Abstract

We investigate the polarization characteristics of coherent enhanced backscattering (EBS) using the pseudo-spectral time domain method implemented on staggered grid and local Fourier basis (SLPSTD) [Opt. Express 18, 9236 (2010)]. The studies are focused on Mie scatterers with findings profound to the understanding of polarization evolution in the scattering process. For linear polarization studies, the low-order scattering component of EBS is azimuthally anisotropic. A relationship between the degree of anisotropy and the photon’s penetration depth is established to characterize the depolarization progress. For circular polarization, exact numerical solutions disclose the origin of polarization memory effect and the helicity-flipping phenomenon. The region responsible for helicity-flipping is identified. Our numerical technique can be potentially applied to subsurface imaging that explores polarization memory effect.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Y. Liu, Y. L. Kim, X. Li, and V. Backman, “Investigation of depth selectivity of polarization gating for tissue characterization,” Opt. Express 13(2), 601–611 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, V. M. Turzhitsky, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, and V. Backman, “Depth-resolved low-coherence enhanced backscattering,” Opt. Lett. 30(7), 741–743 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Y. L. Kim, P. Pradhan, H. Subramanian, Y. Liu, M. H. Kim, and V. Backman, “Origin of low-coherence enhanced backscattering,” Opt. Lett. 31(10), 1459–1461 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. Lagendijk, M. B. van der Mark, and A. Lagendijk, “Observation of weak localization of light in a finite slab: Anisotropy effects and light path classification,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(4), 361–364 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. P. van Albada, M. B. van der Mark, and A. Lagendijk, “Polarisation effects in weak localization of light,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 21(10S), 28–31 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. Akkermans, P. E. Wolf, and R. Maynard, “Coherent backscattering of light by disordered media: Analysis of the peak line shape,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56(14), 1471–1474 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. Lenke, R. Tweer, and G. Maret, “Coherent backscattering of turbid samples containing large Mie spheres,” J. Opt. A-Pure Appl. Op. 4(3), 293–298 (2002).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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  14. Q. H. Liu, “The PSTD algorithm: A time-domain method requiring only two cells per wavelength,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 15(3), 158–165 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. H. Tseng, J. H. Greene, A. Taflove, D. Maitland, V. Backman, and J. T. Walsh., “Exact solution of Maxwell’s equations for optical interactions with a macroscopic random medium,” Opt. Lett. 29(12), 1393–1395 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. K. M. Koo, Y. Takiguchi, and R. R. Alfano, “Weak localization of photons: contributions from the different scattering pathlengths,” IEEEPhoton. Technol. Lett. 58, 94–96 (1989).
  17. Y. L. Kim, P. Pradhan, M. H. Kim, and V. Backman, “Circular polarization memory effect in low-coherence enhanced backscattering of light,” Opt. Lett. 31(18), 2744–2746 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. S. A. Kartazayeva, X. Ni, and R. R. Alfano, “Backscattering target detection in a turbid medium by use of circularly and linearly polarized light,” Opt. Lett. 30(10), 1168–1170 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. R. E. Nothdurft and G. Yao, “Effects of turbid media optical properties on object visibility in subsurface polarization imaging,” Appl. Opt. 45(22), 5532–5541 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. T. W. Lee and S. C. Hagness, “A compact wave source condition for the pseudospectral time-domain method,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 3(14), 253–256 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  22. Q. H. Liu, “Large-scale simulations of electromagnetic and acoustic measurements using the pseudospectral time-domain(PSTD) algorithm,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 37(2), 917–926 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  23. S. H. Tseng, Y. L. Kim, A. Taflove, D. Maitland, V. Backman, and J. T. Walsh., “Simulation of enhanced backscattering of light by numerically solving Maxwell’s equations without heuristic approximations,” Opt. Express 13(10), 3666–3672 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. F. C. MacKintosh, J. X. Zhu, D. J. Pine, and D. A. Weitz, “Polarization memory of multiply scattered light,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 40(13), 9342–9345 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

2009

M. I. Mishchenko, J. M. Dlugach, and L. Liu, “Azimuthal asymmetry of the coherent backscattering cone: theoretical results,” Phys. Rev. A 80(5), 053824 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2006

2005

2004

2000

S. L. Jacques, J. R. Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging superficial tissues with polarized light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 26(2), 119–129 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

Q. H. Liu, “Large-scale simulations of electromagnetic and acoustic measurements using the pseudospectral time-domain(PSTD) algorithm,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 37(2), 917–926 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

Q. H. Liu, “The PSTD algorithm: A time-domain method requiring only two cells per wavelength,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 15(3), 158–165 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1989

K. M. Koo, Y. Takiguchi, and R. R. Alfano, “Weak localization of photons: contributions from the different scattering pathlengths,” IEEEPhoton. Technol. Lett. 58, 94–96 (1989).

