Abstract

We demonstrate patterned polarizers for visible wavelengths using dichroic dye in a liquid crystal polymer (LCP) host. Contact lithography is used to pattern a thin alignment layer, which subsequently transfers the pattern to the LCP. A gray dichroic dye mixture for the visible spectrum is optimized and implemented along with LCP to fabricate this polarizer. A peak extinction ratio of 41 was measured at a 633 nm wavelength, while simultaneously showing patterns as small as 3 μm. Finally, multi layer films are demonstrated by fabricating a two layer patterned circular polarizer consisting of a quarter-wave retarder and a color polarizer. Our process has applications in three-dimensional displays, interferometry, optical storage, and polarimeters.

© 2010 OSA

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2010 (2)

S. Nersisyan, N. Tabiryan, D. M. Steeves, and B. R. Kimball, “Axial polarizers based on dichroic liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(3), 033101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhao, A. Bermak, F. Boussaid, and V. G. Chigrinov, “Liquid-crystal micropolarimeter array for full Stokes polarization imaging in visible spectrum,” Opt. Express 18(17), 17776–17787 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

V. Gruev, A. Ortu, N. Lazarus, J. Van der Spiegel, and N. Engheta, “Fabrication of a dual-tier thin film micropolarization array,” Opt. Express 15(8), 4994–5007 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Kawatsuki, R. Tsutsumi, H. Takatsuka, and T. Sakai, “Influence of Alkylene Spacer Length on Thermal Enhancement of Photoinduced Optical Anisotropy in Photo-Cross-Linkable Liquid Crystalline Polymeric Films and Their Composites with Non-Liquid-Crystalline Monomers,” Macromolecules 40(17), 6355–6360 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

K. L. Marshall, K. Adelsberger, G. Myhre, and D. W. Griffin, “The LCPDI: A Compact and Robust Phase-Shifting Point-Diffraction Interferometer Based on Dye-Doped LC Technology,” Mol. Cryst. Liquid Cryst. 454(1), 23–45 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

N. Kawatsuki and K. Fujio, “Cooperative reorientation of dichroic dyes dispersed in photo-cross-linkable polymer liquid crystal and application to linear polarizer,” Chem. Lett. 34(4), 558–559 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2000 (1)

B. Wen, M. P. Mahajan, and C. Rosenblatt, “Ultrahigh-resolution liquid crystal display with gray scale,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(10), 1240–1242 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

B. Schnabel, E.-B. Kley, and F. Wyrowski, “Study on polarizing visible light by subwavelength-period metal-stripe gratings,” Opt. Eng. 38(2), 220–226 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Nordin, J. T. Meier, P. C. Deguzman, and M. W. Jones, “Micropolarizer array for infrared imaging polarimetry,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16(5), 1168–1174 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

N. Kawatsuki, C. Suehiro, and T. Yamamoto, “Photoinduced Alignment of Photo-Cross-Linkable Side-Chain Liquid Crystalline Copolymers Comprising Cinnamoylethoxybiphenyl and Cyanobiphenyl Groups,” Macromolecules 31(18), 5984–5990 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Nishikawa, B. Taheri, and J. L. West, “Mechanism of unidirectional liquid-crystal alignment on polyimides with linearly polarized ultraviolet light exposure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(19), 2403–2405 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Kim, S. Kumar, and S.-D. Lee, “Alignment of liquid crystals on polyimide films exposed to ultraviolet light,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 57(5), 5644–5650 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

J. Guo and D. J. Brady, “Fabrication of high-resolution micropolarizer arrays,” Opt. Eng. 36(8), 2268–2271 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, A. Schuster, and S. M. Kelly, “Photo-generation of linearly polymerized liquid-crystal aligning layers comprising novel, integrated optically patterned retarders and color filters,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 1, No. 6A), 3240–3249 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, “Surface-induced parallel alignment of liquid-crystals by lineraly polymerized photopolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(Part 1, No. 7), 2155–2164 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, “Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid-crystals with polarized laser-light,” Nature 351(6321), 49–50 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Adelsberger, K.

K. L. Marshall, K. Adelsberger, G. Myhre, and D. W. Griffin, “The LCPDI: A Compact and Robust Phase-Shifting Point-Diffraction Interferometer Based on Dye-Doped LC Technology,” Mol. Cryst. Liquid Cryst. 454(1), 23–45 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bermak, A.

