Abstract

Halting and storing light by infinitely decelerating its speed, in the absence of any form of external control, is extremely difficult to imagine. Here we present a theoretical prediction of a controllable optical black hole composed of a planar left-handed material slab. We reveal a criterion that the effective round-trip propagation length in one zigzag path is zero, which brings light to a complete standstill. Both theory and ab initio simulation demonstrate that this optical black hole has flexible controllability for the speed of light. Surprisingly, the ab initio simulations reveal that our scheme has flexible controllability for swallowing, holding, and releasing light.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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  8. C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, "Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses, " Nature 409, 490-493 (2001).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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  39. K. L. Tsakmakidis, A. D. Boardman, and O. Hess, "Can light be stopped in realistic metamate-rials? Reply," Nature 455, E11-E12 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

A. Fang, Th. Koschny, M. Wegener, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Self-consistent calculation of metama-terials with gain," Phys. Rev. B 79, 241104(R) (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (5)

A. Reza, M. M. Dignam, and S. Hughes," Can light be stopped in realistic metamaterials?," Nature 455, E10-E11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Tsakmakidis, A. D. Boardman, and O. Hess, "Can light be stopped in realistic metamate-rials? Reply," Nature 455, E11-E12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Webb and L. Thyl¶en, "Perfect-lens-material condition from adjacent absorptive and gain resonances," Opt. Lett. 33, 747-749 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. D'Aguanno, N. Mattiucci, and M. J. Bloemer, "Ultraslow light pulse in a nonlinear metama-terial," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1236-1241 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Huang, W. T. Lu, and S. Sridhar, "Nanowire waveguide made from extremely anisotropic metamaterials," Phys. Rev. A 77, 063836 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (7)

A. L. Gaeta, "Slow light: Putting the brakes on images," Nature Photonics 1, 140-141 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Camacho, C. J. Broadbent, I. Ali-Khan, and J. C. Howell, \All-optical delay of images using slow light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 043902 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Gauthier, "Optical communications: solitons go slow," Nat. Photonics  1, 92-93 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Yanik and S. H. Fan, "Slow light: dynamic photon storage," Nat. Phys. 3, 372-374 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, and S. H. Fan, "Stopping and time reversing a light pulse using dynamic loss tuning of coupled-resonator delay lines," Opt. Lett. 32, 3333-3335 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Peng, L. Ran, H. Chen, H. Zhang, J. A. Kong, and T. M. Grzegorczyk, "Experimental obser-vation of left-handed behavior in an array of standard dielectric resonators," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 157403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. KÄastel, M. Fleischhauer, S. F. Yelin, and R. L. Walsworth, "Tunable negative refraction without absorption via electromagnetically induced chirality," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 073602 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

J. T. Mok, C. M. de Sterke, I. C. M. Littler, and B. J. Eggleton, "Dispersionless slow light using gap solitons," Nat. Phys.  2,775-780 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Tsakmakidis, A. Klaedtke, D. P. Aryal, C. Jamois, and O. Hess, "Single-mode operation in the slow-light regime using oscillatory waves in generalized left-handed heterostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 201103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (6)

L. G. Wang and S. Y. Zhu, "Large negative lateral shifts from the Kretschmann-Raether configuration with left-handed materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 221102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. M. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, "Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Karalis, E. Lidorikis, M. Ibanescu, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Marin Solja·ci "Surface-plasmon-assisted guiding of broadband slow and subwavelength light in air," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 063901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. G. Yang, J. T. Seo, B. Tabibi, and H. T. Wang, "Slow light and superluminality in Kerr media without a pump," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 063902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O'Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, "Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides," Nature 438, 65-69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Gersen, T. J. Karle, R. J. P. Engelen, W. Bogaerts, J. P. Korterik, N. F. van Hulst, T. F. Krauss, and L. Kuipers, "Real-space observation of ultraslow light in photonic crystal waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 073903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

