Abstract

High-power ultrafast lasers are important for numerous industrial and scientific applications. Current multi-watt systems, however, are based on relatively complex laser concepts, for example using additional intracavity elements for pulse formation. Moving towards a higher level of integration would reduce complexity, packaging, and manufacturing cost, which are important requirements for mass production. Semiconductor lasers are well established for such applications, and optically-pumped vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers (VECSELs) are most promising for higher power applications, generating the highest power in fundamental transverse mode (>20 W) to date. Ultrashort pulses have been demonstrated using passive modelocking with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM), achieving for example 2.1-W average power, sub-100-fs pulse duration, and 50-GHz pulse repetition rate. Previously the integration of both the gain and absorber elements into a single wafer was demonstrated with the MIXSEL (modelocked integrated external-cavity surface emitting laser) but with limited average output power (<200 mW). We have demonstrated the power scaling concept of the MIXSEL using optimized quantum dot saturable absorbers in an antiresonant structure design combined with an improved thermal management by wafer removal and mounting of the 8-µm thick MIXSEL structure directly onto a CVD-diamond heat spreader. The simple straight cavity with only two components has generated 28-ps pulses at 2.5-GHz repetition rate and an average output power of 6.4 W, which is higher than for any other modelocked semiconductor laser.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. J. J. Plant, J. T. Gopinath, B. Chann, D. J. Ripin, R. K. Huang, and P. W. Juodawlkis, “250 mW, 1.5µm monolithic passively mode-locked slab-coupled optical waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 31(2), 223–225 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, “High-Power (>0.5-W CW) Diode-Pumped Vertical-External-Cavity Surface-Emitting Semiconductor Lasers with Circular TEM00 Beams,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(8), 1063–1065 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  3. M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, “Design and Characteristics of High-Power (>0.5-W CW) Diode-Pumped Vertical-External-Cavity Surface-Emitting Semiconductor Lasers with Circular TEM00 Beams,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(3), 561–573 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  4. B. Rudin, A. Rutz, M. Hoffmann, D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, E. Gini, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Highly efficient optically pumped vertical-emitting semiconductor laser with more than 20 W average output power in a fundamental transverse mode,” Opt. Lett. 33(22), 2719–2721 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  6. U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424(6950), 831–838 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. A. Aschwanden, D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, R. Paschotta, E. Gini, and U. Keller, “2.1-W picosecond passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser,” Opt. Lett. 30(3), 272–274 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, “50-GHz passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100 mW average output power,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(8), 838–847 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  9. A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, V. Apostolopoulos, Z. Mihoubi, S. P. Elsmere, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. Tropper, “A passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser emitting 60-fs pulses,” Nat. Photonics 3(12), 729–731 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  10. D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, M. Golling, H. J. Unold, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Vertical integration of ultrafast semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 88(4), 493–497 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  11. A.-R. Bellancourt, D. J. H. C. Maas, B. Rudin, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Modelocked Integrated External-Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (MIXSEL),” IET Optoelectron. 3(2), 61–72 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  12. A.-R. Bellancourt, Y. Barbarin, D. J. H. C. Maas, M. Shafiei, M. Hoffmann, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Low saturation fluence antiresonant quantum dot SESAMs for MIXSEL integration,” Opt. Express 17(12), 9704–9711 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. G. H. C. New, “Modelocking of quasi-continuous lasers,” Opt. Commun. 6(2), 188–192 (1972).
    [Crossref]
  14. H. A. Haus, “Theory of Mode Locking with a Slow Saturable Absorber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11(9), 736–746 (1975).
    [Crossref]
  15. R. Paschotta, R. Häring, U. Keller, A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, and A. C. Tropper, “Soliton-like pulse-shaping mechanism in passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 75(4-5), 445–451 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  16. D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, D. J. H. C. Maas, A. Aschwanden, R. Grange, R. Paschotta, D. Ebling, E. Gini, and U. Keller, “Towards Wafer-Scale Integration of High Repetition Rate Passively Mode-Locked Surface-Emitting Semiconductor Lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 79(8), 927–932 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  17. E. U. Rafailov, S. J. White, A. A. Lagatsky, A. Miller, W. Sibbett, D. A. Livshits, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, “Fast quantum-dot saturable absorber for passive mode-locking of solid-state lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2439–2441 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  18. D. J. H. C. Maas, A. R. Bellancourt, M. Hoffmann, B. Rudin, Y. Barbarin, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Growth parameter optimization for fast quantum dot SESAMs,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18646–18656 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  19. A. Giesen, H. Hügel, A. Voss, K. Wittig, U. Brauch, and H. Opower, “Scalable Concept for Diode-Pumped High-Power Solid-State Lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 365–372 (1994).
  20. R. Häring, R. Paschotta, A. Aschwanden, E. Gini, F. Morier-Genoud, and U. Keller, “High–power passively mode–locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(9), 1268–1275 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  21. W. J. Alford, T. D. Raymond, and A. A. Allerman, “High power and good beam quality at 980 nm from a vertical external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19(4), 663–666 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  22. J. E. Hastie, J.-M. Hopkins, S. Calvez, C. W. Jeon, D. Burns, R. Abram, E. Riis, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Dawson, “0.5-W single transverse-mode operation of an 850-nm diode-pumped surface-emitting semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(7), 894–896 (2003).
    [Crossref]

