Abstract

We quantitatively predict the observed continuum-like spectral broadening in a 90-mm weakly birefringent all-normal dispersion-flattened photonic crystal fiber pumped by 1041-nm 229-fs 76-MHz pulses from a solid-state Yb:KYW laser. The well-characterized continuum pulses span a bandwidth of up to 300 nm around the laser wavelength, allowing high spectral power density pulse shaping useful for various coherent control applications. We also identify the nonlinear polarization effect that limits the bandwidth of these continuum pulses, and therefore report the path toward a series of attractive alternative broadband coherent optical sources.

© 2010 OSA

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2010 (4)

2009 (5)

2008 (4)

2007 (4)

2006 (2)

2005 (2)

B. Schenkel, R. Paschotta, and U. Keller, “Pulse compression with supercontinuum generation in microstructure fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 22(3), 687–693 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Kibler, J. M. Dudley, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation and nonlinear pulse propagation in photonic crystal fiber: influence of the frequency-dependent effective mode area,” Appl. Phys. B 81(2-3), 337–342 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

2003 (4)

T. Südmeyer, F. Brunner, E. Innerhofer, R. Paschotta, K. Furusawa, J. C. Baggett, T. M. Monro, D. J. Richardson, and U. Keller, “Nonlinear femtosecond pulse compression at high average power levels by use of a large-mode-area holey fiber,” Opt. Lett. 28(20), 1951–1953 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. V. Skryabin, F. Luan, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Soliton self-frequency shift cancellation in photonic crystal fibers,” Science 301(5640), 1705–1708 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental noise limitations to supercontinuum generation in microstructure fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(11), 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. R. Schibli, O. Kuzucu, J.-W. Kim, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, F. X. Kaertner, V. Scheuer, and G. Angelow, “Toward single-cycle laser systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(4), 990–1001 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

2001 (2)

A. V. Husakou and J. Herrmann, “Supercontinuum generation of higher-order solitons by fission in photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(20), 203901 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Steel, T. P. White, C. Martijn de Sterke, R. C. McPhedran, and L. C. Botten, “Symmetry and degeneracy in microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 26(8), 488–490 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

1989 (1)

K. J. Blow and D. Wood, “Theoretical description of transient stimulated Raman scattering in optical fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25(12), 2665–2673 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Amorim, A. A.

Angelow, G.

T. R. Schibli, O. Kuzucu, J.-W. Kim, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, F. X. Kaertner, V. Scheuer, and G. Angelow, “Toward single-cycle laser systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(4), 990–1001 (2003).
[CrossRef]

U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, S. H. Cho, Y. Chen, H. A. Haus, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, V. Scheuer, G. Angelow, and T. Tschudi, “Sub-two-cycle pulses from a Kerr-lens mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 24(6), 411–413 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Baggett, J. C.

Bernardo, L. M.

Biancalana, F.

Blow, K. J.

K. J. Blow and D. Wood, “Theoretical description of transient stimulated Raman scattering in optical fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25(12), 2665–2673 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Boppart, S. A.

H. Tu, S. Shin, R. John, and S. A. Boppart, “Long-period fiber gratings spontaneously written by a mechanism markedly different from Hill grating formation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(12), 121104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Tu, X. Liang, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, “Emergence of self-organized long-period fiber gratings in supercontinuum-generating optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 34(5), 668–670 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borukhovich, I.

Botten, L. C.

Brunner, F.

Buckup, T.

Chen, Y.

Cho, S. H.

Coello, Y.

Coen, A.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and A. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Coen, S.

B. Kibler, J. M. Dudley, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation and nonlinear pulse propagation in photonic crystal fiber: influence of the frequency-dependent effective mode area,” Appl. Phys. B 81(2-3), 337–342 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental noise limitations to supercontinuum generation in microstructure fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(11), 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Dudley, X. Gu, L. Xu, M. Kimmel, E. Zeek, P. O’Shea, R. Trebino, S. Coen, and R. Windeler, “Cross-correlation frequency resolved optical gating analysis of broadband continuum generation in photonic crystal fiber: simulations and experiments,” Opt. Express 10(21), 1215–1221 (2002).
[PubMed]

Corwin, K. L.

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental noise limitations to supercontinuum generation in microstructure fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(11), 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crespo, H. M.

Cruz, J. M. D.

Dantus, M.

de Sterke, C. M.

Deepak, K. L. N.

Diddams, S. A.

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental noise limitations to supercontinuum generation in microstructure fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(11), 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Druon, F.

Dudley, J.

Dudley, J. M.