F. C. MacKintosh, J. X. Zhu, D. J. Pine, and D. A. Weitz, “Polarization memory of multiply scattered light,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 40(13), 9342–9345 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988

M. P. van Albada, M. B. van der Mark, and A. Lagendijk, “Polarisation effects in weak localization of light,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 21(10S), 28–31 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987

A. Lagendijk, M. B. van der Mark, and A. Lagendijk, “Observation of weak localization of light in a finite slab: Anisotropy effects and light path classification,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(4), 361–364 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986

E. Akkermans, P. E. Wolf, and R. Maynard, “Coherent backscattering of light by disordered media: Analysis of the peak line shape,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56(14), 1471–1474 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akkermans, E.

E. Akkermans, P. E. Wolf, and R. Maynard, “Coherent backscattering of light by disordered media: Analysis of the peak line shape,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56(14), 1471–1474 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alfano, R. R.

S. A. Kartazayeva, X. Ni, and R. R. Alfano, “Backscattering target detection in a turbid medium by use of circularly and linearly polarized light,” Opt. Lett. 30(10), 1168–1170 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Koo, Y. Takiguchi, and R. R. Alfano, “Weak localization of photons: contributions from the different scattering pathlengths,” IEEEPhoton. Technol. Lett. 58, 94–96 (1989).

Backman, V.

Y. L. Kim, P. Pradhan, H. Subramanian, Y. Liu, M. H. Kim, and V. Backman, “Origin of low-coherence enhanced backscattering,” Opt. Lett. 31(10), 1459–1461 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Subramanian, P. Pradhan, Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, X. Li, and V. Backman, “Modeling low-coherence enhanced backscattering using Monte Carlo simulation,” Appl. Opt. 45(24), 6292–6300 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. L. Kim, P. Pradhan, M. H. Kim, and V. Backman, “Circular polarization memory effect in low-coherence enhanced backscattering of light,” Opt. Lett. 31(18), 2744–2746 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Tseng, Y. L. Kim, A. Taflove, D. Maitland, V. Backman, and J. T. Walsh., “Simulation of enhanced backscattering of light by numerically solving Maxwell’s equations without heuristic approximations,” Opt. Express 13(10), 3666–3672 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liu, Y. L. Kim, X. Li, and V. Backman, “Investigation of depth selectivity of polarization gating for tissue characterization,” Opt. Express 13(2), 601–611 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. L. Kim, Y. Liu, V. M. Turzhitsky, R. K. Wali, H. K. Roy, and V. Backman, “Depth-resolved low-coherence enhanced backscattering,” Opt. Lett. 30(7), 741–743 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Tseng, J. H. Greene, A. Taflove, D. Maitland, V. Backman, and J. T. Walsh., “Exact solution of Maxwell’s equations for optical interactions with a macroscopic random medium,” Opt. Lett. 29(12), 1393–1395 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, K.

Ding, M.

Dlugach, J. M.

M. I. Mishchenko, J. M. Dlugach, and L. Liu, “Azimuthal asymmetry of the coherent backscattering cone: theoretical results,” Phys. Rev. A 80(5), 053824 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Greene, J. H.

Hagness, S. C.

T. W. Lee and S. C. Hagness, “A compact wave source condition for the pseudospectral time-domain method,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 3(14), 253–256 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jacques, S. L.

S. L. Jacques, J. R. Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging superficial tissues with polarized light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 26(2), 119–129 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kartazayeva, S. A.

Kastor, N.

Kim, M. H.

Kim, Y. L.

Koo, K. M.

K. M. Koo, Y. Takiguchi, and R. R. Alfano, “Weak localization of photons: contributions from the different scattering pathlengths,” IEEEPhoton. Technol. Lett. 58, 94–96 (1989).

Lagendijk, A.

M. P. van Albada, M. B. van der Mark, and A. Lagendijk, “Polarisation effects in weak localization of light,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 21(10S), 28–31 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Lagendijk, M. B. van der Mark, and A. Lagendijk, “Observation of weak localization of light in a finite slab: Anisotropy effects and light path classification,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(4), 361–364 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Lagendijk, M. B. van der Mark, and A. Lagendijk, “Observation of weak localization of light in a finite slab: Anisotropy effects and light path classification,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(4), 361–364 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, K.

S. L. Jacques, J. R. Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging superficial tissues with polarized light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 26(2), 119–129 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, T. W.

T. W. Lee and S. C. Hagness, “A compact wave source condition for the pseudospectral time-domain method,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 3(14), 253–256 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

Liu, L.

M. I. Mishchenko, J. M. Dlugach, and L. Liu, “Azimuthal asymmetry of the coherent backscattering cone: theoretical results,” Phys. Rev. A 80(5), 053824 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Q. H.