2009 (3)

A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, V. Apostolopoulos, Z. Mihoubi, S. P. Elsmere, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. Tropper, “A passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser emitting 60-fs pulses,” Nat. Photonics 3(12), 729–731 (2009).
[Crossref]

A.-R. Bellancourt, D. J. H. C. Maas, B. Rudin, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Modelocked Integrated External-Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (MIXSEL),” IET Optoelectron. 3(2), 61–72 (2009).
[Crossref]

A.-R. Bellancourt, Y. Barbarin, D. J. H. C. Maas, M. Shafiei, M. Hoffmann, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Low saturation fluence antiresonant quantum dot SESAMs for MIXSEL integration,” Opt. Express 17(12), 9704–9711 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

2007 (1)

D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, M. Golling, H. J. Unold, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Vertical integration of ultrafast semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 88(4), 493–497 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

J. J. Plant, J. T. Gopinath, B. Chann, D. J. Ripin, R. K. Huang, and P. W. Juodawlkis, “250 mW, 1.5µm monolithic passively mode-locked slab-coupled optical waveguide laser,” Opt. Lett. 31(2), 223–225 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, “50-GHz passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100 mW average output power,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(8), 838–847 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, D. J. H. C. Maas, A. Aschwanden, R. Grange, R. Paschotta, D. Ebling, E. Gini, and U. Keller, “Towards Wafer-Scale Integration of High Repetition Rate Passively Mode-Locked Surface-Emitting Semiconductor Lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 79(8), 927–932 (2004).
[Crossref]

E. U. Rafailov, S. J. White, A. A. Lagatsky, A. Miller, W. Sibbett, D. A. Livshits, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, “Fast quantum-dot saturable absorber for passive mode-locking of solid-state lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2439–2441 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424(6950), 831–838 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. E. Hastie, J.-M. Hopkins, S. Calvez, C. W. Jeon, D. Burns, R. Abram, E. Riis, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Dawson, “0.5-W single transverse-mode operation of an 850-nm diode-pumped surface-emitting semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(7), 894–896 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (3)

R. Häring, R. Paschotta, A. Aschwanden, E. Gini, F. Morier-Genoud, and U. Keller, “High–power passively mode–locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(9), 1268–1275 (2002).
[Crossref]

W. J. Alford, T. D. Raymond, and A. A. Allerman, “High power and good beam quality at 980 nm from a vertical external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19(4), 663–666 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. Paschotta, R. Häring, U. Keller, A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, and A. C. Tropper, “Soliton-like pulse-shaping mechanism in passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 75(4-5), 445–451 (2002).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, “Design and Characteristics of High-Power (>0.5-W CW) Diode-Pumped Vertical-External-Cavity Surface-Emitting Semiconductor Lasers with Circular TEM00 Beams,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(3), 561–573 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, “High-Power (>0.5-W CW) Diode-Pumped Vertical-External-Cavity Surface-Emitting Semiconductor Lasers with Circular TEM00 Beams,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(8), 1063–1065 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

A. Giesen, H. Hügel, A. Voss, K. Wittig, U. Brauch, and H. Opower, “Scalable Concept for Diode-Pumped High-Power Solid-State Lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 365–372 (1994).

