Abstract

We report on a novel approach of performance scaling of ultra-fast lasers by means of coherent combination. Pulses from a single mode-locked laser are distributed to a number of spatially separated fiber amplifiers and coherently combined after amplification. Splitting and combination is achieved by polarization cubes, i.e. the approach bases on polarization combining. A Hänsch-Couillaud detector measures the polarization state at the output. The error signal (deviation from linear polarization) is used to stabilize the synchronization of different channels. In a proof-of-principle experiment the combination of two femtosecond fiber-based CPA systems is presented. A combining efficiency as high as 97% has been achieved. The technique offers a unique scaling potential and can be applied to all ultrafast amplification schemes independent of the architecture of the gain medium.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. C. R. E. Baer, Ch. Kränkel, C. J. Saraceno, O. H. Heckl, M. Golling, R. Peters, K. Petermann, Th. Südmeyer, G. Huber, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond thin-disk laser with 141 W of average power,” Opt. Lett. 35(13), 2302–2304 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-35-13-2302 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. ICUIL “International Committee on Ultra-High Intensity Lasers,” http://www.icuil.org/ .
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  6. C. Wirth, O. Schmidt, I. Tsybin, T. Schreiber, T. Peschel, F. Brückner, T. Clausnitzer, J. Limpert, R. Eberhardt, A. Tünnermann, M. Gowin, E. ten Have, K. Ludewigt, and M. Jung, “2 kW incoherent beam combining of four narrow-linewidth photonic crystal fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1178–1183 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-3-1178 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. O. Schmidt, C. Wirth, I. Tsybin, T. Schreiber, R. Eberhardt, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Average power of 1.1 kW from spectrally combined, fiber-amplified, nanosecond-pulsed sources,” Opt. Lett. 34(10), 1567–1569 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-34-10-1567 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. I. Hartl, T. R. Schibli, A. Marcinkevicius, D. C. Yost, D. D. Hudson, M. E. Fermann, and J. Ye, “Cavity-enhanced similariton Yb-fiber laser frequency comb: 3×1014 W/cm2 peak intensity at 136 MHz,” Opt. Lett. 32(19), 2870–2872 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-32-19-2870 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. S. Zhou, F. Wise, and D. Ouzounov, “Divided-pulse amplification of ultrashort pulses,” Opt. Lett. 32(7), 871–873 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. S. Roither, A. Verhoef, O. Mücke, G. Reider, A. Pugzlys, and A. Baltuska, “Sagnac-Interferometer Multipass-Loop Amplifier,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (OSA, 2008), paper CTuK4.
  16. G. Krauss, S. Lohss, T. Hanke, A. Sell, S. Eggert, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Synthesis of a single cycle of light with compact erbium-doped fibre technology,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 33–36 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. W. Hänsch and B. Couillaud, “Laser frequency stabilization by polarization spectroscopy of a reflecting reference cavity,” Opt. Commun. 35(3), 441–444 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  18. F. Röser, T. Eidam, J. Rothhardt, O. Schmidt, D. N. Schimpf, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Millijoule pulse energy high repetition rate femtosecond fiber chirped-pulse amplification system,” Opt. Lett. 32(24), 3495 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-32-24-3495 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (5)

2009 (3)

2008 (1)

2007 (3)

2006 (2)

1980 (1)

T. W. Hänsch and B. Couillaud, “Laser frequency stabilization by polarization spectroscopy of a reflecting reference cavity,” Opt. Commun. 35(3), 441–444 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Alahmed, Z. A.

Andersen, T. V.

Apolonski, A.

Azzeer, A. M.

Baer, C. R. E.

Bernhardt, B.

Bratcher, A.

R. Uberna, A. Bratcher, and B. Tiemann, “Coherent Polarization Beam Combining,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(8), 1191–1196 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brückner, F.

Cheung, E. C.

Clausnitzer, T.

Couillaud, B.

T. W. Hänsch and B. Couillaud, “Laser frequency stabilization by polarization spectroscopy of a reflecting reference cavity,” Opt. Commun. 35(3), 441–444 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Davidson, N.

Eberhardt, R.

Eckhouse, V.

Eggert, S.

G. Krauss, S. Lohss, T. Hanke, A. Sell, S. Eggert, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Synthesis of a single cycle of light with compact erbium-doped fibre technology,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 33–36 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Eidam, T.

Epp, P.

Fermann, M. E.

Fill, E.

Friesem, A.

Gabler, Th.

Golling, M.

Goodno, G. D.

Gowin, M.

Hanf, S.

Hanke, T.

G. Krauss, S. Lohss, T. Hanke, A. Sell, S. Eggert, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Synthesis of a single cycle of light with compact erbium-doped fibre technology,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 33–36 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hänsch, T. W.

Hartl, I.

Heckl, O. H.

Hoffmann, H. D.

Hou, J.

Howland, D.

Huber, G.

Huber, R.