Q. H. Liu, “Large-scale simulations of electromagnetic and acoustic measurements using the pseudospectral time-domain(PSTD) algorithm,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 37(2), 917–926 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Q. H. Liu, “The PSTD algorithm: A time-domain method requiring only two cells per wavelength,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 15(3), 158–165 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

MacKintosh, F. C.

F. C. MacKintosh, J. X. Zhu, D. J. Pine, and D. A. Weitz, “Polarization memory of multiply scattered light,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 40(13), 9342–9345 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maitland, D.

Maynard, R.

E. Akkermans, P. E. Wolf, and R. Maynard, “Coherent backscattering of light by disordered media: Analysis of the peak line shape,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56(14), 1471–1474 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mishchenko, M. I.

M. I. Mishchenko, J. M. Dlugach, and L. Liu, “Azimuthal asymmetry of the coherent backscattering cone: theoretical results,” Phys. Rev. A 80(5), 053824 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ni, X.

Nothdurft, R. E.

Pine, D. J.

F. C. MacKintosh, J. X. Zhu, D. J. Pine, and D. A. Weitz, “Polarization memory of multiply scattered light,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 40(13), 9342–9345 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pradhan, P.

Roman, J. R.

S. L. Jacques, J. R. Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging superficial tissues with polarized light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 26(2), 119–129 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roy, H. K.

Sawicki, J.

Subramanian, H.

Taflove, A.

Takiguchi, Y.

K. M. Koo, Y. Takiguchi, and R. R. Alfano, “Weak localization of photons: contributions from the different scattering pathlengths,” IEEEPhoton. Technol. Lett. 58, 94–96 (1989).

Tseng, S. H.

Turzhitsky, V. M.

van Albada, M. P.

M. P. van Albada, M. B. van der Mark, and A. Lagendijk, “Polarisation effects in weak localization of light,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 21(10S), 28–31 (1988).
[CrossRef]

van der Mark, M. B.

M. P. van Albada, M. B. van der Mark, and A. Lagendijk, “Polarisation effects in weak localization of light,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 21(10S), 28–31 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. Lagendijk, M. B. van der Mark, and A. Lagendijk, “Observation of weak localization of light in a finite slab: Anisotropy effects and light path classification,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(4), 361–364 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wali, R. K.

Walsh, J. T.

Weitz, D. A.

F. C. MacKintosh, J. X. Zhu, D. J. Pine, and D. A. Weitz, “Polarization memory of multiply scattered light,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 40(13), 9342–9345 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, P. E.

E. Akkermans, P. E. Wolf, and R. Maynard, “Coherent backscattering of light by disordered media: Analysis of the peak line shape,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56(14), 1471–1474 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, M.

Yao, G.

Zhu, J. X.

F. C. MacKintosh, J. X. Zhu, D. J. Pine, and D. A. Weitz, “Polarization memory of multiply scattered light,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 40(13), 9342–9345 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett.

T. W. Lee and S. C. Hagness, “A compact wave source condition for the pseudospectral time-domain method,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 3(14), 253–256 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens.

Q. H. Liu, “Large-scale simulations of electromagnetic and acoustic measurements using the pseudospectral time-domain(PSTD) algorithm,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 37(2), 917–926 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEEPhoton. Technol. Lett.

K. M. Koo, Y. Takiguchi, and R. R. Alfano, “Weak localization of photons: contributions from the different scattering pathlengths,” IEEEPhoton. Technol. Lett. 58, 94–96 (1989).

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.

M. P. van Albada, M. B. van der Mark, and A. Lagendijk, “Polarisation effects in weak localization of light,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 21(10S), 28–31 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Lasers Surg. Med.

S. L. Jacques, J. R. Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging superficial tissues with polarized light,” Lasers Surg. Med. 26(2), 119–129 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett.

Q. H. Liu, “The PSTD algorithm: A time-domain method requiring only two cells per wavelength,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 15(3), 158–165 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

M. I. Mishchenko, J. M. Dlugach, and L. Liu, “Azimuthal asymmetry of the coherent backscattering cone: theoretical results,” Phys. Rev. A 80(5), 053824 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter

F. C. MacKintosh, J. X. Zhu, D. J. Pine, and D. A. Weitz, “Polarization memory of multiply scattered light,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 40(13), 9342–9345 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

A. Lagendijk, M. B. van der Mark, and A. Lagendijk, “Observation of weak localization of light in a finite slab: Anisotropy effects and light path classification,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58(4), 361–364 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Akkermans, P. E. Wolf, and R. Maynard, “Coherent backscattering of light by disordered media: Analysis of the peak line shape,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56(14), 1471–1474 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

R. Lenke, R. Tweer, and G. Maret, “Coherent backscattering of turbid samples containing large Mie spheres,” J. Opt. A-Pure Appl. Op. 4(3), 293–298 (2002).

A. Taflove, and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method, Second Edition (Artech House, 2000).

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