Abstract

We experimentally demonstrate the bandwidth enhancement of wavelength conversion in a silicon waveguide based on four-wave mixing (FWM) with two continuous-wave pumps. Our measurement results show 25% bandwidth improvement from 29.8 nm to 37.4 nm in a 17-mm-long silicon waveguide with a pump spacing of 14.9 nm as compared to a single-pump FWM. The experimental results are verified by theoretical calculations and >40% bandwidth enhancement is predicted by further wavelength separation of the two pumps.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. K. K. Chow, C. Shu, C. Lin, and A. Bjarklev, “Polarization-insensitive widely tunable wavelength converter based on four-wave mixing in a dispersion-flattened nonlinear photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(3), 624–626 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Gao, C. Yang, and G. Jin, “Flat broad-band wavelength conversion based on sinusoidally chirped optical superlattices in lithium niobate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(2), 557–559 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Gao, C. Yang, X. Xiao, Y. Tian, Z. You, and G. Jin, “Bandwidth enhancement and response flattening of cascaded sum- and difference-frequency generation-based wavelength conversion,” Opt. Commun. 266(1), 296–301 (2006).
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  6. S. Gao, X. Zhang, Z. Li, and S. He, “Polarization-independent wavelength conversion using an angled-polarization pump in a silicon nanowire waveguide,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 250–256 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  10. X. Zhang, S. Gao, and S. He, “Optimal design of a silicon-on-insulator nanowire waveguide for broadband wavelength conversion,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. 89, 183–198 (2009).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2010

2009

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, “Demonstration of broadband wavelength conversion at 40 Gb/s in silicon waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(3), 182–184 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, S. Gao, and S. He, “Optimal design of a silicon-on-insulator nanowire waveguide for broadband wavelength conversion,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. 89, 183–198 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2006

H. Rong, Y.-H. Kuo, A. Liu, M. Paniccia, and O. Cohen, “High efficiency wavelength conversion of 10 Gb/s data in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 14(3), 1182–1188 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-3-1182 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Turner, C. Manolatou, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, M. A. Foster, J. E. Sharping, and A. L. Gaeta, “Tailored anomalous group-velocity dispersion in silicon channel waveguides,” Opt. Express 14(10), 4357–4362 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-10-4357 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Lin, J. Zhang, P. M. Fauchet, and G. P. Agrawal, “Ultrabroadband parametric generation and wavelength conversion in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 14(11), 4786–4799 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-11-4786 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Jiang, R. Saperstein, N. Alic, M. Nezhad, C. McKinstrie, J. Ford, Y. Fainman, and S. Radic, “Parametric wavelength conversion from conventional near-infrared to visible band,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(23), 2445–2447 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Gao, C. Yang, X. Xiao, Y. Tian, Z. You, and G. Jin, “Bandwidth enhancement and response flattening of cascaded sum- and difference-frequency generation-based wavelength conversion,” Opt. Commun. 266(1), 296–301 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, T. Shoji, and S. Itabashi, “All-optical efficient wavelength conversion using silicon photonic wire waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(9), 1046–1048 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

D. Dimitropoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo, and B. Jalali, “Lifetime of photogenerated carriers in silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Chow, C. Shu, C. Lin, and A. Bjarklev, “Polarization-insensitive widely tunable wavelength converter based on four-wave mixing in a dispersion-flattened nonlinear photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(3), 624–626 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

S. Gao, C. Yang, and G. Jin, “Flat broad-band wavelength conversion based on sinusoidally chirped optical superlattices in lithium niobate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(2), 557–559 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

Alic, N.

R. Jiang, R. Saperstein, N. Alic, M. Nezhad, C. McKinstrie, J. Ford, Y. Fainman, and S. Radic, “Parametric wavelength conversion from conventional near-infrared to visible band,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(23), 2445–2447 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bergman, K.

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, “Demonstration of broadband wavelength conversion at 40 Gb/s in silicon waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(3), 182–184 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Biberman, A.

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, “Demonstration of broadband wavelength conversion at 40 Gb/s in silicon waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(3), 182–184 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bjarklev, A.

K. K. Chow, C. Shu, C. Lin, and A. Bjarklev, “Polarization-insensitive widely tunable wavelength converter based on four-wave mixing in a dispersion-flattened nonlinear photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(3), 624–626 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Boyraz, O.