G. Q. Zhang, F. Bo, R. Dong, and J. J. Xu, "Phase-coupling-induced ultraslow light propagation in solids at room temperature," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 133903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Shumelyuk, K. Shcherbin, S. Odoulov, B. Sturman, E. Podivilov, and K. Buse, "Slowing down of Light in photorefractive crystals with beam intensity coupling reduced to zero," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 243604 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Qing and G. Chen, "Goos-HÄanchen shifts at the interfaces between left- and right-handed media," Opt. Lett. 29, 872-874 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (5)

I. V. Shadrivov, A. A. Sukhorukov, and Y. S. Kivshar,"Guided modes in negative-refractive-index waveguides," Phys. Rev. E 67, 057602 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Stenner, D. J. Gauthier, and M. A. Neifeld, "The speed of information in a `fast-light' optical medium," Nature 425, 695-698 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Podivilov, B. Sturman, A. Shumelyuk, and S. Odoulov, "Light pulse slowing down up to 0.025 cm/s by photorefractive two-wave coupling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 083902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Bigelow, N. N. Lepeshkin, and R. W. Boyd, "Superluminal and slow light propagation in a room-temperature solid, " Science 301, 200-202 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Bigelow, N. N. Lepeshkin, and R. W. Boyd, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113903 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

A. V. Turukhin, V. S. Sudarshanam, M. S. Shahriar, J. A. Musser, B. S. Ham, and P. R. Hemmer, "Observation of ultraslow and stored light pulses in a solid," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 023602 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (4)

K. Lee and N. M. Lawandy, "Optically induced pulse delay in a solid-state Raman amplifier," Appl. Phys. Lett.  78, 703-705 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, "Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses, " Nature 409, 490-493 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. F. Phillips, A. Fleischhauer, A. Mair, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, "Storage of light in atomic vapor," Phys. Rev. Lett.  86, 783-786 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (3)

J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction makes a perfect lens," Phys. Rev. Lett.  85, 3966-3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Weiss, "Black hole recipe: Slow light, swirl atoms," Science News 157, 86-87 (2000).
[CrossRef]

U. Leonhardt and P. Piwnicki, "Relativistic erects of light in moving media with extremely low group velocity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 822-825 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, "Light speed reduction to 17 metres per second in an ultracold atomic gas," Nature  397, 594-598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, "Ultraslow group velocity and enhanced nonlinear optical effects in a coherently driven hot atomic gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 522995232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

V. G. Veselago, "The electrodynamics of substance with simultaneously negative value of e and m," Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509-514 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Ali-Khan, I.

R. M. Camacho, C. J. Broadbent, I. Ali-Khan, and J. C. Howell, \All-optical delay of images using slow light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 043902 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aryal, D. P.

K. L. Tsakmakidis, A. Klaedtke, D. P. Aryal, C. Jamois, and O. Hess, "Single-mode operation in the slow-light regime using oscillatory waves in generalized left-handed heterostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 201103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Behroozi, C. H.

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, "Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses, " Nature 409, 490-493 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, "Light speed reduction to 17 metres per second in an ultracold atomic gas," Nature  397, 594-598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bigelow, M. S.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. M. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, "Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Bigelow, N. N. Lepeshkin, and R. W. Boyd, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113903 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Bigelow, N. N. Lepeshkin, and R. W. Boyd, "Superluminal and slow light propagation in a room-temperature solid, " Science 301, 200-202 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bloemer, M. J.

G. D'Aguanno, N. Mattiucci, and M. J. Bloemer, "Ultraslow light pulse in a nonlinear metama-terial," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1236-1241 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bo, F.

G. Q. Zhang, F. Bo, R. Dong, and J. J. Xu, "Phase-coupling-induced ultraslow light propagation in solids at room temperature," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 133903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boardman, A. D.