Boussaid, F.

Brady, D. J.

J. Guo and D. J. Brady, “Fabrication of high-resolution micropolarizer arrays,” Opt. Eng. 36(8), 2268–2271 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chigrinov, V.

M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, “Surface-induced parallel alignment of liquid-crystals by lineraly polymerized photopolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(Part 1, No. 7), 2155–2164 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chigrinov, V. G.

Craighead, H. G.

Deguzman, P. C.

Du, T.

Engheta, N.

Fujio, K.

N. Kawatsuki and K. Fujio, “Cooperative reorientation of dichroic dyes dispersed in photo-cross-linkable polymer liquid crystal and application to linear polarizer,” Chem. Lett. 34(4), 558–559 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gibbons, W. M.

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, “Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid-crystals with polarized laser-light,” Nature 351(6321), 49–50 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Griffin, D. W.

K. L. Marshall, K. Adelsberger, G. Myhre, and D. W. Griffin, “The LCPDI: A Compact and Robust Phase-Shifting Point-Diffraction Interferometer Based on Dye-Doped LC Technology,” Mol. Cryst. Liquid Cryst. 454(1), 23–45 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gruev, V.

Guo, J.

J. Guo and D. J. Brady, “Fabrication of high-resolution micropolarizer arrays,” Opt. Eng. 36(8), 2268–2271 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Harnett, C. K.

Jones, M. W.

Kawatsuki, N.

N. Kawatsuki, R. Tsutsumi, H. Takatsuka, and T. Sakai, “Influence of Alkylene Spacer Length on Thermal Enhancement of Photoinduced Optical Anisotropy in Photo-Cross-Linkable Liquid Crystalline Polymeric Films and Their Composites with Non-Liquid-Crystalline Monomers,” Macromolecules 40(17), 6355–6360 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Kawatsuki and K. Fujio, “Cooperative reorientation of dichroic dyes dispersed in photo-cross-linkable polymer liquid crystal and application to linear polarizer,” Chem. Lett. 34(4), 558–559 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Kawatsuki, C. Suehiro, and T. Yamamoto, “Photoinduced Alignment of Photo-Cross-Linkable Side-Chain Liquid Crystalline Copolymers Comprising Cinnamoylethoxybiphenyl and Cyanobiphenyl Groups,” Macromolecules 31(18), 5984–5990 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, S. M.

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, A. Schuster, and S. M. Kelly, “Photo-generation of linearly polymerized liquid-crystal aligning layers comprising novel, integrated optically patterned retarders and color filters,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 1, No. 6A), 3240–3249 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.-H.

J.-H. Kim, S. Kumar, and S.-D. Lee, “Alignment of liquid crystals on polyimide films exposed to ultraviolet light,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 57(5), 5644–5650 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kimball, B. R.

S. Nersisyan, N. Tabiryan, D. M. Steeves, and B. R. Kimball, “Axial polarizers based on dichroic liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(3), 033101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kley, E.-B.

B. Schnabel, E.-B. Kley, and F. Wyrowski, “Study on polarizing visible light by subwavelength-period metal-stripe gratings,” Opt. Eng. 38(2), 220–226 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Klotzkin, D. J.

Kozinkov, V.

M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, “Surface-induced parallel alignment of liquid-crystals by lineraly polymerized photopolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(Part 1, No. 7), 2155–2164 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, S.

J.-H. Kim, S. Kumar, and S.-D. Lee, “Alignment of liquid crystals on polyimide films exposed to ultraviolet light,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 57(5), 5644–5650 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lazarus, N.

Lee, S.-D.

J.-H. Kim, S. Kumar, and S.-D. Lee, “Alignment of liquid crystals on polyimide films exposed to ultraviolet light,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 57(5), 5644–5650 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mahajan, M. P.

B. Wen, M. P. Mahajan, and C. Rosenblatt, “Ultrahigh-resolution liquid crystal display with gray scale,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(10), 1240–1242 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Marshall, K. L.

K. L. Marshall, K. Adelsberger, G. Myhre, and D. W. Griffin, “The LCPDI: A Compact and Robust Phase-Shifting Point-Diffraction Interferometer Based on Dye-Doped LC Technology,” Mol. Cryst. Liquid Cryst. 454(1), 23–45 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Meier, J. T.

Myhre, G.