Chen, X.

Chow, K. K.

K. K. Chow, C. Shu, C. Lin, and A. Bjarklev, “Polarization-insensitive widely tunable wavelength converter based on four-wave mixing in a dispersion-flattened nonlinear photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(3), 624–626 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Claps, R.

D. Dimitropoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo, and B. Jalali, “Lifetime of photogenerated carriers in silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, O.

Dadap, J. I.

Dimitropoulos, D.

D. Dimitropoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo, and B. Jalali, “Lifetime of photogenerated carriers in silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fainman, Y.

R. Jiang, R. Saperstein, N. Alic, M. Nezhad, C. McKinstrie, J. Ford, Y. Fainman, and S. Radic, “Parametric wavelength conversion from conventional near-infrared to visible band,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(23), 2445–2447 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fauchet, P. M.

Ford, J.

R. Jiang, R. Saperstein, N. Alic, M. Nezhad, C. McKinstrie, J. Ford, Y. Fainman, and S. Radic, “Parametric wavelength conversion from conventional near-infrared to visible band,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(23), 2445–2447 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Foster, M. A.

Fukuda, H.

K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, T. Shoji, and S. Itabashi, “All-optical efficient wavelength conversion using silicon photonic wire waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(9), 1046–1048 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gaeta, A. L.

Gao, S.

S. Gao, X. Zhang, Z. Li, and S. He, “Polarization-independent wavelength conversion using an angled-polarization pump in a silicon nanowire waveguide,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 250–256 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Gao, Z. Li, E.-K. Tien, S. He, and O. Boyraz, “Performance evaluation of nondegenerate wavelength conversion in a silicon nanowire waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(21), 3079–3085 (2010).

S. Gao, E.-K. Tien, Q. Song, Y. Huang, and O. Boyraz, “Ultra-broadband one-to-two wavelength conversion using low-phase-mismatching four-wave mixing in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11898–11903 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-11-11898 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, S. Gao, and S. He, “Optimal design of a silicon-on-insulator nanowire waveguide for broadband wavelength conversion,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. 89, 183–198 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Gao, C. Yang, X. Xiao, Y. Tian, Z. You, and G. Jin, “Bandwidth enhancement and response flattening of cascaded sum- and difference-frequency generation-based wavelength conversion,” Opt. Commun. 266(1), 296–301 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Gao, C. Yang, and G. Jin, “Flat broad-band wavelength conversion based on sinusoidally chirped optical superlattices in lithium niobate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(2), 557–559 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Green, W. M. J.

He, S.

S. Gao, X. Zhang, Z. Li, and S. He, “Polarization-independent wavelength conversion using an angled-polarization pump in a silicon nanowire waveguide,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 250–256 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Gao, Z. Li, E.-K. Tien, S. He, and O. Boyraz, “Performance evaluation of nondegenerate wavelength conversion in a silicon nanowire waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(21), 3079–3085 (2010).

X. Zhang, S. Gao, and S. He, “Optimal design of a silicon-on-insulator nanowire waveguide for broadband wavelength conversion,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. 89, 183–198 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, I.-W.

Huang, Y.

Itabashi, S.

K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, T. Shoji, and S. Itabashi, “All-optical efficient wavelength conversion using silicon photonic wire waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(9), 1046–1048 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jalali, B.

D. Dimitropoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo, and B. Jalali, “Lifetime of photogenerated carriers in silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jhaveri, R.

D. Dimitropoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo, and B. Jalali, “Lifetime of photogenerated carriers in silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, R.

R. Jiang, R. Saperstein, N. Alic, M. Nezhad, C. McKinstrie, J. Ford, Y. Fainman, and S. Radic, “Parametric wavelength conversion from conventional near-infrared to visible band,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(23), 2445–2447 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jin, G.

S. Gao, C. Yang, X. Xiao, Y. Tian, Z. You, and G. Jin, “Bandwidth enhancement and response flattening of cascaded sum- and difference-frequency generation-based wavelength conversion,” Opt. Commun. 266(1), 296–301 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Gao, C. Yang, and G. Jin, “Flat broad-band wavelength conversion based on sinusoidally chirped optical superlattices in lithium niobate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(2), 557–559 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, Y.-H.

Lee, B. G.