K. L. Tsakmakidis, A. D. Boardman, and O. Hess, "Can light be stopped in realistic metamate-rials? Reply," Nature 455, E11-E12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

H. Gersen, T. J. Karle, R. J. P. Engelen, W. Bogaerts, J. P. Korterik, N. F. van Hulst, T. F. Krauss, and L. Kuipers, "Real-space observation of ultraslow light in photonic crystal waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 073903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boyd, R. W.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. M. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, "Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Bigelow, N. N. Lepeshkin, and R. W. Boyd, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113903 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Bigelow, N. N. Lepeshkin, and R. W. Boyd, "Superluminal and slow light propagation in a room-temperature solid, " Science 301, 200-202 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Broadbent, C. J.

R. M. Camacho, C. J. Broadbent, I. Ali-Khan, and J. C. Howell, \All-optical delay of images using slow light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 043902 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buse, K.

A. Shumelyuk, K. Shcherbin, S. Odoulov, B. Sturman, E. Podivilov, and K. Buse, "Slowing down of Light in photorefractive crystals with beam intensity coupling reduced to zero," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 243604 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Camacho, R. M.

R. M. Camacho, C. J. Broadbent, I. Ali-Khan, and J. C. Howell, \All-optical delay of images using slow light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 043902 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, G.

D. K. Qing and G. Chen, "Goos-HÄanchen shifts at the interfaces between left- and right-handed media," Opt. Lett. 29, 872-874 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H.

L. Peng, L. Ran, H. Chen, H. Zhang, J. A. Kong, and T. M. Grzegorczyk, "Experimental obser-vation of left-handed behavior in an array of standard dielectric resonators," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 157403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cummer, S. A.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D'Aguanno, G.

G. D'Aguanno, N. Mattiucci, and M. J. Bloemer, "Ultraslow light pulse in a nonlinear metama-terial," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1236-1241 (2008).
[CrossRef]

de Sterke, C. M.

J. T. Mok, C. M. de Sterke, I. C. M. Littler, and B. J. Eggleton, "Dispersionless slow light using gap solitons," Nat. Phys.  2,775-780 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dignam, M. M.

A. Reza, M. M. Dignam, and S. Hughes," Can light be stopped in realistic metamaterials?," Nature 455, E10-E11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dong, R.