1975 (1)

H. A. Haus, “Theory of Mode Locking with a Slow Saturable Absorber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11(9), 736–746 (1975).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

G. H. C. New, “Modelocking of quasi-continuous lasers,” Opt. Commun. 6(2), 188–192 (1972).
[Crossref]

Abram, R.

J. E. Hastie, J.-M. Hopkins, S. Calvez, C. W. Jeon, D. Burns, R. Abram, E. Riis, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Dawson, “0.5-W single transverse-mode operation of an 850-nm diode-pumped surface-emitting semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(7), 894–896 (2003).
[Crossref]

Alford, W. J.

Allerman, A. A.

Apostolopoulos, V.

A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, V. Apostolopoulos, Z. Mihoubi, S. P. Elsmere, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. Tropper, “A passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser emitting 60-fs pulses,” Nat. Photonics 3(12), 729–731 (2009).
[Crossref]

Aschwanden, A.

A. Aschwanden, D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, R. Paschotta, E. Gini, and U. Keller, “2.1-W picosecond passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser,” Opt. Lett. 30(3), 272–274 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, D. J. H. C. Maas, A. Aschwanden, R. Grange, R. Paschotta, D. Ebling, E. Gini, and U. Keller, “Towards Wafer-Scale Integration of High Repetition Rate Passively Mode-Locked Surface-Emitting Semiconductor Lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 79(8), 927–932 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. Häring, R. Paschotta, A. Aschwanden, E. Gini, F. Morier-Genoud, and U. Keller, “High–power passively mode–locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(9), 1268–1275 (2002).
[Crossref]

Aus der Au, J.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

Barbarin, Y.

Bellancourt, A. R.

Bellancourt, A.-R.

A.-R. Bellancourt, Y. Barbarin, D. J. H. C. Maas, M. Shafiei, M. Hoffmann, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Low saturation fluence antiresonant quantum dot SESAMs for MIXSEL integration,” Opt. Express 17(12), 9704–9711 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A.-R. Bellancourt, D. J. H. C. Maas, B. Rudin, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Modelocked Integrated External-Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (MIXSEL),” IET Optoelectron. 3(2), 61–72 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. Rudin, A. Rutz, M. Hoffmann, D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, E. Gini, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Highly efficient optically pumped vertical-emitting semiconductor laser with more than 20 W average output power in a fundamental transverse mode,” Opt. Lett. 33(22), 2719–2721 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, M. Golling, H. J. Unold, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Vertical integration of ultrafast semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 88(4), 493–497 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, “50-GHz passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100 mW average output power,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(8), 838–847 (2006).
[Crossref]

Brauch, U.

A. Giesen, H. Hügel, A. Voss, K. Wittig, U. Brauch, and H. Opower, “Scalable Concept for Diode-Pumped High-Power Solid-State Lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 365–372 (1994).

Braun, B.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

Burns, D.

J. E. Hastie, J.-M. Hopkins, S. Calvez, C. W. Jeon, D. Burns, R. Abram, E. Riis, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Dawson, “0.5-W single transverse-mode operation of an 850-nm diode-pumped surface-emitting semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(7), 894–896 (2003).
[Crossref]

Calvez, S.

J. E. Hastie, J.-M. Hopkins, S. Calvez, C. W. Jeon, D. Burns, R. Abram, E. Riis, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Dawson, “0.5-W single transverse-mode operation of an 850-nm diode-pumped surface-emitting semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(7), 894–896 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chann, B.

Dawson, M. D.

