Abstract

A SiGe electro-optic modulator operating at wavelength of 1.55μm is proposed. The “ON” state voltage is set at 1.4V. The arm of the MZI waveguide required to generate a π phase shift is 73.6μm, and the total attenuation loss is 3.95dB. The rise and fall delay time is 70.9ps and 24.5ps, respectively.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, "High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide," Opt. Express 15(2), 660-668 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, A. P. Knights, and G. Mashanovich, "Evolution of optical modulation using majority carrier plasma dispersion effect in SOI," Proc. SPIE 6898, 68980C-68980C-10 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427(6975), 615-618 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435(7040), 325-327 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, "12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon microring silicon modulators," Opt. Express 15(2), 430-436 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. W. M. J. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, "Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator," Opt. Express 15(25), 17106-17113 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. Deng, Z. R. Huang, and J. F. McDonald, "Design of high efficiency multi-GHz SiGe HBT electro-optic modulator," Opt. Express 17(16), 13425-13428 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. Liu, "Announcing the world's first 40G silicon laser modulator", http://blogs.intel.com/research/2007/07/40g_modulator.php.
  9. J.-S. Rieh, D. Greenberg, A. Stricker, and G. Freeman, "Scaling of SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistors," Proc. IEEE 93(9 Issue 9), 1522-1538 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J.-S. Rieh, M. Khater, G. Freeman, and D. Ahlgren, "SiGe HBT without selectively implanted collector (SIC) exhibiting fmax=310GHz and BVCEO=2V," IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 53, 2407-2409 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. D. Cressler, and G. Niu, Silicon-Germanium Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors (Artech House, Inc, 2007).
  12. R. A. Soref, and B. R. Bennett, "Kramers-Kronig analysis of electro-optical switching in silicon," SPIE Integr. Opt. Circuit Eng. 704, 32-37 (1986).
  13. R. D. Lareau, L. Friedman, and R. A. Soref, "Waveguided electro-optical intensity modulation in a Si/GexSi1-x/Si heterojunction bipolar transistor," Electron. Lett. 26(20), 1653-1655 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Cutolo, M. Iodice, P. Spirito, and L. Zeni, "Silicon electro-optic modulator based on a three terminal device integrated in a low-loss single-mode SOI waveguide," J. Lightwave Technol. 15(3), 505-518 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

S. Deng, Z. R. Huang, and J. F. McDonald, "Design of high efficiency multi-GHz SiGe HBT electro-optic modulator," Opt. Express 17(16), 13425-13428 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, "High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide," Opt. Express 15(2), 660-668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, "12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon microring silicon modulators," Opt. Express 15(2), 430-436 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. M. J. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, "Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator," Opt. Express 15(25), 17106-17113 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

J.-S. Rieh, M. Khater, G. Freeman, and D. Ahlgren, "SiGe HBT without selectively implanted collector (SIC) exhibiting fmax=310GHz and BVCEO=2V," IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 53, 2407-2409 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435(7040), 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427(6975), 615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

A. Cutolo, M. Iodice, P. Spirito, and L. Zeni, "Silicon electro-optic modulator based on a three terminal device integrated in a low-loss single-mode SOI waveguide," J. Lightwave Technol. 15(3), 505-518 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

R. D. Lareau, L. Friedman, and R. A. Soref, "Waveguided electro-optical intensity modulation in a Si/GexSi1-x/Si heterojunction bipolar transistor," Electron. Lett. 26(20), 1653-1655 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

R. A. Soref, and B. R. Bennett, "Kramers-Kronig analysis of electro-optical switching in silicon," SPIE Integr. Opt. Circuit Eng. 704, 32-37 (1986).

Ahlgren, D.

J.-S. Rieh, M. Khater, G. Freeman, and D. Ahlgren, "SiGe HBT without selectively implanted collector (SIC) exhibiting fmax=310GHz and BVCEO=2V," IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 53, 2407-2409 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, B. R.

R. A. Soref, and B. R. Bennett, "Kramers-Kronig analysis of electro-optical switching in silicon," SPIE Integr. Opt. Circuit Eng. 704, 32-37 (1986).