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C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, "Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses, " Nature 409, 490-493 (2001).
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A. V. Turukhin, V. S. Sudarshanam, M. S. Shahriar, J. A. Musser, B. S. Ham, and P. R. Hemmer, "Observation of ultraslow and stored light pulses in a solid," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 023602 (2002).
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D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
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H. Gersen, T. J. Karle, R. J. P. Engelen, W. Bogaerts, J. P. Korterik, N. F. van Hulst, T. F. Krauss, and L. Kuipers, "Real-space observation of ultraslow light in photonic crystal waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 073903 (2005).
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M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, "Ultraslow group velocity and enhanced nonlinear optical effects in a coherently driven hot atomic gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 522995232 (1999).
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I. V. Shadrivov, A. A. Sukhorukov, and Y. S. Kivshar,"Guided modes in negative-refractive-index waveguides," Phys. Rev. E 67, 057602 (2003).
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K. L. Tsakmakidis, A. Klaedtke, D. P. Aryal, C. Jamois, and O. Hess, "Single-mode operation in the slow-light regime using oscillatory waves in generalized left-handed heterostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 201103 (2006).
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L. Peng, L. Ran, H. Chen, H. Zhang, J. A. Kong, and T. M. Grzegorczyk, "Experimental obser-vation of left-handed behavior in an array of standard dielectric resonators," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 157403 (2007).
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H. Gersen, T. J. Karle, R. J. P. Engelen, W. Bogaerts, J. P. Korterik, N. F. van Hulst, T. F. Krauss, and L. Kuipers, "Real-space observation of ultraslow light in photonic crystal waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 073903 (2005).
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A. Fang, Th. Koschny, M. Wegener, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Self-consistent calculation of metama-terials with gain," Phys. Rev. B 79, 241104(R) (2009).
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H. Gersen, T. J. Karle, R. J. P. Engelen, W. Bogaerts, J. P. Korterik, N. F. van Hulst, T. F. Krauss, and L. Kuipers, "Real-space observation of ultraslow light in photonic crystal waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 073903 (2005).
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J. T. Mok, C. M. de Sterke, I. C. M. Littler, and B. J. Eggleton, "Dispersionless slow light using gap solitons," Nat. Phys.  2,775-780 (2006).
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C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, "Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses, " Nature 409, 490-493 (2001).
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Y. J. Huang, W. T. Lu, and S. Sridhar, "Nanowire waveguide made from extremely anisotropic metamaterials," Phys. Rev. A 77, 063836 (2008).
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D. F. Phillips, A. Fleischhauer, A. Mair, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, "Storage of light in atomic vapor," Phys. Rev. Lett.  86, 783-786 (2001).
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D. F. Phillips, A. Fleischhauer, A. Mair, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, "Storage of light in atomic vapor," Phys. Rev. Lett.  86, 783-786 (2001).
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D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
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J. T. Mok, C. M. de Sterke, I. C. M. Littler, and B. J. Eggleton, "Dispersionless slow light using gap solitons," Nat. Phys.  2,775-780 (2006).
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A. V. Turukhin, V. S. Sudarshanam, M. S. Shahriar, J. A. Musser, B. S. Ham, and P. R. Hemmer, "Observation of ultraslow and stored light pulses in a solid," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 023602 (2002).
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M. D. Stenner, D. J. Gauthier, and M. A. Neifeld, "The speed of information in a `fast-light' optical medium," Nature 425, 695-698 (2003).
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Y. A. Vlasov, M. O'Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, "Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides," Nature 438, 65-69 (2005).
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A. Shumelyuk, K. Shcherbin, S. Odoulov, B. Sturman, E. Podivilov, and K. Buse, "Slowing down of Light in photorefractive crystals with beam intensity coupling reduced to zero," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 243604 (2004).
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Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. M. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, "Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
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D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
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D. F. Phillips, A. Fleischhauer, A. Mair, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, "Storage of light in atomic vapor," Phys. Rev. Lett.  86, 783-786 (2001).
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U. Leonhardt and P. Piwnicki, "Relativistic erects of light in moving media with extremely low group velocity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 822-825 (2000).
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A. Shumelyuk, K. Shcherbin, S. Odoulov, B. Sturman, E. Podivilov, and K. Buse, "Slowing down of Light in photorefractive crystals with beam intensity coupling reduced to zero," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 243604 (2004).
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S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, and S. H. Fan, "Stopping and time reversing a light pulse using dynamic loss tuning of coupled-resonator delay lines," Opt. Lett. 32, 3333-3335 (2007).
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M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, "Ultraslow group velocity and enhanced nonlinear optical effects in a coherently driven hot atomic gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 522995232 (1999).
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S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, and S. H. Fan, "Stopping and time reversing a light pulse using dynamic loss tuning of coupled-resonator delay lines," Opt. Lett. 32, 3333-3335 (2007).
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M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, "Ultraslow group velocity and enhanced nonlinear optical effects in a coherently driven hot atomic gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 522995232 (1999).
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D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
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Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. M. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, "Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
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M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, "Ultraslow group velocity and enhanced nonlinear optical effects in a coherently driven hot atomic gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 522995232 (1999).
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I. V. Shadrivov, A. A. Sukhorukov, and Y. S. Kivshar,"Guided modes in negative-refractive-index waveguides," Phys. Rev. E 67, 057602 (2003).
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A. V. Turukhin, V. S. Sudarshanam, M. S. Shahriar, J. A. Musser, B. S. Ham, and P. R. Hemmer, "Observation of ultraslow and stored light pulses in a solid," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 023602 (2002).
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Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. M. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, "Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
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A. Shumelyuk, K. Shcherbin, S. Odoulov, B. Sturman, E. Podivilov, and K. Buse, "Slowing down of Light in photorefractive crystals with beam intensity coupling reduced to zero," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 243604 (2004).
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R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
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A. Shumelyuk, K. Shcherbin, S. Odoulov, B. Sturman, E. Podivilov, and K. Buse, "Slowing down of Light in photorefractive crystals with beam intensity coupling reduced to zero," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 243604 (2004).
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E. Podivilov, B. Sturman, A. Shumelyuk, and S. Odoulov, "Light pulse slowing down up to 0.025 cm/s by photorefractive two-wave coupling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 083902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, D. R.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