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, “Demonstration of broadband wavelength conversion at 40 Gb/s in silicon waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(3), 182–184 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

S. Gao, Z. Li, E.-K. Tien, S. He, and O. Boyraz, “Performance evaluation of nondegenerate wavelength conversion in a silicon nanowire waveguide,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(21), 3079–3085 (2010).

S. Gao, X. Zhang, Z. Li, and S. He, “Polarization-independent wavelength conversion using an angled-polarization pump in a silicon nanowire waveguide,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 250–256 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.

K. K. Chow, C. Shu, C. Lin, and A. Bjarklev, “Polarization-insensitive widely tunable wavelength converter based on four-wave mixing in a dispersion-flattened nonlinear photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(3), 624–626 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Q.

Lipson, M.

Liu, A.

Liu, X.

Manolatou, C.

McKinstrie, C.

R. Jiang, R. Saperstein, N. Alic, M. Nezhad, C. McKinstrie, J. Ford, Y. Fainman, and S. Radic, “Parametric wavelength conversion from conventional near-infrared to visible band,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(23), 2445–2447 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nezhad, M.

R. Jiang, R. Saperstein, N. Alic, M. Nezhad, C. McKinstrie, J. Ford, Y. Fainman, and S. Radic, “Parametric wavelength conversion from conventional near-infrared to visible band,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(23), 2445–2447 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Osgood, R. M.

Paniccia, M.

Radic, S.

R. Jiang, R. Saperstein, N. Alic, M. Nezhad, C. McKinstrie, J. Ford, Y. Fainman, and S. Radic, “Parametric wavelength conversion from conventional near-infrared to visible band,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(23), 2445–2447 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rong, H.

Salem, R.

Sang, X.

Saperstein, R.

R. Jiang, R. Saperstein, N. Alic, M. Nezhad, C. McKinstrie, J. Ford, Y. Fainman, and S. Radic, “Parametric wavelength conversion from conventional near-infrared to visible band,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(23), 2445–2447 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, B. S.

Sharping, J. E.

Shoji, T.

K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, T. Shoji, and S. Itabashi, “All-optical efficient wavelength conversion using silicon photonic wire waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(9), 1046–1048 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shu, C.

K. K. Chow, C. Shu, C. Lin, and A. Bjarklev, “Polarization-insensitive widely tunable wavelength converter based on four-wave mixing in a dispersion-flattened nonlinear photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(3), 624–626 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Song, Q.

Tian, Y.

S. Gao, C. Yang, X. Xiao, Y. Tian, Z. You, and G. Jin, “Bandwidth enhancement and response flattening of cascaded sum- and difference-frequency generation-based wavelength conversion,” Opt. Commun. 266(1), 296–301 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tien, E.-K.

Tsuchizawa, T.

K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, T. Shoji, and S. Itabashi, “All-optical efficient wavelength conversion using silicon photonic wire waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(9), 1046–1048 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Turner, A. C.

Turner-Foster, A. C.

A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, R. Salem, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Frequency conversion over two-thirds of an octave in silicon nanowaveguides,” Opt. Express 18(3), 1904–1908 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-3-1904 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, “Demonstration of broadband wavelength conversion at 40 Gb/s in silicon waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(3), 182–184 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y. A.

Watanabe, T.

K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, T. Shoji, and S. Itabashi, “All-optical efficient wavelength conversion using silicon photonic wire waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(9), 1046–1048 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Woo, J. C. S.

D. Dimitropoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo, and B. Jalali, “Lifetime of photogenerated carriers in silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, X.

S. Gao, C. Yang, X. Xiao, Y. Tian, Z. You, and G. Jin, “Bandwidth enhancement and response flattening of cascaded sum- and difference-frequency generation-based wavelength conversion,” Opt. Commun. 266(1), 296–301 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, K.

K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, T. Shoji, and S. Itabashi, “All-optical efficient wavelength conversion using silicon photonic wire waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(9), 1046–1048 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C.

S. Gao, C. Yang, X. Xiao, Y. Tian, Z. You, and G. Jin, “Bandwidth enhancement and response flattening of cascaded sum- and difference-frequency generation-based wavelength conversion,” Opt. Commun. 266(1), 296–301 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Gao, C. Yang, and G. Jin, “Flat broad-band wavelength conversion based on sinusoidally chirped optical superlattices in lithium niobate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(2), 557–559 (2004).
[CrossRef]

You, Z.