J. E. Hastie, J.-M. Hopkins, S. Calvez, C. W. Jeon, D. Burns, R. Abram, E. Riis, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Dawson, “0.5-W single transverse-mode operation of an 850-nm diode-pumped surface-emitting semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(7), 894–896 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ebling, D.

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, “50-GHz passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100 mW average output power,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(8), 838–847 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, D. J. H. C. Maas, A. Aschwanden, R. Grange, R. Paschotta, D. Ebling, E. Gini, and U. Keller, “Towards Wafer-Scale Integration of High Repetition Rate Passively Mode-Locked Surface-Emitting Semiconductor Lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 79(8), 927–932 (2004).
[Crossref]

Elsmere, S. P.

A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, V. Apostolopoulos, Z. Mihoubi, S. P. Elsmere, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. Tropper, “A passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser emitting 60-fs pulses,” Nat. Photonics 3(12), 729–731 (2009).
[Crossref]

Farrer, I.

A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, V. Apostolopoulos, Z. Mihoubi, S. P. Elsmere, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. Tropper, “A passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser emitting 60-fs pulses,” Nat. Photonics 3(12), 729–731 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ferguson, A. I.

J. E. Hastie, J.-M. Hopkins, S. Calvez, C. W. Jeon, D. Burns, R. Abram, E. Riis, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Dawson, “0.5-W single transverse-mode operation of an 850-nm diode-pumped surface-emitting semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(7), 894–896 (2003).
[Crossref]

Fluck, R.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

Garnache, A.

R. Paschotta, R. Häring, U. Keller, A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, and A. C. Tropper, “Soliton-like pulse-shaping mechanism in passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 75(4-5), 445–451 (2002).
[Crossref]

Giesen, A.

A. Giesen, H. Hügel, A. Voss, K. Wittig, U. Brauch, and H. Opower, “Scalable Concept for Diode-Pumped High-Power Solid-State Lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 365–372 (1994).

Gini, E.

B. Rudin, A. Rutz, M. Hoffmann, D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, E. Gini, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Highly efficient optically pumped vertical-emitting semiconductor laser with more than 20 W average output power in a fundamental transverse mode,” Opt. Lett. 33(22), 2719–2721 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, “50-GHz passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100 mW average output power,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(8), 838–847 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Aschwanden, D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, R. Paschotta, E. Gini, and U. Keller, “2.1-W picosecond passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser,” Opt. Lett. 30(3), 272–274 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, D. J. H. C. Maas, A. Aschwanden, R. Grange, R. Paschotta, D. Ebling, E. Gini, and U. Keller, “Towards Wafer-Scale Integration of High Repetition Rate Passively Mode-Locked Surface-Emitting Semiconductor Lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 79(8), 927–932 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. Häring, R. Paschotta, A. Aschwanden, E. Gini, F. Morier-Genoud, and U. Keller, “High–power passively mode–locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(9), 1268–1275 (2002).
[Crossref]

Golling, M.

A.-R. Bellancourt, Y. Barbarin, D. J. H. C. Maas, M. Shafiei, M. Hoffmann, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Low saturation fluence antiresonant quantum dot SESAMs for MIXSEL integration,” Opt. Express 17(12), 9704–9711 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A.-R. Bellancourt, D. J. H. C. Maas, B. Rudin, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Modelocked Integrated External-Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (MIXSEL),” IET Optoelectron. 3(2), 61–72 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. J. H. C. Maas, A. R. Bellancourt, M. Hoffmann, B. Rudin, Y. Barbarin, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Growth parameter optimization for fast quantum dot SESAMs,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18646–18656 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, M. Golling, H. J. Unold, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Vertical integration of ultrafast semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 88(4), 493–497 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gopinath, J. T.

Grange, R.

D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, D. J. H. C. Maas, A. Aschwanden, R. Grange, R. Paschotta, D. Ebling, E. Gini, and U. Keller, “Towards Wafer-Scale Integration of High Repetition Rate Passively Mode-Locked Surface-Emitting Semiconductor Lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 79(8), 927–932 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hakimi, F.