A. Fang, Th. Koschny, M. Wegener, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Self-consistent calculation of metama-terials with gain," Phys. Rev. B 79, 241104(R) (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sridhar, S.

Y. J. Huang, W. T. Lu, and S. Sridhar, "Nanowire waveguide made from extremely anisotropic metamaterials," Phys. Rev. A 77, 063836 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Starr, A. F.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stenner, M. D.

M. D. Stenner, D. J. Gauthier, and M. A. Neifeld, "The speed of information in a `fast-light' optical medium," Nature 425, 695-698 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sturman, B.

A. Shumelyuk, K. Shcherbin, S. Odoulov, B. Sturman, E. Podivilov, and K. Buse, "Slowing down of Light in photorefractive crystals with beam intensity coupling reduced to zero," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 243604 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Podivilov, B. Sturman, A. Shumelyuk, and S. Odoulov, "Light pulse slowing down up to 0.025 cm/s by photorefractive two-wave coupling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 083902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sudarshanam, V. S.

A. V. Turukhin, V. S. Sudarshanam, M. S. Shahriar, J. A. Musser, B. S. Ham, and P. R. Hemmer, "Observation of ultraslow and stored light pulses in a solid," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 023602 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sukhorukov, A. A.

I. V. Shadrivov, A. A. Sukhorukov, and Y. S. Kivshar,"Guided modes in negative-refractive-index waveguides," Phys. Rev. E 67, 057602 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tabibi, B.

Q. G. Yang, J. T. Seo, B. Tabibi, and H. T. Wang, "Slow light and superluminality in Kerr media without a pump," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 063902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsakmakidis, K. L.

K. L. Tsakmakidis, A. D. Boardman, and O. Hess, "Can light be stopped in realistic metamate-rials? Reply," Nature 455, E11-E12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Tsakmakidis, A. Klaedtke, D. P. Aryal, C. Jamois, and O. Hess, "Single-mode operation in the slow-light regime using oscillatory waves in generalized left-handed heterostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 201103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Turukhin, A. V.

A. V. Turukhin, V. S. Sudarshanam, M. S. Shahriar, J. A. Musser, B. S. Ham, and P. R. Hemmer, "Observation of ultraslow and stored light pulses in a solid," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 023602 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Hulst, N. F.

H. Gersen, T. J. Karle, R. J. P. Engelen, W. Bogaerts, J. P. Korterik, N. F. van Hulst, T. F. Krauss, and L. Kuipers, "Real-space observation of ultraslow light in photonic crystal waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 073903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Veselago, V. G.

V. G. Veselago, "The electrodynamics of substance with simultaneously negative value of e and m," Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509-514 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y. A.

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O'Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, "Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides," Nature 438, 65-69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walsworth, R. L.

D. F. Phillips, A. Fleischhauer, A. Mair, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, "Storage of light in atomic vapor," Phys. Rev. Lett.  86, 783-786 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H. T.

Q. G. Yang, J. T. Seo, B. Tabibi, and H. T. Wang, "Slow light and superluminality in Kerr media without a pump," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 063902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, L. G.

L. G. Wang and S. Y. Zhu, "Large negative lateral shifts from the Kretschmann-Raether configuration with left-handed materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 221102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Webb, K. J.