G. Krauss, S. Lohss, T. Hanke, A. Sell, S. Eggert, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Synthesis of a single cycle of light with compact erbium-doped fibre technology,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 33–36 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hudson, D. D.

Injeyan, H.

Ishaaya, A.

Jiang, Z.

Jung, M.

Keller, U.

Komine, H.

Kränkel, Ch.

Krauss, G.

G. Krauss, S. Lohss, T. Hanke, A. Sell, S. Eggert, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Synthesis of a single cycle of light with compact erbium-doped fibre technology,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 33–36 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Krausz, F.

Leitenstorfer, A.

G. Krauss, S. Lohss, T. Hanke, A. Sell, S. Eggert, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Synthesis of a single cycle of light with compact erbium-doped fibre technology,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 33–36 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Limpert, J.

T. Eidam, S. Hanf, E. Seise, T. V. Andersen, Th. Gabler, Ch. Wirth, Th. Schreiber, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond fiber CPA system emitting 830 W average output power,” Opt. Lett. 35(2), 94–96 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-35-2-94 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Pupeza, T. Eidam, J. Rauschenberger, B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, E. Fill, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, J. Limpert, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, A. Tünnermann, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Power scaling of a high-repetition-rate enhancement cavity,” Opt. Lett. 35(12), 2052–2054 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-35-12-205 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Wirth, O. Schmidt, I. Tsybin, T. Schreiber, T. Peschel, F. Brückner, T. Clausnitzer, J. Limpert, R. Eberhardt, A. Tünnermann, M. Gowin, E. ten Have, K. Ludewigt, and M. Jung, “2 kW incoherent beam combining of four narrow-linewidth photonic crystal fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1178–1183 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-3-1178 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Schmidt, C. Wirth, I. Tsybin, T. Schreiber, R. Eberhardt, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Average power of 1.1 kW from spectrally combined, fiber-amplified, nanosecond-pulsed sources,” Opt. Lett. 34(10), 1567–1569 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-34-10-1567 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Röser, T. Eidam, J. Rothhardt, O. Schmidt, D. N. Schimpf, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Millijoule pulse energy high repetition rate femtosecond fiber chirped-pulse amplification system,” Opt. Lett. 32(24), 3495 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-32-24-3495 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, M.

Lohss, S.

G. Krauss, S. Lohss, T. Hanke, A. Sell, S. Eggert, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Synthesis of a single cycle of light with compact erbium-doped fibre technology,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 33–36 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Long, W.

Ludewigt, K.

Mans, T.

Marcinkevicius, A.

McClellan, M.

McNaught, S. J.

Ouzounov, D.

Ozawa, A.

Peschel, T.

Petermann, K.

Peters, R.

Poprawe, R.

Pupeza, T.

Rauschenberger, J.

Redmond, S.

Röser, F.

Rotarius, G.

Rothhardt, J.

Russbueldt, P.

Saraceno, C. J.

Schibli, T. R.

Schimpf, D. N.

Schmidt, O.

Schreiber, T.

Schreiber, Th.

Seise, E.

Sell, A.

G. Krauss, S. Lohss, T. Hanke, A. Sell, S. Eggert, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Synthesis of a single cycle of light with compact erbium-doped fibre technology,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 33–36 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shimshi, L.

Simpson, R.

Sollee, J.

Südmeyer, Th.

ten Have, E.

Tiemann, B.

R. Uberna, A. Bratcher, and B. Tiemann, “Coherent Polarization Beam Combining,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(8), 1191–1196 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tsybin, I.

Tünnermann, A.

T. Pupeza, T. Eidam, J. Rauschenberger, B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, E. Fill, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, J. Limpert, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, A. Tünnermann, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Power scaling of a high-repetition-rate enhancement cavity,” Opt. Lett. 35(12), 2052–2054 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-35-12-205 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Eidam, S. Hanf, E. Seise, T. V. Andersen, Th. Gabler, Ch. Wirth, Th. Schreiber, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond fiber CPA system emitting 830 W average output power,” Opt. Lett. 35(2), 94–96 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-35-2-94 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Wirth, O. Schmidt, I. Tsybin, T. Schreiber, T. Peschel, F. Brückner, T. Clausnitzer, J. Limpert, R. Eberhardt, A. Tünnermann, M. Gowin, E. ten Have, K. Ludewigt, and M. Jung, “2 kW incoherent beam combining of four narrow-linewidth photonic crystal fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1178–1183 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-3-1178 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Schmidt, C. Wirth, I. Tsybin, T. Schreiber, R. Eberhardt, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Average power of 1.1 kW from spectrally combined, fiber-amplified, nanosecond-pulsed sources,” Opt. Lett. 34(10), 1567–1569 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-34-10-1567 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Röser, T. Eidam, J. Rothhardt, O. Schmidt, D. N. Schimpf, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Millijoule pulse energy high repetition rate femtosecond fiber chirped-pulse amplification system,” Opt. Lett. 32(24), 3495 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-32-24-3495 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uberna, R.

