Abstract

In imaging systems, when specular surfaces responding sensitively to varying illumination conditions are imaged on groups of CCD pixels using imaging optics, the obtained image usually suffers from pixel saturation, resulting in smearing or blooming phenomena. These problems are then serious obstacles when applying structured light-based optical profiling methods to the shape measurement of general objects with partially specular surfaces. Therefore, this paper combines a phase-based profiling system with an with an adaptive spatial light modulator in the imaging part for measuring the three-dimensional shapes of objects with an advanced dynamic range. The use of a spatial light modulator in front of a CCD camera prevents the image sensor from being saturated, as the pixel transmittance is controlled by monitoring the input images and providing modulator feedback signals over time and space. When using the proposed system, since the projected fringes are effectively imaged on the CCD without any pixel saturation, phase information according to the object’s shape can be correctly extracted from non-saturated images. The configuration of the proposed system and transmittance control scheme are explained in detail, plus the performance is verified through a series of experiments, in which phase information was successfully extracted from areas that are not normally measurable due to saturation. Based on the results, the proposed shape measurement system showed a more advanced adaptive dynamic range when compared with a conventional system.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. G. Healey and T. Binford, “Local shape from specularity,” Int. J. Comput. Vis. 42, 62–86 (1988).
  2. Y. Ryu and H. Cho, “New Optical Measuring System for Solder Joint Inspection,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 26(6), 487–514 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Yamamoto and ., “Surface profile measurement of specular objects by grating projection method,” Proc. SPIE 4567, 48–55 (2002).
  4. S. Nayar, K. Ikeuchi, and T. Kanade, “Surface Reflection: Physical and Geometrical Perspectives,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 13(7), 611–634 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Gasvik, Optical Metrology (John Wiley & Sons, 2002).
  6. T. Lee, and H. Erhardt, “Charge-coupled imager with dual gate anti-blooming structure,” U.S. patent 4,975,777 (1990).
  7. S. Nayar, and V. Branzoi, “Adaptive Dynamic Range Imaging: Optical Control of Pixel Exposures Over Space and Time,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Nice, France, 2003), pp. 1168–1175.
  8. J. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (Roberts & Company Publishers, 2005).
  9. S. Nayar, V. Branzoi, and T. E. Boult, “Programmable Imaging: Towards a Flexible Camera,” Int. J. Comput. Vis. 70(1), 7–22 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. Huang and S. Zhang, “3-D Optical Measurement using Phase Shifting Based Methods,” Proc. SPIE 6000, 15–24 (2005).
  11. E. Reinhard, et al., High Dynamic Range Imaging: Acquisition, Display and Image-based Lighting (Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 2005).
  12. R. Banyal and B. Prasad, “Nonlinear response studies and corrections for a liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” Pramana J. Phys. 74(6), 961–971 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. Hartley, and A. Zisserman, Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2001).
  14. N. Menn, Practical Optics (Elsevier Academic Press, 2004).

2010 (1)

R. Banyal and B. Prasad, “Nonlinear response studies and corrections for a liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” Pramana J. Phys. 74(6), 961–971 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

S. Nayar, V. Branzoi, and T. E. Boult, “Programmable Imaging: Towards a Flexible Camera,” Int. J. Comput. Vis. 70(1), 7–22 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

P. Huang and S. Zhang, “3-D Optical Measurement using Phase Shifting Based Methods,” Proc. SPIE 6000, 15–24 (2005).

2002 (1)

M. Yamamoto and ., “Surface profile measurement of specular objects by grating projection method,” Proc. SPIE 4567, 48–55 (2002).

1997 (1)

Y. Ryu and H. Cho, “New Optical Measuring System for Solder Joint Inspection,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 26(6), 487–514 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

S. Nayar, K. Ikeuchi, and T. Kanade, “Surface Reflection: Physical and Geometrical Perspectives,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 13(7), 611–634 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

G. Healey and T. Binford, “Local shape from specularity,” Int. J. Comput. Vis. 42, 62–86 (1988).

Banyal, R.

R. Banyal and B. Prasad, “Nonlinear response studies and corrections for a liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” Pramana J. Phys. 74(6), 961–971 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Binford, T.