K. J. Webb and L. Thyl¶en, "Perfect-lens-material condition from adjacent absorptive and gain resonances," Opt. Lett. 33, 747-749 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wegener, M.

A. Fang, Th. Koschny, M. Wegener, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Self-consistent calculation of metama-terials with gain," Phys. Rev. B 79, 241104(R) (2009).
[CrossRef]

Weiss, P.

P. Weiss, "Black hole recipe: Slow light, swirl atoms," Science News 157, 86-87 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Welch, G. R.

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, "Ultraslow group velocity and enhanced nonlinear optical effects in a coherently driven hot atomic gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 522995232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J. J.

G. Q. Zhang, F. Bo, R. Dong, and J. J. Xu, "Phase-coupling-induced ultraslow light propagation in solids at room temperature," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 133903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, Q. G.

Q. G. Yang, J. T. Seo, B. Tabibi, and H. T. Wang, "Slow light and superluminality in Kerr media without a pump," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 063902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yanik, M. F.

M. F. Yanik and S. H. Fan, "Slow light: dynamic photon storage," Nat. Phys. 3, 372-374 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G. Q.

G. Q. Zhang, F. Bo, R. Dong, and J. J. Xu, "Phase-coupling-induced ultraslow light propagation in solids at room temperature," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 133903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, H.

L. Peng, L. Ran, H. Chen, H. Zhang, J. A. Kong, and T. M. Grzegorczyk, "Experimental obser-vation of left-handed behavior in an array of standard dielectric resonators," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 157403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, S. Y.

L. G. Wang and S. Y. Zhu, "Large negative lateral shifts from the Kretschmann-Raether configuration with left-handed materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 221102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Z. M.

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. M. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, "Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zibrov, A. S.

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, "Ultraslow group velocity and enhanced nonlinear optical effects in a coherently driven hot atomic gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 522995232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett (1)

K. Lee and N. M. Lawandy, "Optically induced pulse delay in a solid-state Raman amplifier," Appl. Phys. Lett.  78, 703-705 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

K. L. Tsakmakidis, A. Klaedtke, D. P. Aryal, C. Jamois, and O. Hess, "Single-mode operation in the slow-light regime using oscillatory waves in generalized left-handed heterostructures," Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 201103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. G. Wang and S. Y. Zhu, "Large negative lateral shifts from the Kretschmann-Raether configuration with left-handed materials," Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 221102 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

G. D'Aguanno, N. Mattiucci, and M. J. Bloemer, "Ultraslow light pulse in a nonlinear metama-terial," J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 1236-1241 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

D. J. Gauthier, "Optical communications: solitons go slow," Nat. Photonics  1, 92-93 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (1)

J. T. Mok, C. M. de Sterke, I. C. M. Littler, and B. J. Eggleton, "Dispersionless slow light using gap solitons," Nat. Phys.  2,775-780 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (1)

M. F. Yanik and S. H. Fan, "Slow light: dynamic photon storage," Nat. Phys. 3, 372-374 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (5)

Y. A. Vlasov, M. O'Boyle, H. F. Hamann, and S. J. McNab, "Active control of slow light on a chip with photonic crystal waveguides," Nature 438, 65-69 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Reza, M. M. Dignam, and S. Hughes," Can light be stopped in realistic metamaterials?," Nature 455, E10-E11 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Tsakmakidis, A. D. Boardman, and O. Hess, "Can light be stopped in realistic metamate-rials? Reply," Nature 455, E11-E12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, "Light speed reduction to 17 metres per second in an ultracold atomic gas," Nature  397, 594-598 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nature (5)

C. Liu, Z. Dutton, C. H. Behroozi, and L. V. Hau, "Observation of coherent optical information storage in an atomic medium using halted light pulses, " Nature 409, 490-493 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Stenner, D. J. Gauthier, and M. A. Neifeld, "The speed of information in a `fast-light' optical medium," Nature 425, 695-698 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature Photonics (1)

