Abstract

Inorganic nanowires are under intense research for large scale solar power generation intended to ultimately contribute a substantial fraction to the overall power mix. Their unique feature is to allow different pathways for the light absorption and carrier transport. In this publication we investigate the properties of a nanowire array acting as a photonic device governed by wave-optical phenomena. We solve the Maxwell equations and calculate the light absorption efficiency for the AM1.5d spectrum and give recommendations on the design. Due to concentration of the incident sunlight at a microscopic level the absorptivity of nanowire solar cells can exceed the absorptivity of an equal amount of material used in thin-film devices. We compute the local density of photon states to assess the effect of emission enhancement, which influences the radiative lifetime of excess carriers. This allows us to compute the efficiency limit within the framework of detailed balance. The efficiency is highly sensitive with respect to the diameter and distance of the nanowires. Designs featuring nanowires below a certain diameter will intrinsically feature low short-circuit current that cannot be compensated even by increasing the nanowire density. Optimum efficiency is not achieved in densely packed arrays, in fact spacing the nanowires further apart (simultaneously decreasing the material use) can even improve efficiency in certain scenarios. We observe absorption enhancement reducing the material use. In terms of carrier generation per material use, nanowire devices can outperform thin-film devices by far.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2011 (1)

D. Kumar, S. Srivastava, P. Singh, M. Husain, and V. Kumar, “Fabrication of silicon nanowire arrays based solar cell with improved performance,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, 215–218 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (11)

J. Jung, Z. Guo, S. Jee, H. Um, K. Park, and J. Lee, “A strong antireflective solar cell prepared by tapering silicon nanowires,” Opt. Express 18, A286–A292 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kendrick, H. Yoon, Y. Yuwen, G. Barber, H. Shen, T. Mallouk, E. Dickey, T. Mayer, and J. Redwing, “Radial junction silicon wire array solar cells fabricated by gold-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 143108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. Shu, J. Wei, K. Wang, S. Song, N. Guo, Y. Jia, Z. Li, Y. Xu, A. Cao, H. Zhu, and D. Wu, “Efficient energy conversion of nanotube/nanowire-based solar cells,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46, 5533–5535 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lu, and A. Lal, “High-efficiency ordered silicon nano-conical-frustum array solar cells by self-powered parallel electron lithography,” Nano Lett. 10, 4651–4656 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Garnett, and P. Yang, “Light trapping in silicon nanowire solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10, 1082–1087 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Kelzenberg, S. Boettcher, J. Petykiewicz, D. Turner-Evans, M. Putnam, E. Warren, J. Spurgeon, R. Briggs, N. Lewis, and H. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9, 239–244 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wallentin, J. Persson, J. Wagner, L. Samuelson, K. Deppert, and M. Borgström, “High-performance single nanowire tunnel diodes,” Nano Lett. 3, 603–604 (2010).

J. Kupec, S. Yu, and B. Witzigmann, “Zonal efficiency limit calculation for nanostructured solar cells,” Proc. SPIE 7597, 759704 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Anttu, and H. Xu, “Coupling of light into nanowire arrays and subsequent absorption,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 10, 7183–7187 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Cao, P. Fan, A. Vasudev, J. White, Z. Yu, W. Cai, J. Schuller, S. Fan, and M. Brongersma, “Semiconductor nanowire optical antenna solar absorbers,” Nano Lett. 2, 439–445 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Stefano, N. Fina, S. Savasta, R. Girlanda, and M. Pieruccini, “Calculation of the local optical density of states in absorbing and gain media,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 22, 315302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (6)

C. Lin, and M. Povinelli, “Optical absorption enhancement in silicon nanowire arrays with a large lattice constant for photovoltaic applications,” Opt. Express 17, 19371–19381 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Cao, J. S. White, J.-S. Park, J. A. Schuller, B. M. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, “Engineering light absorption in semiconductor nanowire devices,” Nat. Mater. 8, 643–647 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kupec, and B. Witzigmann, “Dispersion, wave propagation and efficiency analysis of nanowire solar cells,” Opt. Express 17, 10399–10410 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Tian, T. Kempa, and C. Lieber, “Single nanowire photovoltaics,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 38, 16–24 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Goto, K. Nosaki, K. Tomioka, S. Hara, K. Hiruma, J. Motohisa, and T. Fukui, “Growth of core–shell InP nanowires for photovoltaic application by selective-area metal organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 5004 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Colombo, M. Heiß, M. Grätzel, and A. i Morral, “Gallium arsenide pin radial structures for photovoltaic applications,”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 173108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (6)

L. Tsakalakos, “Nanostructures for photovoltaics,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 62, 175–189 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Kandala, and T. Betti, “A. i Morral, M. Senfed, and D. Nim, “General theoretical considerations on nanowire solar cell designs,” Phys. Status Solidi C 206, 173–178 (2008).

F. Römer, and B. Witzigmann, “Spectral and spatial properties of the spontaneous emission enhancement in photonic crystal cavities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 31–39 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Duché, L. Escoubas, J. Simon, P. Torchio, W. Vervisch, and F. Flory, “Slow Bloch modes for enhancing the absorption of light in thin films for photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 193310 (2008).

K. Catchpole, and A. Polman, “Plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express 16, 21793–21800 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kempa, B. Tian, D. Kim, J. Hu, X. Zheng, and C. Lieber, “Single and tandem axial pin nanowire photovoltaic devices,” Nano Lett. 8, 3456–3460 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

F. Römer, B. Witzigmann, O. Chinellato, and P. Arbenz, “Investigation of the Purcell effect in photonic crystal cavities with a 3D finite element Maxwell solver,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 39, 341–352 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, and C. Lieber, “Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources,” Nature 449, 885 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Hu, and G. Chen, “Analysis of optical absorption in silicon nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nano Lett. 7, 3249–3252 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

D. Derkacs, S. Lim, P. Matheu, W. Mar, and E. Yu, “Improved performance of amorphous silicon solar cells via scattering from surface plasmon polaritons in nearby metallic nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

D. Schaadt, B. Feng, and E. Yu, “Enhanced semiconductor optical absorption via surface plasmon excitation in metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 063106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Kayes, H. Atwater, and N. Lewis, “Comparison of the device physics principles of planar and radial pn junction nanorod solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 114302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

D. Fussell, R. McPhedran, and C. Martijn de Sterke, “Three-dimensional Greens tensor, local density of states, and spontaneous emission in finite two-dimensional photonic crystals composed of cylinders,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70, 66608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

G. Létay, and A. Bett, “EtaOpt–a program for calculating limiting efficiency and optimum bandgap structure for multi-bandgap solar cells and TPV cells,” IEEE Spectr. 20, 25 (2001).

