Abstract

In this work, we demonstrate improved molecular detection sensitivity for silicon slab photonic crystal cavities by introducing multiple-hole defects (MHDs), which increase the surface area available for label-free detection without degrading the quality factor. Compared to photonic crystals with L3 defects, adding MHDs into photonic crystal cavities enabled a 44% increase in detection sensitivity towards small refractive index perturbations due to surface monolayer attachment of a small aminosilane molecule. Also, photonic crystals with MHDs exhibited 18% higher detection sensitivity for bulk refractive index changes.

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2009

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photon. J. 1(3), 197–204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Washburn, L. C. Gunn, and R. C. Bailey, “Label-free quantitation of a cancer biomarker in complex media using silicon photonic microring resonators,” Anal. Chem. 81(22), 9499–9506 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

2007

2006

2005

B.-S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, “Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity,” Nat. Mater. 4(3), 207–210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Endo, K. Kerman, N. Nagatani, Y. Takamura, and E. Tamiya, “Label-free detection of peptide nucleic acid-DNA hybridization using localized surface plasmon resonance based optical biosensor,” Anal. Chem. 77(21), 6976–6984 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B.-S. Song, and S. Noda, “Fine-tuned high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavity,” Opt. Express 13(4), 1202–1214 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ksendzov and Y. Lin, “Integrated optics ring-resonator sensors for protein detection,” Opt. Lett. 30(24), 3344–3346 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

2003

S. J. McNab, N. Moll, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-low loss photonic integrated circuit with membrane-type photonic crystal waveguides,” Opt. Express 11(22), 2927–2939 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B.-S. Song, and S. Noda, “High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Nature 425(6961), 944–947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, “Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(21), 4057–4059 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Krioukov, D. J. W. Klunder, A. Driessen, J. Greve, and C. Otto, “Sensor based on an integrated optical microcavity,” Opt. Lett. 27(7), 512–514 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998

S.-Y. Lin, E. Chow, V. Hietala, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Experimental demonstration of guiding and bending of electromagnetic waves in a photonic crystal,” Science 282(5387), 274–276 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Luff, J. S. Wilkinson, J. Piehler, U. Hollenbach, J. Ingenhoff, and N. Fabricius, “Integrated optical Mach-Zehnder biosensor,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16(4), 583–592 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

E. F. Schipper, A. M. Brugman, C. Dominguez, L. M. Lechuga, R. P. H. Kooyman, and J. Greve, “The realization of an integrated mach-zehnder waveguide immunosensor in silicon technology,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 40(2-3), 147–153 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “High transmission through sharp bends in photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(18), 3787–3790 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

J. Berenger, “A perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic waves,” J. Comput. Phys. 114(2), 185–200 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

R. G. Heideman, R. P. H. Kooyman, and J. Greve, “Performance of a highly sensitive optical waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometer immunosensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 10(3), 209–217 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

P. V. Lambeck, “Integrated opto-chemical sensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 8(1), 103–116 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Abstreiter, G.

D. F. Dorfner, T. Hürlimann, T. Zabel, L. H. Frandsen, G. Abstreiter, and J. J. Finley, “Silicon photonic crystal nanostructures for refractive index sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 181103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Akahane, Y.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B.-S. Song, and S. Noda, “Fine-tuned high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavity,” Opt. Express 13(4), 1202–1214 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B.-S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, “Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity,” Nat. Mater. 4(3), 207–210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B.-S. Song, and S. Noda, “High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Nature 425(6961), 944–947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arnold, S.

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, “Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(21), 4057–4059 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Asano, T.

B.-S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, “Ultra-high-Q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity,” Nat. Mater. 4(3), 207–210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B.-S. Song, and S. Noda, “Fine-tuned high-Q photonic-crystal nanocavity,” Opt. Express 13(4), 1202–1214 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B.-S. Song, and S. Noda, “High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Nature 425(6961), 944–947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baets, R.

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photon. J. 1(3), 197–204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. De Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator microring resonator for sensitive and label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7610–7615 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bailey, R. C.

A. L. Washburn, L. C. Gunn, and R. C. Bailey, “Label-free quantitation of a cancer biomarker in complex media using silicon photonic microring resonators,” Anal. Chem. 81(22), 9499–9506 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bañuls, M. J.

Barrios, C. A.

Bartolozzi, I.

Berenger, J.

J. Berenger, “A perfectly matched layer for the absorption of electromagnetic waves,” J. Comput. Phys. 114(2), 185–200 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bermel, P.

Bienstman, P.

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photon. J. 1(3), 197–204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. De Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator microring resonator for sensitive and label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7610–7615 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borel, P. I.