J. M. Dudley and J. R. Taylor, “Ten years of nonlinear optics in photonic crystal fibre,” Nat. Photonics 3(2), 85–90 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and A. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Kibler, J. M. Dudley, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation and nonlinear pulse propagation in photonic crystal fiber: influence of the frequency-dependent effective mode area,” Appl. Phys. B 81(2-3), 337–342 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental noise limitations to supercontinuum generation in microstructure fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(11), 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Efimov, A.

Fleming, C. P.

Frosz, M. H.

Fujimoto, J. G.

T. R. Schibli, O. Kuzucu, J.-W. Kim, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, F. X. Kaertner, V. Scheuer, and G. Angelow, “Toward single-cycle laser systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(4), 990–1001 (2003).
[CrossRef]

U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, S. H. Cho, Y. Chen, H. A. Haus, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, V. Scheuer, G. Angelow, and T. Tschudi, “Sub-two-cycle pulses from a Kerr-lens mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 24(6), 411–413 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Furusawa, K.

Genty, G.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and A. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Georges, P.

Gu, X.

Gunaratne, T. C.

Gunn, J. M.

Haus, H. A.

Heidt, A. M.

Herrmann, J.

A. V. Husakou and J. Herrmann, “Supercontinuum generation of higher-order solitons by fission in photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(20), 203901 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Houmann, A.

Huber, R.

Husakou, A. V.

A. V. Husakou and J. Herrmann, “Supercontinuum generation of higher-order solitons by fission in photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(20), 203901 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Innerhofer, E.

Ippen, E. P.

T. R. Schibli, O. Kuzucu, J.-W. Kim, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, F. X. Kaertner, V. Scheuer, and G. Angelow, “Toward single-cycle laser systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(4), 990–1001 (2003).
[CrossRef]

U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, S. H. Cho, Y. Chen, H. A. Haus, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, V. Scheuer, G. Angelow, and T. Tschudi, “Sub-two-cycle pulses from a Kerr-lens mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 24(6), 411–413 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jalali, B.

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Optical rogue waves,” Nature 450(7172), 1054–1057 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

John, R.

H. Tu, S. Shin, R. John, and S. A. Boppart, “Long-period fiber gratings spontaneously written by a mechanism markedly different from Hill grating formation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(12), 121104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Joly, N.

Kaertner, F. X.

T. R. Schibli, O. Kuzucu, J.-W. Kim, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, F. X. Kaertner, V. Scheuer, and G. Angelow, “Toward single-cycle laser systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(4), 990–1001 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kärtner, F. X.

Keller, U.

Kibler, B.

B. Kibler, J. M. Dudley, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation and nonlinear pulse propagation in photonic crystal fiber: influence of the frequency-dependent effective mode area,” Appl. Phys. B 81(2-3), 337–342 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.-W.

T. R. Schibli, O. Kuzucu, J.-W. Kim, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, F. X. Kaertner, V. Scheuer, and G. Angelow, “Toward single-cycle laser systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(4), 990–1001 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kimmel, M.

Knight, J.

Knight, J. C.

D. V. Skryabin, F. Luan, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Soliton self-frequency shift cancellation in photonic crystal fibers,” Science 301(5640), 1705–1708 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koonath, P.

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Optical rogue waves,” Nature 450(7172), 1054–1057 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krauss, G.

Kristensen, J. T.

Kuhlmey, B. T.

Kuzucu, O.

T. R. Schibli, O. Kuzucu, J.-W. Kim, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, F. X. Kaertner, V. Scheuer, and G. Angelow, “Toward single-cycle laser systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(4), 990–1001 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Laegsgaard, J.

Leitenstorfer, A.

Liang, X.

Liu, X.

Lozovoy, V. V.

Luan, F.

D. V. Skryabin, F. Luan, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Soliton self-frequency shift cancellation in photonic crystal fibers,” Science 301(5640), 1705–1708 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marks, D. L.

Martijn de Sterke, C.

Maystre, D.

McConnell, G.

G. McConnell and E. Riis, “Ultra-short pulse compression using photonic crystal fibre,” Appl. Phys. B 78(5), 557–563 (2004).
[CrossRef]

McPhedran, R. C.

Monro, T. M.

Morgner, U.

Motzkus, M.

Narayana Rao, D.

Newbury, N. R.

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental noise limitations to supercontinuum generation in microstructure fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(11), 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishizawa, N.

O’Shea, P.

Oliveira, P.

Omenetto, F.

Paschotta, R.

Ralph, S.

Ranka, J. K.

Renversez, G.

Richardson, D. J.

Riis, E.