A. L. Gaeta, "Slow light: Putting the brakes on images," Nature Photonics 1, 140-141 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

K. J. Webb and L. Thyl¶en, "Perfect-lens-material condition from adjacent absorptive and gain resonances," Opt. Lett. 33, 747-749 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sandhu, M. L. Povinelli, and S. H. Fan, "Stopping and time reversing a light pulse using dynamic loss tuning of coupled-resonator delay lines," Opt. Lett. 32, 3333-3335 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Qing and G. Chen, "Goos-HÄanchen shifts at the interfaces between left- and right-handed media," Opt. Lett. 29, 872-874 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

Y. J. Huang, W. T. Lu, and S. Sridhar, "Nanowire waveguide made from extremely anisotropic metamaterials," Phys. Rev. A 77, 063836 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

A. Fang, Th. Koschny, M. Wegener, and C. M. Soukoulis, "Self-consistent calculation of metama-terials with gain," Phys. Rev. B 79, 241104(R) (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

I. V. Shadrivov, A. A. Sukhorukov, and Y. S. Kivshar,"Guided modes in negative-refractive-index waveguides," Phys. Rev. E 67, 057602 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett (2)

J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction makes a perfect lens," Phys. Rev. Lett.  85, 3966-3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. F. Phillips, A. Fleischhauer, A. Mair, R. L. Walsworth, and M. D. Lukin, "Storage of light in atomic vapor," Phys. Rev. Lett.  86, 783-786 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (14)

R. M. Camacho, C. J. Broadbent, I. Ali-Khan, and J. C. Howell, \All-optical delay of images using slow light," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 043902 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Leonhardt and P. Piwnicki, "Relativistic erects of light in moving media with extremely low group velocity," Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 822-825 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Okawachi, M. S. Bigelow, J. E. Sharping, Z. M. Zhu, A. Schweinsberg, D. J. Gauthier, R. W. Boyd, and A. L. Gaeta, "Tunable all-optical delays via Brillouin slow light in an optical fiber," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 153902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Karalis, E. Lidorikis, M. Ibanescu, J. D. Joannopoulos, and Marin Solja·ci "Surface-plasmon-assisted guiding of broadband slow and subwavelength light in air," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 063901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Podivilov, B. Sturman, A. Shumelyuk, and S. Odoulov, "Light pulse slowing down up to 0.025 cm/s by photorefractive two-wave coupling," Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 083902 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Q. Zhang, F. Bo, R. Dong, and J. J. Xu, "Phase-coupling-induced ultraslow light propagation in solids at room temperature," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 133903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Shumelyuk, K. Shcherbin, S. Odoulov, B. Sturman, E. Podivilov, and K. Buse, "Slowing down of Light in photorefractive crystals with beam intensity coupling reduced to zero," Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 243604 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Q. G. Yang, J. T. Seo, B. Tabibi, and H. T. Wang, "Slow light and superluminality in Kerr media without a pump," Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 063902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Gersen, T. J. Karle, R. J. P. Engelen, W. Bogaerts, J. P. Korterik, N. F. van Hulst, T. F. Krauss, and L. Kuipers, "Real-space observation of ultraslow light in photonic crystal waveguides," Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 073903 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. Kash, V. A. Sautenkov, A. S. Zibrov, L. Hollberg, G. R. Welch, M. D. Lukin, Y. Rostovtsev, E. S. Fry, and M. O. Scully, "Ultraslow group velocity and enhanced nonlinear optical effects in a coherently driven hot atomic gas," Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 522995232 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Turukhin, V. S. Sudarshanam, M. S. Shahriar, J. A. Musser, B. S. Ham, and P. R. Hemmer, "Observation of ultraslow and stored light pulses in a solid," Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 023602 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Bigelow, N. N. Lepeshkin, and R. W. Boyd, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113903 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Peng, L. Ran, H. Chen, H. Zhang, J. A. Kong, and T. M. Grzegorczyk, "Experimental obser-vation of left-handed behavior in an array of standard dielectric resonators," Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 157403 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. KÄastel, M. Fleischhauer, S. F. Yelin, and R. L. Walsworth, "Tunable negative refraction without absorption via electromagnetically induced chirality," Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 073602 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (3)