Braun, D.

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, “Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(21), 4057–4059 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Brugman, A. M.

E. F. Schipper, A. M. Brugman, C. Dominguez, L. M. Lechuga, R. P. H. Kooyman, and J. Greve, “The realization of an integrated mach-zehnder waveguide immunosensor in silicon technology,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 40(2-3), 147–153 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Buriak, J. M.

Burr, G. W.

Buswell, S. C.

Casquel, R.

Chen, J. C.

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “High transmission through sharp bends in photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(18), 3787–3790 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chow, E.

E. Chow, A. Grot, L. W. Mirkarimi, M. Sigalas, and G. Girolami, “Ultracompact biochemical sensor built with two-dimensional photonic crystal microcavity,” Opt. Lett. 29(10), 1093–1095 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-Y. Lin, E. Chow, V. Hietala, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Experimental demonstration of guiding and bending of electromagnetic waves in a photonic crystal,” Science 282(5387), 274–276 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Claes, T.

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photon. J. 1(3), 197–204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

De Vos, K.

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE Photon. J. 1(3), 197–204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. De Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator microring resonator for sensitive and label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7610–7615 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dominguez, C.

E. F. Schipper, A. M. Brugman, C. Dominguez, L. M. Lechuga, R. P. H. Kooyman, and J. Greve, “The realization of an integrated mach-zehnder waveguide immunosensor in silicon technology,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 40(2-3), 147–153 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dorfner, D. F.

D. F. Dorfner, T. Hürlimann, T. Zabel, L. H. Frandsen, G. Abstreiter, and J. J. Finley, “Silicon photonic crystal nanostructures for refractive index sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 181103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Driessen, A.

Dulkeith, E.

Endo, T.

T. Endo, K. Kerman, N. Nagatani, Y. Takamura, and E. Tamiya, “Label-free detection of peptide nucleic acid-DNA hybridization using localized surface plasmon resonance based optical biosensor,” Anal. Chem. 77(21), 6976–6984 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Evoy, S.

Fabricius, N.

Fan, S.

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “High transmission through sharp bends in photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(18), 3787–3790 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farjadpour, A.

Fauchet, P. M.

M. Lee and P. M. Fauchet, “Two-dimensional silicon photonic crystal based biosensing platform for protein detection,” Opt. Express 15(8), 4530–4535 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ouyang, C. C. Striemer, and P. M. Fauchet, “Quantitative analysis of the sensitivity of porous silicon optical biosensors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(16), 163108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Finley, J. J.

D. F. Dorfner, T. Hürlimann, T. Zabel, L. H. Frandsen, G. Abstreiter, and J. J. Finley, “Silicon photonic crystal nanostructures for refractive index sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 181103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Frandsen, L. H.

D. F. Dorfner, T. Hürlimann, T. Zabel, L. H. Frandsen, G. Abstreiter, and J. J. Finley, “Silicon photonic crystal nanostructures for refractive index sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 181103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Skivesen, A. Têtu, M. Kristensen, J. Kjems, L. H. Frandsen, and P. I. Borel, “Photonic-crystal waveguide biosensor,” Opt. Express 15(6), 3169–3176 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Girolami, G.

González-Pedro, V.

Green, W. M. J.

Greve, J.

E. Krioukov, D. J. W. Klunder, A. Driessen, J. Greve, and C. Otto, “Sensor based on an integrated optical microcavity,” Opt. Lett. 27(7), 512–514 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Schipper, A. M. Brugman, C. Dominguez, L. M. Lechuga, R. P. H. Kooyman, and J. Greve, “The realization of an integrated mach-zehnder waveguide immunosensor in silicon technology,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 40(2-3), 147–153 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Heideman, R. P. H. Kooyman, and J. Greve, “Performance of a highly sensitive optical waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometer immunosensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 10(3), 209–217 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Griol, A.

Grot, A.

Gunn, L. C.

A. L. Washburn, L. C. Gunn, and R. C. Bailey, “Label-free quantitation of a cancer biomarker in complex media using silicon photonic microring resonators,” Anal. Chem. 81(22), 9499–9506 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gylfason, K. B.

Heideman, R. G.

R. G. Heideman, R. P. H. Kooyman, and J. Greve, “Performance of a highly sensitive optical waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometer immunosensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 10(3), 209–217 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hietala, V.

S.-Y. Lin, E. Chow, V. Hietala, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Experimental demonstration of guiding and bending of electromagnetic waves in a photonic crystal,” Science 282(5387), 274–276 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holgado, M.

Hollenbach, U.