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, “Design and Characteristics of High-Power (>0.5-W CW) Diode-Pumped Vertical-External-Cavity Surface-Emitting Semiconductor Lasers with Circular TEM00 Beams,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(3), 561–573 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, “High-Power (>0.5-W CW) Diode-Pumped Vertical-External-Cavity Surface-Emitting Semiconductor Lasers with Circular TEM00 Beams,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(8), 1063–1065 (1997).
[Crossref]

Häring, R.

R. Paschotta, R. Häring, U. Keller, A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, and A. C. Tropper, “Soliton-like pulse-shaping mechanism in passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 75(4-5), 445–451 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. Häring, R. Paschotta, A. Aschwanden, E. Gini, F. Morier-Genoud, and U. Keller, “High–power passively mode–locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(9), 1268–1275 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hastie, J. E.

J. E. Hastie, J.-M. Hopkins, S. Calvez, C. W. Jeon, D. Burns, R. Abram, E. Riis, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Dawson, “0.5-W single transverse-mode operation of an 850-nm diode-pumped surface-emitting semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(7), 894–896 (2003).
[Crossref]

Haus, H. A.

H. A. Haus, “Theory of Mode Locking with a Slow Saturable Absorber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11(9), 736–746 (1975).
[Crossref]

Hoffmann, M.

Hönninger, C.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

Hoogland, S.

R. Paschotta, R. Häring, U. Keller, A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, and A. C. Tropper, “Soliton-like pulse-shaping mechanism in passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 75(4-5), 445–451 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hopkins, J.-M.

J. E. Hastie, J.-M. Hopkins, S. Calvez, C. W. Jeon, D. Burns, R. Abram, E. Riis, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Dawson, “0.5-W single transverse-mode operation of an 850-nm diode-pumped surface-emitting semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(7), 894–896 (2003).
[Crossref]

Huang, R. K.

Hügel, H.

A. Giesen, H. Hügel, A. Voss, K. Wittig, U. Brauch, and H. Opower, “Scalable Concept for Diode-Pumped High-Power Solid-State Lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 365–372 (1994).

Jeon, C. W.

J. E. Hastie, J.-M. Hopkins, S. Calvez, C. W. Jeon, D. Burns, R. Abram, E. Riis, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Dawson, “0.5-W single transverse-mode operation of an 850-nm diode-pumped surface-emitting semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(7), 894–896 (2003).
[Crossref]

Jung, I. D.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

Juodawlkis, P. W.

Kärtner, F. X.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

Keller, U.

A.-R. Bellancourt, D. J. H. C. Maas, B. Rudin, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Modelocked Integrated External-Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (MIXSEL),” IET Optoelectron. 3(2), 61–72 (2009).
[Crossref]

A.-R. Bellancourt, Y. Barbarin, D. J. H. C. Maas, M. Shafiei, M. Hoffmann, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Low saturation fluence antiresonant quantum dot SESAMs for MIXSEL integration,” Opt. Express 17(12), 9704–9711 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. H. C. Maas, A. R. Bellancourt, M. Hoffmann, B. Rudin, Y. Barbarin, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Growth parameter optimization for fast quantum dot SESAMs,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18646–18656 (2008).
[Crossref]

B. Rudin, A. Rutz, M. Hoffmann, D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, E. Gini, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Highly efficient optically pumped vertical-emitting semiconductor laser with more than 20 W average output power in a fundamental transverse mode,” Opt. Lett. 33(22), 2719–2721 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, M. Golling, H. J. Unold, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Vertical integration of ultrafast semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 88(4), 493–497 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, “50-GHz passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100 mW average output power,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(8), 838–847 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Aschwanden, D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, R. Paschotta, E. Gini, and U. Keller, “2.1-W picosecond passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser,” Opt. Lett. 30(3), 272–274 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, D. J. H. C. Maas, A. Aschwanden, R. Grange, R. Paschotta, D. Ebling, E. Gini, and U. Keller, “Towards Wafer-Scale Integration of High Repetition Rate Passively Mode-Locked Surface-Emitting Semiconductor Lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 79(8), 927–932 (2004).
[Crossref]