1999 (1)

Z. Djuri, Z. Jaki, D. Randjelovi, T. Dankovi, W. Ehrfeld, and A. Schmidt, “Enhancement of radiative lifetime in semiconductors using photonic crystals,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 40, 25–32 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

S. Barnett, B. Huttner, R. Loudon, and R. Matloob, “Decay of excited atoms in absorbing dielectrics,” J. Phys. B 29, 3763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

W. Spirkl, and H. Ries, “Luminescence and efficiency of an ideal photovoltaic cell with charge carrier multiplication,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 11319–11325 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

G. Araújo, and A. Martí, “Absolute limiting efficiencies for photovoltaic energy conversion,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 33, 213–240 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

H. Ries, G. Smestad, and R. Winston, “Thermodynamics of light concentrators,” Proc. SPIE 1528, 7–14 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

G. Smestad, H. Ries, R. Winston, and E. Yablonovitch, “The thermodynamic limits of light concentrators,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 21, 99–111 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

G. Agarwal, “Quantum electrodynamics in the presence of dielectrics and conductors. III. Relations among one-photon transition probabilities in stationary and nonstationary fields, density of states, the field-correlation functions, and surface-dependent response functions,” Phys. Rev. A 11, 253–264 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1961 (1)

W. Shockley, and H. Queisser, “Detailed balance limit of efficiency of p-n junction solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 32, 510–519 (1961).
[CrossRef]

1946 (1)

E. Purcell, H. Torrey, and R. Pound, “Resonance absorption by nuclear magnetic moments in a solid,” Phys. Rev. 69, 37–38 (1946).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, G.

G. Agarwal, “Quantum electrodynamics in the presence of dielectrics and conductors. III. Relations among one-photon transition probabilities in stationary and nonstationary fields, density of states, the field-correlation functions, and surface-dependent response functions,” Phys. Rev. A 11, 253–264 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Anttu, N.

N. Anttu, and H. Xu, “Coupling of light into nanowire arrays and subsequent absorption,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 10, 7183–7187 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Araújo, G.

G. Araújo, and A. Martí, “Absolute limiting efficiencies for photovoltaic energy conversion,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 33, 213–240 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Arbenz, P.

F. Römer, B. Witzigmann, O. Chinellato, and P. Arbenz, “Investigation of the Purcell effect in photonic crystal cavities with a 3D finite element Maxwell solver,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 39, 341–352 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H.

M. Kelzenberg, S. Boettcher, J. Petykiewicz, D. Turner-Evans, M. Putnam, E. Warren, J. Spurgeon, R. Briggs, N. Lewis, and H. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9, 239–244 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Kayes, H. Atwater, and N. Lewis, “Comparison of the device physics principles of planar and radial pn junction nanorod solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 114302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Barber, G.

C. Kendrick, H. Yoon, Y. Yuwen, G. Barber, H. Shen, T. Mallouk, E. Dickey, T. Mayer, and J. Redwing, “Radial junction silicon wire array solar cells fabricated by gold-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 143108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Barnett, S.

S. Barnett, B. Huttner, R. Loudon, and R. Matloob, “Decay of excited atoms in absorbing dielectrics,” J. Phys. B 29, 3763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bett, A.

G. Létay, and A. Bett, “EtaOpt–a program for calculating limiting efficiency and optimum bandgap structure for multi-bandgap solar cells and TPV cells,” IEEE Spectr. 20, 25 (2001).

Betti, T.

A. Kandala, and T. Betti, “A. i Morral, M. Senfed, and D. Nim, “General theoretical considerations on nanowire solar cell designs,” Phys. Status Solidi C 206, 173–178 (2008).

Boettcher, S.

M. Kelzenberg, S. Boettcher, J. Petykiewicz, D. Turner-Evans, M. Putnam, E. Warren, J. Spurgeon, R. Briggs, N. Lewis, and H. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9, 239–244 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borgström, M.

J. Wallentin, J. Persson, J. Wagner, L. Samuelson, K. Deppert, and M. Borgström, “High-performance single nanowire tunnel diodes,” Nano Lett. 3, 603–604 (2010).

Briggs, R.

M. Kelzenberg, S. Boettcher, J. Petykiewicz, D. Turner-Evans, M. Putnam, E. Warren, J. Spurgeon, R. Briggs, N. Lewis, and H. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9, 239–244 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brongersma, M.

L. Cao, P. Fan, A. Vasudev, J. White, Z. Yu, W. Cai, J. Schuller, S. Fan, and M. Brongersma, “Semiconductor nanowire optical antenna solar absorbers,” Nano Lett. 2, 439–445 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brongersma, M. L.

L. Cao, J. S. White, J.-S. Park, J. A. Schuller, B. M. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, “Engineering light absorption in semiconductor nanowire devices,” Nat. Mater. 8, 643–647 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, W.

L. Cao, P. Fan, A. Vasudev, J. White, Z. Yu, W. Cai, J. Schuller, S. Fan, and M. Brongersma, “Semiconductor nanowire optical antenna solar absorbers,” Nano Lett. 2, 439–445 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cao, A.

Q. Shu, J. Wei, K. Wang, S. Song, N. Guo, Y. Jia, Z. Li, Y. Xu, A. Cao, H. Zhu, and D. Wu, “Efficient energy conversion of nanotube/nanowire-based solar cells,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46, 5533–5535 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cao, L.

L. Cao, P. Fan, A. Vasudev, J. White, Z. Yu, W. Cai, J. Schuller, S. Fan, and M. Brongersma, “Semiconductor nanowire optical antenna solar absorbers,” Nano Lett. 2, 439–445 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Cao, J. S. White, J.-S. Park, J. A. Schuller, B. M. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, “Engineering light absorption in semiconductor nanowire devices,” Nat. Mater. 8, 643–647 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Catchpole, K.

Chen, G.

L. Hu, and G. Chen, “Analysis of optical absorption in silicon nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nano Lett. 7, 3249–3252 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chinellato, O.