G. McConnell and E. Riis, “Ultra-short pulse compression using photonic crystal fibre,” Appl. Phys. B 78(5), 557–563 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rollins, A. M.

Ropers, C.

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Optical rogue waves,” Nature 450(7172), 1054–1057 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russell, P.

Russell, P. St. J.

D. V. Skryabin, F. Luan, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Soliton self-frequency shift cancellation in photonic crystal fibers,” Science 301(5640), 1705–1708 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sai Santosh Kumar, R.

Schenkel, B.

Scheu, R.

Scheuer, V.

T. R. Schibli, O. Kuzucu, J.-W. Kim, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, F. X. Kaertner, V. Scheuer, and G. Angelow, “Toward single-cycle laser systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(4), 990–1001 (2003).
[CrossRef]

U. Morgner, F. X. Kärtner, S. H. Cho, Y. Chen, H. A. Haus, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, V. Scheuer, G. Angelow, and T. Tschudi, “Sub-two-cycle pulses from a Kerr-lens mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 24(6), 411–413 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schibli, T. R.

T. R. Schibli, O. Kuzucu, J.-W. Kim, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, F. X. Kaertner, V. Scheuer, and G. Angelow, “Toward single-cycle laser systems,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(4), 990–1001 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sell, A.

Shin, S.

H. Tu, S. Shin, R. John, and S. A. Boppart, “Long-period fiber gratings spontaneously written by a mechanism markedly different from Hill grating formation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(12), 121104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Silberberg, Y.

Y. Silberberg, “Quantum coherent control for nonlinear spectroscopy and microscopy,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 60(1), 277–292 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Silva, J. L.

Skryabin, D.

Skryabin, D. V.

D. V. Skryabin, F. Luan, J. C. Knight, and P. St. J. Russell, “Soliton self-frequency shift cancellation in photonic crystal fibers,” Science 301(5640), 1705–1708 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solli, D. R.

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Optical rogue waves,” Nature 450(7172), 1054–1057 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steel, M. J.

Stentz, A. J.

Südmeyer, T.

Takayanagi, J.

Taylor, A.

Taylor, J. R.

J. M. Dudley and J. R. Taylor, “Ten years of nonlinear optics in photonic crystal fibre,” Nat. Photonics 3(2), 85–90 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tognetti, M. V.

Trebino, R.

Tschudi, T.

Tseng, C.

Tu, H.

H. Tu, S. Shin, R. John, and S. A. Boppart, “Long-period fiber gratings spontaneously written by a mechanism markedly different from Hill grating formation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(12), 121104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Tu, X. Liang, D. L. Marks, and S. A. Boppart, “Emergence of self-organized long-period fiber gratings in supercontinuum-generating optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 34(5), 668–670 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turchinovich, D.

von Vacano, B.

Wang, H.

Washburn, B.

Weber, K.

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental noise limitations to supercontinuum generation in microstructure fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(11), 113904 (2003).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Calculated dispersion curves of a hexagonal PCF for given structural parameters of Λ and d/Λ (red, green, and blue curves), and measured dispersion curve of the hexagonal PCF under investigation in this study (black curve). The inset shows the scanning electron microscopy image of the PCF with the measured dispersion curve.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of PCF continuum generation and corresponding measurements.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Extent of depolarization along either the weak or the strong polarization-maintaining axis as a function of fiber output power at a given fiber birefringence B. The vertical arrows indicate the nonlinear polarization-mode depolarization onsets.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of observed (blue curves) and simulated (red curves) fiber continuum spectra of the 90-mm PCF at fiber output powers of 0.061 W, 0.130 W, 0.225 W, and 0.361 W (see text in details). The green curve shows the spectrum of the incident laser pulses.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Temporal profiles of unchirped and chirped incident sech (or Gaussian) pulses with FWHM widths of 229 fs and 283 fs, respectively. (b) Temporal profiles of output continuum pulses at fiber output power of 0.361 W without compression, with compression removing linear chirp, and with compression removing full chirp. (c) Simulated spectral phase of the uncompressed continuum pulses at fiber output power of 0.361 W.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Representative compressible fiber continua as broadband coherent optical sources

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Table 2 Parameters for simulation of scalar GNLSE based on Eq. (1)

Equations (2)

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U ( z , T ) z k 2 i k + 1 β k k ! k U ( z , T ) T k = 1 L N L ( i 1 ω 0 T ) ( U ( z , T ) R ( T ' ) | U ( z , T T ' ) | 2 d T ' )
R ( t ) = ( 1 f R ) δ ( t ) + f R τ 1 2 + τ 2 2 τ 1 τ 2 2 exp ( t τ 2 ) sin ( t τ 1 )

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