S. Gao, C. Yang, X. Xiao, Y. Tian, Z. You, and G. Jin, “Bandwidth enhancement and response flattening of cascaded sum- and difference-frequency generation-based wavelength conversion,” Opt. Commun. 266(1), 296–301 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

Zhang, X.

S. Gao, X. Zhang, Z. Li, and S. He, “Polarization-independent wavelength conversion using an angled-polarization pump in a silicon nanowire waveguide,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 250–256 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, S. Gao, and S. He, “Optimal design of a silicon-on-insulator nanowire waveguide for broadband wavelength conversion,” Prog. Electromagn. Res. 89, 183–198 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

D. Dimitropoulos, R. Jhaveri, R. Claps, J. C. S. Woo, and B. Jalali, “Lifetime of photogenerated carriers in silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071115 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

S. Gao, X. Zhang, Z. Li, and S. He, “Polarization-independent wavelength conversion using an angled-polarization pump in a silicon nanowire waveguide,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 250–256 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, T. Shoji, and S. Itabashi, “All-optical efficient wavelength conversion using silicon photonic wire waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(9), 1046–1048 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. G. Lee, A. Biberman, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, M. Lipson, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Bergman, “Demonstration of broadband wavelength conversion at 40 Gb/s in silicon waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(3), 182–184 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Chow, C. Shu, C. Lin, and A. Bjarklev, “Polarization-insensitive widely tunable wavelength converter based on four-wave mixing in a dispersion-flattened nonlinear photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(3), 624–626 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Jiang, R. Saperstein, N. Alic, M. Nezhad, C. McKinstrie, J. Ford, Y. Fainman, and S. Radic, “Parametric wavelength conversion from conventional near-infrared to visible band,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(23), 2445–2447 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Gao, C. Yang, and G. Jin, “Flat broad-band wavelength conversion based on sinusoidally chirped optical superlattices in lithium niobate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(2), 557–559 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Opt. Commun.

S. Gao, C. Yang, X. Xiao, Y. Tian, Z. You, and G. Jin, “Bandwidth enhancement and response flattening of cascaded sum- and difference-frequency generation-based wavelength conversion,” Opt. Commun. 266(1), 296–301 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

A. C. Turner-Foster, M. A. Foster, R. Salem, A. L. Gaeta, and M. Lipson, “Frequency conversion over two-thirds of an octave in silicon nanowaveguides,” Opt. Express 18(3), 1904–1908 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-3-1904 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gao, E.-K. Tien, Q. Song, Y. Huang, and O. Boyraz, “Ultra-broadband one-to-two wavelength conversion using low-phase-mismatching four-wave mixing in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11898–11903 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-11-11898 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Rong, Y.-H. Kuo, A. Liu, M. Paniccia, and O. Cohen, “High efficiency wavelength conversion of 10 Gb/s data in silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 14(3), 1182–1188 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-3-1182 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. C. Turner, C. Manolatou, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, M. A. Foster, J. E. Sharping, and A. L. Gaeta, “Tailored anomalous group-velocity dispersion in silicon channel waveguides,” Opt. Express 14(10), 4357–4362 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-10-4357 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for the wavelength conversion based on two-pump FWM. TLD: tunable laser diode, PC: polarization controller, EDFA: erbium-doped fiber amplifier, TBF: tunable bandwidth filter, OC: optical coupler, and OSA: optical spectrum analyzer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Optical spectrum of the FWM pumped by two cw pumps at 1549.9 nm and 1564.8 nm. The inset is the enlarged description of the generated idler. (b) Optical spectrum of the FWM pumped by a single cw pump at 1557.7 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured unit conversion efficiencies and the fitting curves for the two-pump and single-pump wavelength conversions.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Dispersion profile of the silicon waveguide used in the experiment and simulation results of (b) the phase mismatch and (c) the corresponding unit conversion efficiency for the two-pump and single-pump FWMs.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Unit conversion efficiency versus the wavelength offset for the two-pump FWM in the experimental silicon waveguide with several different pump wavelength spacings.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Dispersion profiles of the silicon waveguide geometries of 300 nm × 650 nm, 285 nm × 650 nm, and 250 nm × 650 nm. (b) Unit conversion efficiency as the wavelength offset varies in the three silicon waveguides, where the solid lines are for the two-pump FWM and the dashed lines are for the single-pump FWM.

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