F. Römer, B. Witzigmann, O. Chinellato, and P. Arbenz, “Investigation of the Purcell effect in photonic crystal cavities with a 3D finite element Maxwell solver,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 39, 341–352 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Clemens, B. M.

L. Cao, J. S. White, J.-S. Park, J. A. Schuller, B. M. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, “Engineering light absorption in semiconductor nanowire devices,” Nat. Mater. 8, 643–647 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colombo, C.

C. Colombo, M. Heiß, M. Grätzel, and A. i Morral, “Gallium arsenide pin radial structures for photovoltaic applications,”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 173108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dankovi, T.

Z. Djuri, Z. Jaki, D. Randjelovi, T. Dankovi, W. Ehrfeld, and A. Schmidt, “Enhancement of radiative lifetime in semiconductors using photonic crystals,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 40, 25–32 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Deppert, K.

J. Wallentin, J. Persson, J. Wagner, L. Samuelson, K. Deppert, and M. Borgström, “High-performance single nanowire tunnel diodes,” Nano Lett. 3, 603–604 (2010).

Derkacs, D.

D. Derkacs, S. Lim, P. Matheu, W. Mar, and E. Yu, “Improved performance of amorphous silicon solar cells via scattering from surface plasmon polaritons in nearby metallic nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dickey, E.

C. Kendrick, H. Yoon, Y. Yuwen, G. Barber, H. Shen, T. Mallouk, E. Dickey, T. Mayer, and J. Redwing, “Radial junction silicon wire array solar cells fabricated by gold-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 143108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Djuri, Z.

Z. Djuri, Z. Jaki, D. Randjelovi, T. Dankovi, W. Ehrfeld, and A. Schmidt, “Enhancement of radiative lifetime in semiconductors using photonic crystals,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 40, 25–32 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Duché, D.

D. Duché, L. Escoubas, J. Simon, P. Torchio, W. Vervisch, and F. Flory, “Slow Bloch modes for enhancing the absorption of light in thin films for photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 193310 (2008).

Ehrfeld, W.

Z. Djuri, Z. Jaki, D. Randjelovi, T. Dankovi, W. Ehrfeld, and A. Schmidt, “Enhancement of radiative lifetime in semiconductors using photonic crystals,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 40, 25–32 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Escoubas, L.

D. Duché, L. Escoubas, J. Simon, P. Torchio, W. Vervisch, and F. Flory, “Slow Bloch modes for enhancing the absorption of light in thin films for photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 193310 (2008).

Fan, P.

L. Cao, P. Fan, A. Vasudev, J. White, Z. Yu, W. Cai, J. Schuller, S. Fan, and M. Brongersma, “Semiconductor nanowire optical antenna solar absorbers,” Nano Lett. 2, 439–445 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

L. Cao, P. Fan, A. Vasudev, J. White, Z. Yu, W. Cai, J. Schuller, S. Fan, and M. Brongersma, “Semiconductor nanowire optical antenna solar absorbers,” Nano Lett. 2, 439–445 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fang, Y.

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, and C. Lieber, “Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources,” Nature 449, 885 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Feng, B.

D. Schaadt, B. Feng, and E. Yu, “Enhanced semiconductor optical absorption via surface plasmon excitation in metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 063106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fina, N.

O. Stefano, N. Fina, S. Savasta, R. Girlanda, and M. Pieruccini, “Calculation of the local optical density of states in absorbing and gain media,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 22, 315302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Flory, F.

D. Duché, L. Escoubas, J. Simon, P. Torchio, W. Vervisch, and F. Flory, “Slow Bloch modes for enhancing the absorption of light in thin films for photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 193310 (2008).

Fukui, T.

H. Goto, K. Nosaki, K. Tomioka, S. Hara, K. Hiruma, J. Motohisa, and T. Fukui, “Growth of core–shell InP nanowires for photovoltaic application by selective-area metal organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 5004 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fussell, D.

D. Fussell, R. McPhedran, and C. Martijn de Sterke, “Three-dimensional Greens tensor, local density of states, and spontaneous emission in finite two-dimensional photonic crystals composed of cylinders,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70, 66608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Garnett, E.

E. Garnett, and P. Yang, “Light trapping in silicon nanowire solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10, 1082–1087 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Girlanda, R.

O. Stefano, N. Fina, S. Savasta, R. Girlanda, and M. Pieruccini, “Calculation of the local optical density of states in absorbing and gain media,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 22, 315302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Goto, H.

H. Goto, K. Nosaki, K. Tomioka, S. Hara, K. Hiruma, J. Motohisa, and T. Fukui, “Growth of core–shell InP nanowires for photovoltaic application by selective-area metal organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 5004 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Grätzel, M.

C. Colombo, M. Heiß, M. Grätzel, and A. i Morral, “Gallium arsenide pin radial structures for photovoltaic applications,”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 173108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Guo, N.

Q. Shu, J. Wei, K. Wang, S. Song, N. Guo, Y. Jia, Z. Li, Y. Xu, A. Cao, H. Zhu, and D. Wu, “Efficient energy conversion of nanotube/nanowire-based solar cells,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46, 5533–5535 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Guo, Z.

Hara, S.

H. Goto, K. Nosaki, K. Tomioka, S. Hara, K. Hiruma, J. Motohisa, and T. Fukui, “Growth of core–shell InP nanowires for photovoltaic application by selective-area metal organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 5004 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Heiß, M.

C. Colombo, M. Heiß, M. Grätzel, and A. i Morral, “Gallium arsenide pin radial structures for photovoltaic applications,”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 173108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hiruma, K.

H. Goto, K. Nosaki, K. Tomioka, S. Hara, K. Hiruma, J. Motohisa, and T. Fukui, “Growth of core–shell InP nanowires for photovoltaic application by selective-area metal organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 5004 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hu, J.

T. Kempa, B. Tian, D. Kim, J. Hu, X. Zheng, and C. Lieber, “Single and tandem axial pin nanowire photovoltaic devices,” Nano Lett. 8, 3456–3460 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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L. Hu, and G. Chen, “Analysis of optical absorption in silicon nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nano Lett. 7, 3249–3252 (2007).
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Huang, J.

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, and C. Lieber, “Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources,” Nature 449, 885 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Husain, M.

D. Kumar, S. Srivastava, P. Singh, M. Husain, and V. Kumar, “Fabrication of silicon nanowire arrays based solar cell with improved performance,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, 215–218 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huttner, B.