G. Myhre and S. Pau, “Imaging capability of patterned liquid crystals,” Appl. Opt. 48(32), 6152–6158 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Marshall, K. Adelsberger, G. Myhre, and D. W. Griffin, “The LCPDI: A Compact and Robust Phase-Shifting Point-Diffraction Interferometer Based on Dye-Doped LC Technology,” Mol. Cryst. Liquid Cryst. 454(1), 23–45 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nersisyan, S.

S. Nersisyan, N. Tabiryan, D. M. Steeves, and B. R. Kimball, “Axial polarizers based on dichroic liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(3), 033101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nishikawa, M.

M. Nishikawa, B. Taheri, and J. L. West, “Mechanism of unidirectional liquid-crystal alignment on polyimides with linearly polarized ultraviolet light exposure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(19), 2403–2405 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nordin, G. P.

Ortu, A.

Pau, S.

Rosenblatt, C.

B. Wen, M. P. Mahajan, and C. Rosenblatt, “Ultrahigh-resolution liquid crystal display with gray scale,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(10), 1240–1242 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, T.

N. Kawatsuki, R. Tsutsumi, H. Takatsuka, and T. Sakai, “Influence of Alkylene Spacer Length on Thermal Enhancement of Photoinduced Optical Anisotropy in Photo-Cross-Linkable Liquid Crystalline Polymeric Films and Their Composites with Non-Liquid-Crystalline Monomers,” Macromolecules 40(17), 6355–6360 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schadt, M.

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, A. Schuster, and S. M. Kelly, “Photo-generation of linearly polymerized liquid-crystal aligning layers comprising novel, integrated optically patterned retarders and color filters,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 1, No. 6A), 3240–3249 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, “Surface-induced parallel alignment of liquid-crystals by lineraly polymerized photopolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(Part 1, No. 7), 2155–2164 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, K.

M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, “Surface-induced parallel alignment of liquid-crystals by lineraly polymerized photopolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(Part 1, No. 7), 2155–2164 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Schnabel, B.

B. Schnabel, E.-B. Kley, and F. Wyrowski, “Study on polarizing visible light by subwavelength-period metal-stripe gratings,” Opt. Eng. 38(2), 220–226 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schuster, A.

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, A. Schuster, and S. M. Kelly, “Photo-generation of linearly polymerized liquid-crystal aligning layers comprising novel, integrated optically patterned retarders and color filters,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 1, No. 6A), 3240–3249 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Seiberle, H.

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, A. Schuster, and S. M. Kelly, “Photo-generation of linearly polymerized liquid-crystal aligning layers comprising novel, integrated optically patterned retarders and color filters,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 1, No. 6A), 3240–3249 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shannon, P. J.

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, “Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid-crystals with polarized laser-light,” Nature 351(6321), 49–50 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Steeves, D. M.

S. Nersisyan, N. Tabiryan, D. M. Steeves, and B. R. Kimball, “Axial polarizers based on dichroic liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(3), 033101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Suehiro, C.

N. Kawatsuki, C. Suehiro, and T. Yamamoto, “Photoinduced Alignment of Photo-Cross-Linkable Side-Chain Liquid Crystalline Copolymers Comprising Cinnamoylethoxybiphenyl and Cyanobiphenyl Groups,” Macromolecules 31(18), 5984–5990 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sun, S. T.

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, “Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid-crystals with polarized laser-light,” Nature 351(6321), 49–50 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Swetlin, B. J.

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, “Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid-crystals with polarized laser-light,” Nature 351(6321), 49–50 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tabiryan, N.

S. Nersisyan, N. Tabiryan, D. M. Steeves, and B. R. Kimball, “Axial polarizers based on dichroic liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(3), 033101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Taheri, B.

M. Nishikawa, B. Taheri, and J. L. West, “Mechanism of unidirectional liquid-crystal alignment on polyimides with linearly polarized ultraviolet light exposure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(19), 2403–2405 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Takatsuka, H.

N. Kawatsuki, R. Tsutsumi, H. Takatsuka, and T. Sakai, “Influence of Alkylene Spacer Length on Thermal Enhancement of Photoinduced Optical Anisotropy in Photo-Cross-Linkable Liquid Crystalline Polymeric Films and Their Composites with Non-Liquid-Crystalline Monomers,” Macromolecules 40(17), 6355–6360 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tsutsumi, R.