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, "Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies," Science 314, 977-980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Bigelow, N. N. Lepeshkin, and R. W. Boyd, "Superluminal and slow light propagation in a room-temperature solid, " Science 301, 200-202 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Shelby, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, "Experimental verification of a negative index of refraction," Science 292, 77-79 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science News (1)

P. Weiss, "Black hole recipe: Slow light, swirl atoms," Science News 157, 86-87 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. Usp. (1)

V. G. Veselago, "The electrodynamics of substance with simultaneously negative value of e and m," Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509-514 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

K. L. Tsakmakidis, A. D. Boardman, and O. Hess, "`Trapped rainbow' storage of light in meta-materials," Nature 450, 397-401 (2007). We also touched a similar issue. Our work was brie°y reported in the autumn meeting of Chinese Physical Society on Sep. 18-20, 2007.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. F. Xu, P. Dong, and M. Lipson, "Breaking the delay-bandwidth limit in a photonic structure," Nat. Phys . 3, 406-410 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Optical black hole and wave propagation modes. (a) Geometry of a planar LH slab waveguide as an optical black hole. (b) Backward mode. (c) Forward mode. (d) Stopped mode. (e) Illustration of the correlative parameters.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Dispersion curves of the oscillatory-guided modes in a RH-LH-RH slab waveguide. The insets (La, Lb, Lc and Ld) show the field distributions for the four chosen points (A, B, C, and D), respectively. The inset R illustrates the dependencies of vg and Leff on β in branch 2.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Distributions of the electric fields at different times. Left, forward mode with (β = 117.286 m-1, f = 4.353 GHz) at (a) 9.368 ns, (b) 18.945 ns, (c) 30.691 ns, (d) 37.767 ns and (e) 66.073 ns. Right, backward mode with (β = 214.047 m-1, f = 4.272 GHz) at (a) 12.771 ns, (b) 17.755 ns, (c) 28.814 ns, (d) 32.768 ns and (e) 52.540 ns.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Distributions of the electric fields at different times for halted light. Left, with (β = 145.149 m-1, f = 4.386 GHz) at (a) 21.473 ns, (b) 25.328 ns, (c) 35.575 ns, (d) 41.420 ns and (e) 47.272 ns. Right, with (β = 150.746 m-1, f = 6.036 GHz) at (a) 6.313 ns, (b) 12.156 ns, (c) 18.290 ns, (d) 20.391 ns and (e) 23.191 ns.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Scheme of the storage of light energy. (a) Schematic of the storage of light energy in the large area slab LH waveguide by using a micro-prism array. (b) Illustration of the extraction of the light energy in the large area slab LH waveguide by using a micro-prism array.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

v g = 2 d tan θ + ( Δ z 12 + Δ z 13 ) ( 2 d / c ) ñ / cos θ + ( Δ t 12 + Δ t 13 )
Δ z 1 m = β ω 2 c 2 2 ( μ m k 1 / μ 1 α m ) 1 + ( μ m k 1 / μ 1 α m ) 2 ( ε 1 μ 1 ε m μ m ) k 1 2 α m 2 ,
v g = sign ( μ 1 ) 2 d tan θ + ( Δ z 12 + Δ z 13 ) sign ( μ 1 ) ( 2 d / c ) ñ / cos θ + sign ( μ 1 ) ( Δ t 12 + Δ t 13 ) .
Δ z 12,13 = β ω 2 c 2 2 ( μ 2,3 k 1 / μ 1 α 2,3 ) 1 + ( μ 2,3 k 1 / μ 1 α 2,3 ) 2 ( ε 1 μ 1 ε 2,3 μ 2,3 ) jk 1 2 α 2,3 2

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