S. Barnett, B. Huttner, R. Loudon, and R. Matloob, “Decay of excited atoms in absorbing dielectrics,” J. Phys. B 29, 3763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

i Morral, A.

C. Colombo, M. Heiß, M. Grätzel, and A. i Morral, “Gallium arsenide pin radial structures for photovoltaic applications,”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 173108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jaki, Z.

Z. Djuri, Z. Jaki, D. Randjelovi, T. Dankovi, W. Ehrfeld, and A. Schmidt, “Enhancement of radiative lifetime in semiconductors using photonic crystals,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 40, 25–32 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jee, S.

Jia, Y.

Q. Shu, J. Wei, K. Wang, S. Song, N. Guo, Y. Jia, Z. Li, Y. Xu, A. Cao, H. Zhu, and D. Wu, “Efficient energy conversion of nanotube/nanowire-based solar cells,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46, 5533–5535 (2010).
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Kandala, A.

A. Kandala, and T. Betti, “A. i Morral, M. Senfed, and D. Nim, “General theoretical considerations on nanowire solar cell designs,” Phys. Status Solidi C 206, 173–178 (2008).

Kayes, B.

B. Kayes, H. Atwater, and N. Lewis, “Comparison of the device physics principles of planar and radial pn junction nanorod solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 114302 (2005).
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Kelzenberg, M.

M. Kelzenberg, S. Boettcher, J. Petykiewicz, D. Turner-Evans, M. Putnam, E. Warren, J. Spurgeon, R. Briggs, N. Lewis, and H. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9, 239–244 (2010).
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Kempa, T.

B. Tian, T. Kempa, and C. Lieber, “Single nanowire photovoltaics,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 38, 16–24 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Kempa, B. Tian, D. Kim, J. Hu, X. Zheng, and C. Lieber, “Single and tandem axial pin nanowire photovoltaic devices,” Nano Lett. 8, 3456–3460 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, and C. Lieber, “Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources,” Nature 449, 885 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kendrick, C.

C. Kendrick, H. Yoon, Y. Yuwen, G. Barber, H. Shen, T. Mallouk, E. Dickey, T. Mayer, and J. Redwing, “Radial junction silicon wire array solar cells fabricated by gold-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 143108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D.

T. Kempa, B. Tian, D. Kim, J. Hu, X. Zheng, and C. Lieber, “Single and tandem axial pin nanowire photovoltaic devices,” Nano Lett. 8, 3456–3460 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kumar, D.

D. Kumar, S. Srivastava, P. Singh, M. Husain, and V. Kumar, “Fabrication of silicon nanowire arrays based solar cell with improved performance,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, 215–218 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, V.

D. Kumar, S. Srivastava, P. Singh, M. Husain, and V. Kumar, “Fabrication of silicon nanowire arrays based solar cell with improved performance,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, 215–218 (2011).
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J. Kupec, S. Yu, and B. Witzigmann, “Zonal efficiency limit calculation for nanostructured solar cells,” Proc. SPIE 7597, 759704 (2010).
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J. Kupec, and B. Witzigmann, “Dispersion, wave propagation and efficiency analysis of nanowire solar cells,” Opt. Express 17, 10399–10410 (2009).
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Lal, A.

Y. Lu, and A. Lal, “High-efficiency ordered silicon nano-conical-frustum array solar cells by self-powered parallel electron lithography,” Nano Lett. 10, 4651–4656 (2010).
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Létay, G.

G. Létay, and A. Bett, “EtaOpt–a program for calculating limiting efficiency and optimum bandgap structure for multi-bandgap solar cells and TPV cells,” IEEE Spectr. 20, 25 (2001).

Lewis, N.

M. Kelzenberg, S. Boettcher, J. Petykiewicz, D. Turner-Evans, M. Putnam, E. Warren, J. Spurgeon, R. Briggs, N. Lewis, and H. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9, 239–244 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Kayes, H. Atwater, and N. Lewis, “Comparison of the device physics principles of planar and radial pn junction nanorod solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 97, 114302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

Q. Shu, J. Wei, K. Wang, S. Song, N. Guo, Y. Jia, Z. Li, Y. Xu, A. Cao, H. Zhu, and D. Wu, “Efficient energy conversion of nanotube/nanowire-based solar cells,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46, 5533–5535 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lieber, C.

B. Tian, T. Kempa, and C. Lieber, “Single nanowire photovoltaics,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 38, 16–24 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Kempa, B. Tian, D. Kim, J. Hu, X. Zheng, and C. Lieber, “Single and tandem axial pin nanowire photovoltaic devices,” Nano Lett. 8, 3456–3460 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, and C. Lieber, “Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources,” Nature 449, 885 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lim, S.

D. Derkacs, S. Lim, P. Matheu, W. Mar, and E. Yu, “Improved performance of amorphous silicon solar cells via scattering from surface plasmon polaritons in nearby metallic nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.

Loudon, R.

S. Barnett, B. Huttner, R. Loudon, and R. Matloob, “Decay of excited atoms in absorbing dielectrics,” J. Phys. B 29, 3763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y.

Y. Lu, and A. Lal, “High-efficiency ordered silicon nano-conical-frustum array solar cells by self-powered parallel electron lithography,” Nano Lett. 10, 4651–4656 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mallouk, T.

C. Kendrick, H. Yoon, Y. Yuwen, G. Barber, H. Shen, T. Mallouk, E. Dickey, T. Mayer, and J. Redwing, “Radial junction silicon wire array solar cells fabricated by gold-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 143108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mar, W.

D. Derkacs, S. Lim, P. Matheu, W. Mar, and E. Yu, “Improved performance of amorphous silicon solar cells via scattering from surface plasmon polaritons in nearby metallic nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 093103 (2006).
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G. Araújo, and A. Martí, “Absolute limiting efficiencies for photovoltaic energy conversion,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 33, 213–240 (1994).
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Martijn de Sterke, C.

D. Fussell, R. McPhedran, and C. Martijn de Sterke, “Three-dimensional Greens tensor, local density of states, and spontaneous emission in finite two-dimensional photonic crystals composed of cylinders,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70, 66608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Matheu, P.

D. Derkacs, S. Lim, P. Matheu, W. Mar, and E. Yu, “Improved performance of amorphous silicon solar cells via scattering from surface plasmon polaritons in nearby metallic nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Matloob, R.