U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424(6950), 831–838 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Paschotta, R. Häring, U. Keller, A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, and A. C. Tropper, “Soliton-like pulse-shaping mechanism in passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 75(4-5), 445–451 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. Häring, R. Paschotta, A. Aschwanden, E. Gini, F. Morier-Genoud, and U. Keller, “High–power passively mode–locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(9), 1268–1275 (2002).
[Crossref]

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

Kopf, D.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

Kuznetsov, M.

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, “Design and Characteristics of High-Power (>0.5-W CW) Diode-Pumped Vertical-External-Cavity Surface-Emitting Semiconductor Lasers with Circular TEM00 Beams,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(3), 561–573 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, “High-Power (>0.5-W CW) Diode-Pumped Vertical-External-Cavity Surface-Emitting Semiconductor Lasers with Circular TEM00 Beams,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(8), 1063–1065 (1997).
[Crossref]

Lagatsky, A. A.

E. U. Rafailov, S. J. White, A. A. Lagatsky, A. Miller, W. Sibbett, D. A. Livshits, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, “Fast quantum-dot saturable absorber for passive mode-locking of solid-state lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2439–2441 (2004).
[Crossref]

Livshits, D. A.

E. U. Rafailov, S. J. White, A. A. Lagatsky, A. Miller, W. Sibbett, D. A. Livshits, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, “Fast quantum-dot saturable absorber for passive mode-locking of solid-state lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2439–2441 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lorenser, D.

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, “50-GHz passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100 mW average output power,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(8), 838–847 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Aschwanden, D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, R. Paschotta, E. Gini, and U. Keller, “2.1-W picosecond passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser,” Opt. Lett. 30(3), 272–274 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, D. J. H. C. Maas, A. Aschwanden, R. Grange, R. Paschotta, D. Ebling, E. Gini, and U. Keller, “Towards Wafer-Scale Integration of High Repetition Rate Passively Mode-Locked Surface-Emitting Semiconductor Lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 79(8), 927–932 (2004).
[Crossref]

Maas, D. J. H. C.

A.-R. Bellancourt, D. J. H. C. Maas, B. Rudin, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Modelocked Integrated External-Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (MIXSEL),” IET Optoelectron. 3(2), 61–72 (2009).
[Crossref]

A.-R. Bellancourt, Y. Barbarin, D. J. H. C. Maas, M. Shafiei, M. Hoffmann, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Low saturation fluence antiresonant quantum dot SESAMs for MIXSEL integration,” Opt. Express 17(12), 9704–9711 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Rudin, A. Rutz, M. Hoffmann, D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, E. Gini, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Highly efficient optically pumped vertical-emitting semiconductor laser with more than 20 W average output power in a fundamental transverse mode,” Opt. Lett. 33(22), 2719–2721 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. H. C. Maas, A. R. Bellancourt, M. Hoffmann, B. Rudin, Y. Barbarin, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Growth parameter optimization for fast quantum dot SESAMs,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18646–18656 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, M. Golling, H. J. Unold, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Vertical integration of ultrafast semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 88(4), 493–497 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, “50-GHz passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100 mW average output power,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(8), 838–847 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, D. J. H. C. Maas, A. Aschwanden, R. Grange, R. Paschotta, D. Ebling, E. Gini, and U. Keller, “Towards Wafer-Scale Integration of High Repetition Rate Passively Mode-Locked Surface-Emitting Semiconductor Lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 79(8), 927–932 (2004).
[Crossref]

Matuschek, N.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

Mihoubi, Z.

A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, V. Apostolopoulos, Z. Mihoubi, S. P. Elsmere, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. Tropper, “A passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser emitting 60-fs pulses,” Nat. Photonics 3(12), 729–731 (2009).
[Crossref]

Miller, A.