Hürlimann, T.

D. F. Dorfner, T. Hürlimann, T. Zabel, L. H. Frandsen, G. Abstreiter, and J. J. Finley, “Silicon photonic crystal nanostructures for refractive index sensing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(18), 181103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ibanescu, M.

Ingenhoff, J.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

A. Farjadpour, D. Roundy, A. Rodriguez, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, and G. W. Burr, “Improving accuracy by subpixel smoothing in the finite-difference time domain,” Opt. Lett. 31, 2972–2974 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-Y. Lin, E. Chow, V. Hietala, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Experimental demonstration of guiding and bending of electromagnetic waves in a photonic crystal,” Science 282(5387), 274–276 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “High transmission through sharp bends in photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(18), 3787–3790 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, S. G.

Kang, C.

C. Kang and S. M. Weiss, “Photonic crystal defect tuning for optimized light-matter interaction,” Proc. SPIE 7031, 70310G (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Kang and S. M. Weiss, “Photonic crystal with multiple-hole defect for sensor applications,” Opt. Express 16(22), 18188–18193 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kerman, K.

T. Endo, K. Kerman, N. Nagatani, Y. Takamura, and E. Tamiya, “Label-free detection of peptide nucleic acid-DNA hybridization using localized surface plasmon resonance based optical biosensor,” Anal. Chem. 77(21), 6976–6984 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khoshsima, M.

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, “Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(21), 4057–4059 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kjems, J.

Klunder, D. J. W.

Kooyman, R. P. H.

E. F. Schipper, A. M. Brugman, C. Dominguez, L. M. Lechuga, R. P. H. Kooyman, and J. Greve, “The realization of an integrated mach-zehnder waveguide immunosensor in silicon technology,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 40(2-3), 147–153 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Heideman, R. P. H. Kooyman, and J. Greve, “Performance of a highly sensitive optical waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometer immunosensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 10(3), 209–217 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Krioukov, E.

Kristensen, M.

Ksendzov, A.

Kurland, I.

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “High transmission through sharp bends in photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(18), 3787–3790 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lambeck, P. V.

P. V. Lambeck, “Integrated opto-chemical sensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 8(1), 103–116 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lechuga, L. M.

E. F. Schipper, A. M. Brugman, C. Dominguez, L. M. Lechuga, R. P. H. Kooyman, and J. Greve, “The realization of an integrated mach-zehnder waveguide immunosensor in silicon technology,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 40(2-3), 147–153 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M.

Libchaber, A.

F. Vollmer, D. Braun, A. Libchaber, M. Khoshsima, I. Teraoka, and S. Arnold, “Protein detection by optical shift of a resonant microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(21), 4057–4059 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S.-Y.

S.-Y. Lin, E. Chow, V. Hietala, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Experimental demonstration of guiding and bending of electromagnetic waves in a photonic crystal,” Science 282(5387), 274–276 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, Y.

Luff, B. J.

Maquieira, A.

McNab, S. J.

Mekis, A.

A. Mekis, J. C. Chen, I. Kurland, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “High transmission through sharp bends in photonic crystal waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77(18), 3787–3790 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mirkarimi, L. W.

Molera, J. G.

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IEEE Photon. J.

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Proc. SPIE

C. Kang and S. M. Weiss, “Photonic crystal defect tuning for optimized light-matter interaction,” Proc. SPIE 7031, 70310G (2008).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cavity mode TE field profiles from FDTD analysis overlaid onto the in-plane dielectric structure for (a) L3 and (b) 3-hole MHD cavities, with their respective vertical cuts and overlaid field amplitude data shown in (c,d).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Fabricated PhC with L3 cavity showing coupling to input waveguide. The cavity configurations examined in this work are the (b) solid L3 cavity, (c) SHD, and (d) MHD. Scale bar indicates lattice constant, 410 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) (a) Transmission spectra comparing the resonance of a L3 cavity (solid) to those of SHD (dotted) and MHD (dashed) cavities with similar defect hole diameter. (b) Resonance shift relative to L3 cavity for SHD and MHD cavities as a function of defect hole diameter. Measured results are shown as solid squares/circles (SHD/MHD), data from FDTD simulations are shown in open squares/circles, and a linear fit (dashed line) is provided as a guide to the eye.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Transmission spectra for resonances of L3 cavity, 56 nm diameter MHD cavity and 67 nm diameter MHD cavity before (solid curve) and after (blue, red, and green, respectively) application of ~1 nm monolayer of 3-APTES.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Resonance data for SHD and MHD cavities before and after wetting with silicone oil. (All units in nm)

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