S. Barnett, B. Huttner, R. Loudon, and R. Matloob, “Decay of excited atoms in absorbing dielectrics,” J. Phys. B 29, 3763 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mayer, T.

C. Kendrick, H. Yoon, Y. Yuwen, G. Barber, H. Shen, T. Mallouk, E. Dickey, T. Mayer, and J. Redwing, “Radial junction silicon wire array solar cells fabricated by gold-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 143108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

McPhedran, R.

D. Fussell, R. McPhedran, and C. Martijn de Sterke, “Three-dimensional Greens tensor, local density of states, and spontaneous emission in finite two-dimensional photonic crystals composed of cylinders,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 70, 66608 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Motohisa, J.

H. Goto, K. Nosaki, K. Tomioka, S. Hara, K. Hiruma, J. Motohisa, and T. Fukui, “Growth of core–shell InP nanowires for photovoltaic application by selective-area metal organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 5004 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nosaki, K.

H. Goto, K. Nosaki, K. Tomioka, S. Hara, K. Hiruma, J. Motohisa, and T. Fukui, “Growth of core–shell InP nanowires for photovoltaic application by selective-area metal organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 5004 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.-S.

L. Cao, J. S. White, J.-S. Park, J. A. Schuller, B. M. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, “Engineering light absorption in semiconductor nanowire devices,” Nat. Mater. 8, 643–647 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, K.

Persson, J.

J. Wallentin, J. Persson, J. Wagner, L. Samuelson, K. Deppert, and M. Borgström, “High-performance single nanowire tunnel diodes,” Nano Lett. 3, 603–604 (2010).

Petykiewicz, J.

M. Kelzenberg, S. Boettcher, J. Petykiewicz, D. Turner-Evans, M. Putnam, E. Warren, J. Spurgeon, R. Briggs, N. Lewis, and H. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9, 239–244 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pieruccini, M.

O. Stefano, N. Fina, S. Savasta, R. Girlanda, and M. Pieruccini, “Calculation of the local optical density of states in absorbing and gain media,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 22, 315302 (2010).
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Pound, R.

E. Purcell, H. Torrey, and R. Pound, “Resonance absorption by nuclear magnetic moments in a solid,” Phys. Rev. 69, 37–38 (1946).
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Purcell, E.

E. Purcell, H. Torrey, and R. Pound, “Resonance absorption by nuclear magnetic moments in a solid,” Phys. Rev. 69, 37–38 (1946).
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Putnam, M.

M. Kelzenberg, S. Boettcher, J. Petykiewicz, D. Turner-Evans, M. Putnam, E. Warren, J. Spurgeon, R. Briggs, N. Lewis, and H. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9, 239–244 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Queisser, H.

W. Shockley, and H. Queisser, “Detailed balance limit of efficiency of p-n junction solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 32, 510–519 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Randjelovi, D.

Z. Djuri, Z. Jaki, D. Randjelovi, T. Dankovi, W. Ehrfeld, and A. Schmidt, “Enhancement of radiative lifetime in semiconductors using photonic crystals,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 40, 25–32 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Redwing, J.

C. Kendrick, H. Yoon, Y. Yuwen, G. Barber, H. Shen, T. Mallouk, E. Dickey, T. Mayer, and J. Redwing, “Radial junction silicon wire array solar cells fabricated by gold-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 143108 (2010).
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W. Spirkl, and H. Ries, “Luminescence and efficiency of an ideal photovoltaic cell with charge carrier multiplication,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 11319–11325 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Ries, G. Smestad, and R. Winston, “Thermodynamics of light concentrators,” Proc. SPIE 1528, 7–14 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. Smestad, H. Ries, R. Winston, and E. Yablonovitch, “The thermodynamic limits of light concentrators,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 21, 99–111 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Römer, F.

F. Römer, and B. Witzigmann, “Spectral and spatial properties of the spontaneous emission enhancement in photonic crystal cavities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 31–39 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Römer, B. Witzigmann, O. Chinellato, and P. Arbenz, “Investigation of the Purcell effect in photonic crystal cavities with a 3D finite element Maxwell solver,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 39, 341–352 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Samuelson, L.

J. Wallentin, J. Persson, J. Wagner, L. Samuelson, K. Deppert, and M. Borgström, “High-performance single nanowire tunnel diodes,” Nano Lett. 3, 603–604 (2010).

Savasta, S.

O. Stefano, N. Fina, S. Savasta, R. Girlanda, and M. Pieruccini, “Calculation of the local optical density of states in absorbing and gain media,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 22, 315302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schaadt, D.

D. Schaadt, B. Feng, and E. Yu, “Enhanced semiconductor optical absorption via surface plasmon excitation in metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 063106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, A.

Z. Djuri, Z. Jaki, D. Randjelovi, T. Dankovi, W. Ehrfeld, and A. Schmidt, “Enhancement of radiative lifetime in semiconductors using photonic crystals,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 40, 25–32 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schuller, J.

L. Cao, P. Fan, A. Vasudev, J. White, Z. Yu, W. Cai, J. Schuller, S. Fan, and M. Brongersma, “Semiconductor nanowire optical antenna solar absorbers,” Nano Lett. 2, 439–445 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schuller, J. A.

L. Cao, J. S. White, J.-S. Park, J. A. Schuller, B. M. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, “Engineering light absorption in semiconductor nanowire devices,” Nat. Mater. 8, 643–647 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, H.

C. Kendrick, H. Yoon, Y. Yuwen, G. Barber, H. Shen, T. Mallouk, E. Dickey, T. Mayer, and J. Redwing, “Radial junction silicon wire array solar cells fabricated by gold-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 143108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shockley, W.

W. Shockley, and H. Queisser, “Detailed balance limit of efficiency of p-n junction solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 32, 510–519 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Shu, Q.

Q. Shu, J. Wei, K. Wang, S. Song, N. Guo, Y. Jia, Z. Li, Y. Xu, A. Cao, H. Zhu, and D. Wu, “Efficient energy conversion of nanotube/nanowire-based solar cells,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46, 5533–5535 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Simon, J.

D. Duché, L. Escoubas, J. Simon, P. Torchio, W. Vervisch, and F. Flory, “Slow Bloch modes for enhancing the absorption of light in thin films for photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 193310 (2008).

Singh, P.