R. Uberna, A. Bratcher, and B. Tiemann, “Coherent Polarization Beam Combining,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(8), 1191–1196 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Udem, T.

Weber, M.

Weiss, S. B.

Weitenberg, J.

Wirth, C.

Wirth, Ch.

Wise, F.

Xiao, R.

Ye, J.

Yost, D. C.

Zhou, S.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Uberna, A. Bratcher, and B. Tiemann, “Coherent Polarization Beam Combining,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(8), 1191–1196 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

G. Krauss, S. Lohss, T. Hanke, A. Sell, S. Eggert, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Synthesis of a single cycle of light with compact erbium-doped fibre technology,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 33–36 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

T. W. Hänsch and B. Couillaud, “Laser frequency stabilization by polarization spectroscopy of a reflecting reference cavity,” Opt. Commun. 35(3), 441–444 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (9)

O. Schmidt, C. Wirth, I. Tsybin, T. Schreiber, R. Eberhardt, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Average power of 1.1 kW from spectrally combined, fiber-amplified, nanosecond-pulsed sources,” Opt. Lett. 34(10), 1567–1569 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-34-10-1567 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Eidam, S. Hanf, E. Seise, T. V. Andersen, Th. Gabler, Ch. Wirth, Th. Schreiber, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond fiber CPA system emitting 830 W average output power,” Opt. Lett. 35(2), 94–96 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-35-2-94 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Pupeza, T. Eidam, J. Rauschenberger, B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, E. Fill, A. Apolonski, T. Udem, J. Limpert, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, A. Tünnermann, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Power scaling of a high-repetition-rate enhancement cavity,” Opt. Lett. 35(12), 2052–2054 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-35-12-205 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. E. Baer, Ch. Kränkel, C. J. Saraceno, O. H. Heckl, M. Golling, R. Peters, K. Petermann, Th. Südmeyer, G. Huber, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond thin-disk laser with 141 W of average power,” Opt. Lett. 35(13), 2302–2304 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-35-13-2302 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Eckhouse, A. Ishaaya, L. Shimshi, N. Davidson, and A. Friesem, “Intracavity coherent addition of 16 laser distributions,” Opt. Lett. 31(3), 350–352 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-31-3-350 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. D. Goodno, H. Komine, S. J. McNaught, S. B. Weiss, S. Redmond, W. Long, R. Simpson, E. C. Cheung, D. Howland, P. Epp, M. Weber, M. McClellan, J. Sollee, and H. Injeyan, “Coherent combination of high-power, zigzag slab lasers,” Opt. Lett. 31(9), 1247–1249 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-31-9-1247 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhou, F. Wise, and D. Ouzounov, “Divided-pulse amplification of ultrashort pulses,” Opt. Lett. 32(7), 871–873 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Hartl, T. R. Schibli, A. Marcinkevicius, D. C. Yost, D. D. Hudson, M. E. Fermann, and J. Ye, “Cavity-enhanced similariton Yb-fiber laser frequency comb: 3×1014 W/cm2 peak intensity at 136 MHz,” Opt. Lett. 32(19), 2870–2872 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-32-19-2870 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Röser, T. Eidam, J. Rothhardt, O. Schmidt, D. N. Schimpf, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Millijoule pulse energy high repetition rate femtosecond fiber chirped-pulse amplification system,” Opt. Lett. 32(24), 3495 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-32-24-3495 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

S. Roither, A. Verhoef, O. Mücke, G. Reider, A. Pugzlys, and A. Baltuska, “Sagnac-Interferometer Multipass-Loop Amplifier,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (OSA, 2008), paper CTuK4.

ICUIL “International Committee on Ultra-High Intensity Lasers,” http://www.icuil.org/ .

E. Seise, A. Klenke, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Coherent Combination of fiber-amplifier ultrashort laser pulses,” 4th EPS-QEOD Europhoton Conference, Aug. 29 – Sept. 3 2010, Hamburg, Germany, paper ThB2.

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MOV (1567 KB)     

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic setup of coherent addition of ultrashort laser pulses; Δφ: element for path length matching.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Illustration of polarization splitting and combining to create an active interferometer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup of coherent addition of two femtosecond fiber-based CPA systems in a Mach-Zehnder-type configuration using polarization combining.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured spectra a) at 110 mW combined power (B = 1.3 rad) and b) at 530 mW combined power (B = 5.4 rad) of the individual amplifiers and the combined output.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured autocorrelation traces of the combined and compressed fiber CPA output at different power levels.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Piezo positions as a function of time for two different power levels.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

CCD Camera images (Media 1) after further analyzer cube. left: locking off, right: locking on.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Summarized experimental data of the combined fiber CPA system

Equations (1)

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D O L P = P max P min P max + P min   and   system efficiency = P lin P 1 + P 2

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