Chetrit, Y.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, "High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide," Opt. Express 15(2), 660-668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ciftcioglu, B.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, "High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide," Opt. Express 15(2), 660-668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cohen, O.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427(6975), 615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cutolo, A.

A. Cutolo, M. Iodice, P. Spirito, and L. Zeni, "Silicon electro-optic modulator based on a three terminal device integrated in a low-loss single-mode SOI waveguide," J. Lightwave Technol. 15(3), 505-518 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Deng, S.

S. Deng, Z. R. Huang, and J. F. McDonald, "Design of high efficiency multi-GHz SiGe HBT electro-optic modulator," Opt. Express 17(16), 13425-13428 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freeman, G.

J.-S. Rieh, M. Khater, G. Freeman, and D. Ahlgren, "SiGe HBT without selectively implanted collector (SIC) exhibiting fmax=310GHz and BVCEO=2V," IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 53, 2407-2409 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Friedman, L.

R. D. Lareau, L. Friedman, and R. A. Soref, "Waveguided electro-optical intensity modulation in a Si/GexSi1-x/Si heterojunction bipolar transistor," Electron. Lett. 26(20), 1653-1655 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Green, W. M. J.

W. M. J. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, "Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator," Opt. Express 15(25), 17106-17113 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, Z. R.

S. Deng, Z. R. Huang, and J. F. McDonald, "Design of high efficiency multi-GHz SiGe HBT electro-optic modulator," Opt. Express 17(16), 13425-13428 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iodice, M.

A. Cutolo, M. Iodice, P. Spirito, and L. Zeni, "Silicon electro-optic modulator based on a three terminal device integrated in a low-loss single-mode SOI waveguide," J. Lightwave Technol. 15(3), 505-518 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Izhaky, N.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, "High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide," Opt. Express 15(2), 660-668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, R.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427(6975), 615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khater, M.

J.-S. Rieh, M. Khater, G. Freeman, and D. Ahlgren, "SiGe HBT without selectively implanted collector (SIC) exhibiting fmax=310GHz and BVCEO=2V," IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 53, 2407-2409 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lareau, R. D.

R. D. Lareau, L. Friedman, and R. A. Soref, "Waveguided electro-optical intensity modulation in a Si/GexSi1-x/Si heterojunction bipolar transistor," Electron. Lett. 26(20), 1653-1655 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Liao, L.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, "High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide," Opt. Express 15(2), 660-668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427(6975), 615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lipson, M.

Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, "12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon microring silicon modulators," Opt. Express 15(2), 430-436 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435(7040), 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, A.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, "High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide," Opt. Express 15(2), 660-668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427(6975), 615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manipatruni, S.

Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, "12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon microring silicon modulators," Opt. Express 15(2), 430-436 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McDonald, J. F.

S. Deng, Z. R. Huang, and J. F. McDonald, "Design of high efficiency multi-GHz SiGe HBT electro-optic modulator," Opt. Express 17(16), 13425-13428 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nguyen, H.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, "High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide," Opt. Express 15(2), 660-668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nicolaescu, R.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427(6975), 615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paniccia, M.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, "High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide," Opt. Express 15(2), 660-668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427(6975), 615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pradhan, S.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435(7040), 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rieh, J.-S.

J.-S. Rieh, M. Khater, G. Freeman, and D. Ahlgren, "SiGe HBT without selectively implanted collector (SIC) exhibiting fmax=310GHz and BVCEO=2V," IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 53, 2407-2409 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rooks, M. J.

W. M. J. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, "Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator," Opt. Express 15(25), 17106-17113 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rubin, D.

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, "High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide," Opt. Express 15(2), 660-668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427(6975), 615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Samara-Rubio, D.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427(6975), 615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt, B.

Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, "12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon microring silicon modulators," Opt. Express 15(2), 430-436 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435(7040), 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sekaric, L.

W. M. J. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, "Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator," Opt. Express 15(25), 17106-17113 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shakya, J.

Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, "12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon microring silicon modulators," Opt. Express 15(2), 430-436 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soref, R. A.

R. D. Lareau, L. Friedman, and R. A. Soref, "Waveguided electro-optical intensity modulation in a Si/GexSi1-x/Si heterojunction bipolar transistor," Electron. Lett. 26(20), 1653-1655 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Soref, and B. R. Bennett, "Kramers-Kronig analysis of electro-optical switching in silicon," SPIE Integr. Opt. Circuit Eng. 704, 32-37 (1986).

Spirito, P.

A. Cutolo, M. Iodice, P. Spirito, and L. Zeni, "Silicon electro-optic modulator based on a three terminal device integrated in a low-loss single-mode SOI waveguide," J. Lightwave Technol. 15(3), 505-518 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y. A.

W. M. J. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, "Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator," Opt. Express 15(25), 17106-17113 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, Q.

Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, "12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon microring silicon modulators," Opt. Express 15(2), 430-436 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435(7040), 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeni, L.

A. Cutolo, M. Iodice, P. Spirito, and L. Zeni, "Silicon electro-optic modulator based on a three terminal device integrated in a low-loss single-mode SOI waveguide," J. Lightwave Technol. 15(3), 505-518 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

R. D. Lareau, L. Friedman, and R. A. Soref, "Waveguided electro-optical intensity modulation in a Si/GexSi1-x/Si heterojunction bipolar transistor," Electron. Lett. 26(20), 1653-1655 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. (1)

J.-S. Rieh, M. Khater, G. Freeman, and D. Ahlgren, "SiGe HBT without selectively implanted collector (SIC) exhibiting fmax=310GHz and BVCEO=2V," IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 53, 2407-2409 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

A. Cutolo, M. Iodice, P. Spirito, and L. Zeni, "Silicon electro-optic modulator based on a three terminal device integrated in a low-loss single-mode SOI waveguide," J. Lightwave Technol. 15(3), 505-518 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, "A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor," Nature 427(6975), 615-618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, "Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator," Nature 435(7040), 325-327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, "12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon microring silicon modulators," Opt. Express 15(2), 430-436 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. M. J. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, "Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator," Opt. Express 15(25), 17106-17113 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Deng, Z. R. Huang, and J. F. McDonald, "Design of high efficiency multi-GHz SiGe HBT electro-optic modulator," Opt. Express 17(16), 13425-13428 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, L. Liao, D. Rubin, H. Nguyen, B. Ciftcioglu, Y. Chetrit, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, "High-speed optical modulation based on carrier depletion in a silicon waveguide," Opt. Express 15(2), 660-668 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

SPIE Integr. Opt. Circuit Eng. (1)

R. A. Soref, and B. R. Bennett, "Kramers-Kronig analysis of electro-optical switching in silicon," SPIE Integr. Opt. Circuit Eng. 704, 32-37 (1986).

Other (4)

F. Y. Gardes, G. T. Reed, A. P. Knights, and G. Mashanovich, "Evolution of optical modulation using majority carrier plasma dispersion effect in SOI," Proc. SPIE 6898, 68980C-68980C-10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Cressler, and G. Niu, Silicon-Germanium Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors (Artech House, Inc, 2007).

A. Liu, "Announcing the world's first 40G silicon laser modulator", http://blogs.intel.com/research/2007/07/40g_modulator.php.

J.-S. Rieh, D. Greenberg, A. Stricker, and G. Freeman, "Scaling of SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistors," Proc. IEEE 93(9 Issue 9), 1522-1538 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Schematic of our HBT device cross-section

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Y-axis doping profile through the device center

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(a) Electron density (b) Hole density along y-axis at the device center for VBE = 0V, 0.8V, 1.0V, 1.2V, and 1.4V (from bottom to top in each plot)

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Major electric field Ey of TM-like mode at λ = 1.55μm (b) Mode overlap with the waveguide.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Transient analysis: (a) input pulse VBE , and (b) IC response.

Equations (1)

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P d = 0.5 × f s × 0 T s ( i C ( t ) V CE ( t ) + i B ( t ) V BE ( t ) ) dt

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