D. Kumar, S. Srivastava, P. Singh, M. Husain, and V. Kumar, “Fabrication of silicon nanowire arrays based solar cell with improved performance,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, 215–218 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Smestad, G.

H. Ries, G. Smestad, and R. Winston, “Thermodynamics of light concentrators,” Proc. SPIE 1528, 7–14 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. Smestad, H. Ries, R. Winston, and E. Yablonovitch, “The thermodynamic limits of light concentrators,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 21, 99–111 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Song, S.

Q. Shu, J. Wei, K. Wang, S. Song, N. Guo, Y. Jia, Z. Li, Y. Xu, A. Cao, H. Zhu, and D. Wu, “Efficient energy conversion of nanotube/nanowire-based solar cells,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46, 5533–5535 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Spirkl, W.

W. Spirkl, and H. Ries, “Luminescence and efficiency of an ideal photovoltaic cell with charge carrier multiplication,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 11319–11325 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Spurgeon, J.

M. Kelzenberg, S. Boettcher, J. Petykiewicz, D. Turner-Evans, M. Putnam, E. Warren, J. Spurgeon, R. Briggs, N. Lewis, and H. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9, 239–244 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srivastava, S.

D. Kumar, S. Srivastava, P. Singh, M. Husain, and V. Kumar, “Fabrication of silicon nanowire arrays based solar cell with improved performance,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, 215–218 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Stefano, O.

O. Stefano, N. Fina, S. Savasta, R. Girlanda, and M. Pieruccini, “Calculation of the local optical density of states in absorbing and gain media,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 22, 315302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tian, B.

B. Tian, T. Kempa, and C. Lieber, “Single nanowire photovoltaics,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 38, 16–24 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Kempa, B. Tian, D. Kim, J. Hu, X. Zheng, and C. Lieber, “Single and tandem axial pin nanowire photovoltaic devices,” Nano Lett. 8, 3456–3460 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, and C. Lieber, “Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources,” Nature 449, 885 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tomioka, K.

H. Goto, K. Nosaki, K. Tomioka, S. Hara, K. Hiruma, J. Motohisa, and T. Fukui, “Growth of core–shell InP nanowires for photovoltaic application by selective-area metal organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 5004 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Torchio, P.

D. Duché, L. Escoubas, J. Simon, P. Torchio, W. Vervisch, and F. Flory, “Slow Bloch modes for enhancing the absorption of light in thin films for photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 193310 (2008).

Torrey, H.

E. Purcell, H. Torrey, and R. Pound, “Resonance absorption by nuclear magnetic moments in a solid,” Phys. Rev. 69, 37–38 (1946).
[CrossRef]

Tsakalakos, L.

L. Tsakalakos, “Nanostructures for photovoltaics,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 62, 175–189 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Turner-Evans, D.

M. Kelzenberg, S. Boettcher, J. Petykiewicz, D. Turner-Evans, M. Putnam, E. Warren, J. Spurgeon, R. Briggs, N. Lewis, and H. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9, 239–244 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Um, H.

Vasudev, A.

L. Cao, P. Fan, A. Vasudev, J. White, Z. Yu, W. Cai, J. Schuller, S. Fan, and M. Brongersma, “Semiconductor nanowire optical antenna solar absorbers,” Nano Lett. 2, 439–445 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vervisch, W.

D. Duché, L. Escoubas, J. Simon, P. Torchio, W. Vervisch, and F. Flory, “Slow Bloch modes for enhancing the absorption of light in thin films for photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 193310 (2008).

Wagner, J.

J. Wallentin, J. Persson, J. Wagner, L. Samuelson, K. Deppert, and M. Borgström, “High-performance single nanowire tunnel diodes,” Nano Lett. 3, 603–604 (2010).

Wallentin, J.

J. Wallentin, J. Persson, J. Wagner, L. Samuelson, K. Deppert, and M. Borgström, “High-performance single nanowire tunnel diodes,” Nano Lett. 3, 603–604 (2010).

Wang, K.

Q. Shu, J. Wei, K. Wang, S. Song, N. Guo, Y. Jia, Z. Li, Y. Xu, A. Cao, H. Zhu, and D. Wu, “Efficient energy conversion of nanotube/nanowire-based solar cells,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46, 5533–5535 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Warren, E.

M. Kelzenberg, S. Boettcher, J. Petykiewicz, D. Turner-Evans, M. Putnam, E. Warren, J. Spurgeon, R. Briggs, N. Lewis, and H. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9, 239–244 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, J.

Q. Shu, J. Wei, K. Wang, S. Song, N. Guo, Y. Jia, Z. Li, Y. Xu, A. Cao, H. Zhu, and D. Wu, “Efficient energy conversion of nanotube/nanowire-based solar cells,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46, 5533–5535 (2010).
[CrossRef]

White, J.

L. Cao, P. Fan, A. Vasudev, J. White, Z. Yu, W. Cai, J. Schuller, S. Fan, and M. Brongersma, “Semiconductor nanowire optical antenna solar absorbers,” Nano Lett. 2, 439–445 (2010).
[CrossRef]

White, J. S.

L. Cao, J. S. White, J.-S. Park, J. A. Schuller, B. M. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, “Engineering light absorption in semiconductor nanowire devices,” Nat. Mater. 8, 643–647 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Winston, R.

H. Ries, G. Smestad, and R. Winston, “Thermodynamics of light concentrators,” Proc. SPIE 1528, 7–14 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. Smestad, H. Ries, R. Winston, and E. Yablonovitch, “The thermodynamic limits of light concentrators,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 21, 99–111 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Witzigmann, B.

J. Kupec, S. Yu, and B. Witzigmann, “Zonal efficiency limit calculation for nanostructured solar cells,” Proc. SPIE 7597, 759704 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Kupec, and B. Witzigmann, “Dispersion, wave propagation and efficiency analysis of nanowire solar cells,” Opt. Express 17, 10399–10410 (2009).
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F. Römer, and B. Witzigmann, “Spectral and spatial properties of the spontaneous emission enhancement in photonic crystal cavities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25, 31–39 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Römer, B. Witzigmann, O. Chinellato, and P. Arbenz, “Investigation of the Purcell effect in photonic crystal cavities with a 3D finite element Maxwell solver,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 39, 341–352 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, D.