N. Kawatsuki, R. Tsutsumi, H. Takatsuka, and T. Sakai, “Influence of Alkylene Spacer Length on Thermal Enhancement of Photoinduced Optical Anisotropy in Photo-Cross-Linkable Liquid Crystalline Polymeric Films and Their Composites with Non-Liquid-Crystalline Monomers,” Macromolecules 40(17), 6355–6360 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Van der Spiegel, J.

Wen, B.

B. Wen, M. P. Mahajan, and C. Rosenblatt, “Ultrahigh-resolution liquid crystal display with gray scale,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(10), 1240–1242 (2000).
[CrossRef]

West, J. L.

M. Nishikawa, B. Taheri, and J. L. West, “Mechanism of unidirectional liquid-crystal alignment on polyimides with linearly polarized ultraviolet light exposure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(19), 2403–2405 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wyrowski, F.

B. Schnabel, E.-B. Kley, and F. Wyrowski, “Study on polarizing visible light by subwavelength-period metal-stripe gratings,” Opt. Eng. 38(2), 220–226 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, T.

N. Kawatsuki, C. Suehiro, and T. Yamamoto, “Photoinduced Alignment of Photo-Cross-Linkable Side-Chain Liquid Crystalline Copolymers Comprising Cinnamoylethoxybiphenyl and Cyanobiphenyl Groups,” Macromolecules 31(18), 5984–5990 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, X.

Zhou, Y. L.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

B. Wen, M. P. Mahajan, and C. Rosenblatt, “Ultrahigh-resolution liquid crystal display with gray scale,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(10), 1240–1242 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Nishikawa, B. Taheri, and J. L. West, “Mechanism of unidirectional liquid-crystal alignment on polyimides with linearly polarized ultraviolet light exposure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(19), 2403–2405 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Lett. (1)

N. Kawatsuki and K. Fujio, “Cooperative reorientation of dichroic dyes dispersed in photo-cross-linkable polymer liquid crystal and application to linear polarizer,” Chem. Lett. 34(4), 558–559 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Nersisyan, N. Tabiryan, D. M. Steeves, and B. R. Kimball, “Axial polarizers based on dichroic liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(3), 033101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

M. Schadt, K. Schmitt, V. Kozinkov, and V. Chigrinov, “Surface-induced parallel alignment of liquid-crystals by lineraly polymerized photopolymers,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31(Part 1, No. 7), 2155–2164 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, A. Schuster, and S. M. Kelly, “Photo-generation of linearly polymerized liquid-crystal aligning layers comprising novel, integrated optically patterned retarders and color filters,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 1, No. 6A), 3240–3249 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Macromolecules (2)

N. Kawatsuki, R. Tsutsumi, H. Takatsuka, and T. Sakai, “Influence of Alkylene Spacer Length on Thermal Enhancement of Photoinduced Optical Anisotropy in Photo-Cross-Linkable Liquid Crystalline Polymeric Films and Their Composites with Non-Liquid-Crystalline Monomers,” Macromolecules 40(17), 6355–6360 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Kawatsuki, C. Suehiro, and T. Yamamoto, “Photoinduced Alignment of Photo-Cross-Linkable Side-Chain Liquid Crystalline Copolymers Comprising Cinnamoylethoxybiphenyl and Cyanobiphenyl Groups,” Macromolecules 31(18), 5984–5990 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liquid Cryst. (1)

K. L. Marshall, K. Adelsberger, G. Myhre, and D. W. Griffin, “The LCPDI: A Compact and Robust Phase-Shifting Point-Diffraction Interferometer Based on Dye-Doped LC Technology,” Mol. Cryst. Liquid Cryst. 454(1), 23–45 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S. T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, “Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid-crystals with polarized laser-light,” Nature 351(6321), 49–50 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

J. Guo and D. J. Brady, “Fabrication of high-resolution micropolarizer arrays,” Opt. Eng. 36(8), 2268–2271 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Schnabel, E.-B. Kley, and F. Wyrowski, “Study on polarizing visible light by subwavelength-period metal-stripe gratings,” Opt. Eng. 38(2), 220–226 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics (1)

J.-H. Kim, S. Kumar, and S.-D. Lee, “Alignment of liquid crystals on polyimide films exposed to ultraviolet light,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Phys. Plasmas Fluids Relat. Interdiscip. Topics 57(5), 5644–5650 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

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