G. Healey and T. Binford, “Local shape from specularity,” Int. J. Comput. Vis. 42, 62–86 (1988).

Boult, T. E.

S. Nayar, V. Branzoi, and T. E. Boult, “Programmable Imaging: Towards a Flexible Camera,” Int. J. Comput. Vis. 70(1), 7–22 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Branzoi, V.

S. Nayar, V. Branzoi, and T. E. Boult, “Programmable Imaging: Towards a Flexible Camera,” Int. J. Comput. Vis. 70(1), 7–22 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cho, H.

Y. Ryu and H. Cho, “New Optical Measuring System for Solder Joint Inspection,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 26(6), 487–514 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Healey, G.

G. Healey and T. Binford, “Local shape from specularity,” Int. J. Comput. Vis. 42, 62–86 (1988).

Huang, P.

P. Huang and S. Zhang, “3-D Optical Measurement using Phase Shifting Based Methods,” Proc. SPIE 6000, 15–24 (2005).

Ikeuchi, K.

S. Nayar, K. Ikeuchi, and T. Kanade, “Surface Reflection: Physical and Geometrical Perspectives,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 13(7), 611–634 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kanade, T.

S. Nayar, K. Ikeuchi, and T. Kanade, “Surface Reflection: Physical and Geometrical Perspectives,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 13(7), 611–634 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nayar, S.

S. Nayar, V. Branzoi, and T. E. Boult, “Programmable Imaging: Towards a Flexible Camera,” Int. J. Comput. Vis. 70(1), 7–22 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Nayar, K. Ikeuchi, and T. Kanade, “Surface Reflection: Physical and Geometrical Perspectives,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 13(7), 611–634 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Prasad, B.

R. Banyal and B. Prasad, “Nonlinear response studies and corrections for a liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” Pramana J. Phys. 74(6), 961–971 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ryu, Y.

Y. Ryu and H. Cho, “New Optical Measuring System for Solder Joint Inspection,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 26(6), 487–514 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, M.

M. Yamamoto and ., “Surface profile measurement of specular objects by grating projection method,” Proc. SPIE 4567, 48–55 (2002).

Zhang, S.

P. Huang and S. Zhang, “3-D Optical Measurement using Phase Shifting Based Methods,” Proc. SPIE 6000, 15–24 (2005).

IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. (1)

S. Nayar, K. Ikeuchi, and T. Kanade, “Surface Reflection: Physical and Geometrical Perspectives,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 13(7), 611–634 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Comput. Vis. (2)

G. Healey and T. Binford, “Local shape from specularity,” Int. J. Comput. Vis. 42, 62–86 (1988).

S. Nayar, V. Branzoi, and T. E. Boult, “Programmable Imaging: Towards a Flexible Camera,” Int. J. Comput. Vis. 70(1), 7–22 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lasers Eng. (1)

Y. Ryu and H. Cho, “New Optical Measuring System for Solder Joint Inspection,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 26(6), 487–514 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pramana J. Phys. (1)

R. Banyal and B. Prasad, “Nonlinear response studies and corrections for a liquid crystal spatial light modulator,” Pramana J. Phys. 74(6), 961–971 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

M. Yamamoto and ., “Surface profile measurement of specular objects by grating projection method,” Proc. SPIE 4567, 48–55 (2002).

P. Huang and S. Zhang, “3-D Optical Measurement using Phase Shifting Based Methods,” Proc. SPIE 6000, 15–24 (2005).

Other (7)

E. Reinhard, et al., High Dynamic Range Imaging: Acquisition, Display and Image-based Lighting (Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 2005).

K. Gasvik, Optical Metrology (John Wiley & Sons, 2002).

T. Lee, and H. Erhardt, “Charge-coupled imager with dual gate anti-blooming structure,” U.S. patent 4,975,777 (1990).

S. Nayar, and V. Branzoi, “Adaptive Dynamic Range Imaging: Optical Control of Pixel Exposures Over Space and Time,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Nice, France, 2003), pp. 1168–1175.

J. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (Roberts & Company Publishers, 2005).

R. Hartley, and A. Zisserman, Multiple View Geometry in Computer Vision (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2001).

N. Menn, Practical Optics (Elsevier Academic Press, 2004).

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