Q. Shu, J. Wei, K. Wang, S. Song, N. Guo, Y. Jia, Z. Li, Y. Xu, A. Cao, H. Zhu, and D. Wu, “Efficient energy conversion of nanotube/nanowire-based solar cells,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46, 5533–5535 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xu, H.

N. Anttu, and H. Xu, “Coupling of light into nanowire arrays and subsequent absorption,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 10, 7183–7187 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Y.

Q. Shu, J. Wei, K. Wang, S. Song, N. Guo, Y. Jia, Z. Li, Y. Xu, A. Cao, H. Zhu, and D. Wu, “Efficient energy conversion of nanotube/nanowire-based solar cells,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46, 5533–5535 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yablonovitch, E.

G. Smestad, H. Ries, R. Winston, and E. Yablonovitch, “The thermodynamic limits of light concentrators,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 21, 99–111 (1990).
[CrossRef]

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E. Garnett, and P. Yang, “Light trapping in silicon nanowire solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10, 1082–1087 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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C. Kendrick, H. Yoon, Y. Yuwen, G. Barber, H. Shen, T. Mallouk, E. Dickey, T. Mayer, and J. Redwing, “Radial junction silicon wire array solar cells fabricated by gold-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 143108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yu, E.

D. Derkacs, S. Lim, P. Matheu, W. Mar, and E. Yu, “Improved performance of amorphous silicon solar cells via scattering from surface plasmon polaritons in nearby metallic nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Schaadt, B. Feng, and E. Yu, “Enhanced semiconductor optical absorption via surface plasmon excitation in metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 063106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yu, G.

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, and C. Lieber, “Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources,” Nature 449, 885 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yu, N.

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, and C. Lieber, “Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources,” Nature 449, 885 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yu, S.

J. Kupec, S. Yu, and B. Witzigmann, “Zonal efficiency limit calculation for nanostructured solar cells,” Proc. SPIE 7597, 759704 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Z.

L. Cao, P. Fan, A. Vasudev, J. White, Z. Yu, W. Cai, J. Schuller, S. Fan, and M. Brongersma, “Semiconductor nanowire optical antenna solar absorbers,” Nano Lett. 2, 439–445 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yuwen, Y.

C. Kendrick, H. Yoon, Y. Yuwen, G. Barber, H. Shen, T. Mallouk, E. Dickey, T. Mayer, and J. Redwing, “Radial junction silicon wire array solar cells fabricated by gold-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 143108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, X.

T. Kempa, B. Tian, D. Kim, J. Hu, X. Zheng, and C. Lieber, “Single and tandem axial pin nanowire photovoltaic devices,” Nano Lett. 8, 3456–3460 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, and C. Lieber, “Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources,” Nature 449, 885 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, H.

Q. Shu, J. Wei, K. Wang, S. Song, N. Guo, Y. Jia, Z. Li, Y. Xu, A. Cao, H. Zhu, and D. Wu, “Efficient energy conversion of nanotube/nanowire-based solar cells,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46, 5533–5535 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

H. Goto, K. Nosaki, K. Tomioka, S. Hara, K. Hiruma, J. Motohisa, and T. Fukui, “Growth of core–shell InP nanowires for photovoltaic application by selective-area metal organic vapor phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 5004 (2009).
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[CrossRef]

D. Duché, L. Escoubas, J. Simon, P. Torchio, W. Vervisch, and F. Flory, “Slow Bloch modes for enhancing the absorption of light in thin films for photovoltaic cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 193310 (2008).

D. Derkacs, S. Lim, P. Matheu, W. Mar, and E. Yu, “Improved performance of amorphous silicon solar cells via scattering from surface plasmon polaritons in nearby metallic nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 093103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Schaadt, B. Feng, and E. Yu, “Enhanced semiconductor optical absorption via surface plasmon excitation in metal nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 063106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (1)

Q. Shu, J. Wei, K. Wang, S. Song, N. Guo, Y. Jia, Z. Li, Y. Xu, A. Cao, H. Zhu, and D. Wu, “Efficient energy conversion of nanotube/nanowire-based solar cells,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 46, 5533–5535 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Soc. Rev. (1)

B. Tian, T. Kempa, and C. Lieber, “Single nanowire photovoltaics,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 38, 16–24 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Spectr. (1)

G. Létay, and A. Bett, “EtaOpt–a program for calculating limiting efficiency and optimum bandgap structure for multi-bandgap solar cells and TPV cells,” IEEE Spectr. 20, 25 (2001).

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N. Anttu, and H. Xu, “Coupling of light into nanowire arrays and subsequent absorption,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 10, 7183–7187 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. B (1)

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J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

O. Stefano, N. Fina, S. Savasta, R. Girlanda, and M. Pieruccini, “Calculation of the local optical density of states in absorbing and gain media,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 22, 315302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. (1)

L. Tsakalakos, “Nanostructures for photovoltaics,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 62, 175–189 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (6)

T. Kempa, B. Tian, D. Kim, J. Hu, X. Zheng, and C. Lieber, “Single and tandem axial pin nanowire photovoltaic devices,” Nano Lett. 8, 3456–3460 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Lu, and A. Lal, “High-efficiency ordered silicon nano-conical-frustum array solar cells by self-powered parallel electron lithography,” Nano Lett. 10, 4651–4656 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Garnett, and P. Yang, “Light trapping in silicon nanowire solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10, 1082–1087 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Hu, and G. Chen, “Analysis of optical absorption in silicon nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nano Lett. 7, 3249–3252 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wallentin, J. Persson, J. Wagner, L. Samuelson, K. Deppert, and M. Borgström, “High-performance single nanowire tunnel diodes,” Nano Lett. 3, 603–604 (2010).

