266 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

E. N. Glezer and E. Mazur, “Ultrafast-laser driven micro-explosions in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(7), 882–884 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. D. Perry, B. C. Stuart, P. S. Banks, M. D. Feit, V. Yanovsky, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Ultrashort-pulse laser machining of dielectric materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(9), 6803–6810 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (5)

A. M. Vengsarkar, P. J. Lemaire, J. B. Judkins, V. Bhatia, T. Erdogan, and J. E. Sipe, “Long-period fiber gratings as band rejection filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14(1), 58–65 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Kalachev, D. N. Nikogosyan, and G. Brambilla, “Long-period fiber grating fabrication by high-intensity femtosecond pulses at 211 nm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(8), 2568–2578 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, M. Dubov, A. Martinez, F. Floreani, I. Khrushchev, D. J. Webb, and I. Bennion, “Bending characteristics of fiber long-period gratings with cladding index modified by femtosecond laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(8), 3147 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Florea and K. A. Winick, “Fabrication and characterization of photonic devices directly written in glass using femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Lightwave Technol. 21(1), 246–253 (2003).
[CrossRef]

X. Shu, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Sensitivity Characteristics of Long-Period Fiber Gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(2), 255–266 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. H. Chong, P. Shum, H. Haryono, A. Yohana, M. K. Rao, and C. Lu, “Measurements of refractive index sensitivity using long-period grating refractometer,” Opt. Commun. 229(1-6), 65–69 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

I. M. White and X. Fan, “On the performance quantification of resonant refractive index sensors,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1020–1028 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. van Brakel, C. Grivas, M. N. Petrovich, and D. J. Richardson, “Micro-channels machined in microstructured optical fibers by femtosecond laser,” Opt. Express 15(14), 8731–8736 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Steinvurzel, E. D. Moore, E. C. Mägi, B. T. Kuhlmey, and B. J. Eggleton, “Long period grating resonances in photonic bandgap fiber,” Opt. Express 14(7), 3007–3014 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, W. Jin, J. Ju, H. Xuan, H. L. Ho, L. Xiao, and D. N. Wang, “Long period gratings in air-core photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2784–2790 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Jin, Z. Wang, Y. Liu, G. Kai, and X. Dong, “Ultraviolet-inscribed long period gratings in all-solid photonic bandgap fibers,” Opt. Express 16(25), 21119–21131 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (7)

F. Luan, A. K. George, T. D. Hedley, G. J. Pearce, D. M. Bird, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “All-solid photonic bandgap fiber,” Opt. Lett. 29(20), 2369–2371 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bétourné, G. Bouwmans, Y. Quiquempois, M. Perrin, and M. Douay, “Improvements of solid-core photonic bandgap fibers by means of interstitial air holes,” Opt. Lett. 32(12), 1719–1721 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Li, D. N. Wang, and L. Jin, “Single-mode grating reflection in all-solid photonic bandgap fibers inscribed by use of femtosecond laser pulse irradiation through a phase mask,” Opt. Lett. 34(8), 1264–1266 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Marcinkevičius, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, M. Miwa, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, and J. Nishii, “Femtosecond laser-assisted three-dimensional microfabrication in silica,” Opt. Lett. 26(5), 277–279 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, K. Itoh, W. Watanabe, K. Yamada, D. Kuroda, J. Nishii, and Y. Jiang, “Three-dimensional hole drilling of silica glass from the rear surface with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 26(23), 1912–1914 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kondo, K. Nouchi, T. Mitsuyu, M. Watanabe, P. G. Kazansky, and K. Hirao, “Fabrication of long-period fiber gratings by focused irradiation of infrared femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 24(10), 646–648 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Rindorf and O. Bang, “Highly sensitive refractometer with a photonic-crystal-fiber long-period grating,” Opt. Lett. 33(6), 563–565 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cross section view of the PBGF used in the experiment (a) without microhole (b) with microhole (c) side view of microhole.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmission spectra of the LPFG (a) Evolution of the transmission spectrum of the LPFG with the number of the microhole (b) Transmission spectrum of LPFG samples with different periods. The cladding mode is considered to be an LP11 like mode.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Polarization dependent property of a sample with the period of 400μm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Mode profile of the near field of the sample in Fig. 2(a) when the external RI is 1.32 (a) Fundamental mode (b) LP11 cladding mode (c, d) Simulation of the two fold symmetry LP01 core mode (e, f) Simulation of the two fold symmetry LP11 like cladding mode.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Phase matching curve for coupling between fundamental mode and LP11 like cladding mode (Solid line: simulation result; Broken line: experimental result).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Resonant wavelength shift of the sample shown in Fig. 2(a) when the external RI changes from 1.30 to 1.35 (Circles: experiment data with error bar; Broken line: linear interpolation).

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