L. Cao, P. Fan, A. Vasudev, J. White, Z. Yu, W. Cai, J. Schuller, S. Fan, and M. Brongersma, “Semiconductor nanowire optical antenna solar absorbers,” Nano Lett. 2, 439–445 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (2)

M. Kelzenberg, S. Boettcher, J. Petykiewicz, D. Turner-Evans, M. Putnam, E. Warren, J. Spurgeon, R. Briggs, N. Lewis, and H. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9, 239–244 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Cao, J. S. White, J.-S. Park, J. A. Schuller, B. M. Clemens, and M. L. Brongersma, “Engineering light absorption in semiconductor nanowire devices,” Nat. Mater. 8, 643–647 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, and C. Lieber, “Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources,” Nature 449, 885 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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F. Römer, B. Witzigmann, O. Chinellato, and P. Arbenz, “Investigation of the Purcell effect in photonic crystal cavities with a 3D finite element Maxwell solver,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 39, 341–352 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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Proc. SPIE (2)

H. Ries, G. Smestad, and R. Winston, “Thermodynamics of light concentrators,” Proc. SPIE 1528, 7–14 (1991).
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J. Kupec, S. Yu, and B. Witzigmann, “Zonal efficiency limit calculation for nanostructured solar cells,” Proc. SPIE 7597, 759704 (2010).
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N. Lagos, M. Sigalas, and D. Niarchos, “The optical absorption of nanowire arrays,” Photonics Nanostruct. Fundam. Appl. in press,corrected proof, (2010).

G. Létay, Modellierung von III–V Solarzellen (Universit¨at Konstanz, Germany, 2003).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Top: Modal electric field intensities of the two most relevant modes used to compute absorptivity using the 2D modal approach in [17]. Center: Relative incoupling into the modes plotted on the top, for definition, refer to Eq. (8). Bottom: Spectral absorptivity of an InP nanowire array and an equivalent plane perfectly AR-coated thin-film with same material use. The geometric fill factor is constant for all plots, the footprint area of the nanowires covers a fraction of 0.196 of the unit cell area. For thin nanowires up to 180nm diameter, the absorptivity of low energy photons can be improved by increasing the diameter while the absorptivity of high energy photons is high even for small diameters. Green dashed curve illustrates absorptivity of the (a0 = 360nm, d0 = 180nm)-geometry obtained from 2D waveguide modal analysis as discussed in [17].

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized short-circuit current of InP nanowire solar cells for various diameters at various area fill factors and reference thin-film normalized short-circuit currents (markers on the right). The nanowires are arranged in square array, common height of nanowires in all designs is 2000nm. For constant geometric fill factor the usage of InP is constant. The device constitutes a photonic device, the absorptivity cannot be predicted by effective medium considerations based on geometric aspects alone. Absorption enhancement leads to decreased material use compared to thin-film. Refer to Fig.1 for the plot of a few absorptivity curves serving as the input for the analysis depicted herein.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Computational domain for the (a0 = 360nm, d0 = 180nm) geometry for the calculation of the PLDOS. The solutions for the source problem with dipoles located at the axis of the center nanowire array 100nm below the top. The space above the nanowires is not illustrated, the space between the nanowires is made transparent. The color is representing the absolute value of the real part of the electric field, the color bar is omitted due to the qualitative statement of the illustration. The length of the nanowires was shortened by 1000nm to decrease computational effort. The cluster parameter as defined in [40] is NC > 9. A real refractive index of n = 3.5 was assumed.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectral PLDOS (normalized to the LDOS of free space) for the (a0 = 360nm, d0 = 180nm) geometry for various wavelength at 100nm below the top of the array separated for xy-dipole momentum giving rise to quasi-TE waves within the photonic crystal and z-dipole momentum agitating quasi-TM waves. The enhancement of spontaneous emission with respect to free space is given by the sum of all dipole momentum orientations. We observe an enhancement of approx. 2.5, partially degrading the ameliorating effect of micro-concentration. The length of the nanowires was shortened by 1000nm to decrease computational effort. The cluster parameter as defined in [40] is NC > 9. A real refractive index of n = 3.5 was assumed.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Detailed balance efficiency limit of InP nanowire solar cells for various diameters at various area fill factors, thermodynamic limits (dashed lines) and reference thin-film efficiencies (markers on the right). Nanowires (20nm ≤ d0 ≤ 200nm) are arranged in square array, common height of nanowires in all designs is 2000nm. The dashed lines indicating the performance of planar, perfectly absorbing thin-film cells are calculated for concentrations of 1/fNW.

Equations (21)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

f NW = d 0 2 π 4 a 0 2 with d 0 a 0 .
× ( μ ¯ ¯ 1 × E ) k 0 2 ɛ ¯ ¯ E = j k 0 Z 0 J
p ( x , λ ) = 1 2 { E ( x , λ ) × H ( x , λ ) * ) }
a ( λ ) = 1 p inc NW p ( x , λ ) d x
I ph = I sc = A SC q e h c 0 0 λ g = c 0 h E g λ a ( λ ) p AM 1.5 d ( λ ) d λ
a ( λ ) = { 0 λ > h c 0 E g 1 λ h c 0 E g
η sc = 0 λ g = c 0 h E g λ a ( λ ) p AM 1.5 d ( λ ) d λ 0 λ g = c 0 h E g λ p AM 1.5 d ( λ ) d λ
c A ( λ ) = t A ( λ ) η A ( λ ) η A ( λ ) + η B ( λ ) and c B ( λ ) = t B ( λ ) η B ( λ ) η A ( λ ) + η B ( λ )
N ( E , x ) = c 4 π ρ ( E , x ) exp ( E Δ μ k B T 0 ) 1 d E d Ω
ρ ( E , x ) dE = 2 π E h 2 c 2 ( Tr ( G E ( x , x , E ) ) ) d E
ρ vac ( E ) d E = 8 π E 2 c 3 h 3 d E .
ρ ( E , x ) d E = β ( E , x ) 8 π E 2 c 3 h 3 d E .
β = ρ ( E , x ) ρ vac ( E , x )
β i ( E , x ) = 2 π k ( e i T G E ( x , x , E ) e i ) with i x , y , z β ( E , x ) = β x ( E , x ) + β y ( E , x ) + β z ( E , x )
i ( v ) = I ph ( v ) I dark ( v ) = I ph ( v ) I 0 ( exp ( q e v k B T ) 1 )
j 0 = 4 π q e h 3 c 0 2 E = 0 E = β ( E ) E 2 exp ( E qV k B T 1 ) d E
j 0 = 4 π q e h 3 c 0 2 β k B T ( 2 k B 2 T 2 + 2 k B T E g + E g 2 ) exp ( E g k B T )
β TF = n t 2 + n b 2 2
β f NW < β TF
v TF ( i ) = k B T q e ln ( I ph i I 0 + 1 )
v NW ( i ) = k B T q e ln ( I ph i g f NW I 0 + 1 ) k B T q e ln ( I ph i g f NW I 0 ) v TF ( i ) k B T q e ln ( g f NW )

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