E. U. Rafailov, S. J. White, A. A. Lagatsky, A. Miller, W. Sibbett, D. A. Livshits, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, “Fast quantum-dot saturable absorber for passive mode-locking of solid-state lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2439–2441 (2004).
[Crossref]

Mooradian, A.

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, “Design and Characteristics of High-Power (>0.5-W CW) Diode-Pumped Vertical-External-Cavity Surface-Emitting Semiconductor Lasers with Circular TEM00 Beams,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(3), 561–573 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, “High-Power (>0.5-W CW) Diode-Pumped Vertical-External-Cavity Surface-Emitting Semiconductor Lasers with Circular TEM00 Beams,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(8), 1063–1065 (1997).
[Crossref]

Morier-Genoud, F.

R. Häring, R. Paschotta, A. Aschwanden, E. Gini, F. Morier-Genoud, and U. Keller, “High–power passively mode–locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(9), 1268–1275 (2002).
[Crossref]

New, G. H. C.

G. H. C. New, “Modelocking of quasi-continuous lasers,” Opt. Commun. 6(2), 188–192 (1972).
[Crossref]

Opower, H.

A. Giesen, H. Hügel, A. Voss, K. Wittig, U. Brauch, and H. Opower, “Scalable Concept for Diode-Pumped High-Power Solid-State Lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 365–372 (1994).

Paschotta, R.

A. Aschwanden, D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, R. Paschotta, E. Gini, and U. Keller, “2.1-W picosecond passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser,” Opt. Lett. 30(3), 272–274 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, D. J. H. C. Maas, A. Aschwanden, R. Grange, R. Paschotta, D. Ebling, E. Gini, and U. Keller, “Towards Wafer-Scale Integration of High Repetition Rate Passively Mode-Locked Surface-Emitting Semiconductor Lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 79(8), 927–932 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. Paschotta, R. Häring, U. Keller, A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, and A. C. Tropper, “Soliton-like pulse-shaping mechanism in passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 75(4-5), 445–451 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. Häring, R. Paschotta, A. Aschwanden, E. Gini, F. Morier-Genoud, and U. Keller, “High–power passively mode–locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(9), 1268–1275 (2002).
[Crossref]

Plant, J. J.

Quarterman, A. H.

A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, V. Apostolopoulos, Z. Mihoubi, S. P. Elsmere, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. Tropper, “A passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser emitting 60-fs pulses,” Nat. Photonics 3(12), 729–731 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rafailov, E. U.

E. U. Rafailov, S. J. White, A. A. Lagatsky, A. Miller, W. Sibbett, D. A. Livshits, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, “Fast quantum-dot saturable absorber for passive mode-locking of solid-state lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2439–2441 (2004).
[Crossref]

Raymond, T. D.

Riis, E.

J. E. Hastie, J.-M. Hopkins, S. Calvez, C. W. Jeon, D. Burns, R. Abram, E. Riis, A. I. Ferguson, and M. D. Dawson, “0.5-W single transverse-mode operation of an 850-nm diode-pumped surface-emitting semiconductor laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(7), 894–896 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ripin, D. J.

Ritchie, D. A.

A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, V. Apostolopoulos, Z. Mihoubi, S. P. Elsmere, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. Tropper, “A passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser emitting 60-fs pulses,” Nat. Photonics 3(12), 729–731 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rudin, B.

A.-R. Bellancourt, D. J. H. C. Maas, B. Rudin, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Modelocked Integrated External-Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (MIXSEL),” IET Optoelectron. 3(2), 61–72 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. J. H. C. Maas, A. R. Bellancourt, M. Hoffmann, B. Rudin, Y. Barbarin, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Growth parameter optimization for fast quantum dot SESAMs,” Opt. Express 16(23), 18646–18656 (2008).
[Crossref]

B. Rudin, A. Rutz, M. Hoffmann, D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, E. Gini, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Highly efficient optically pumped vertical-emitting semiconductor laser with more than 20 W average output power in a fundamental transverse mode,” Opt. Lett. 33(22), 2719–2721 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, M. Golling, H. J. Unold, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Vertical integration of ultrafast semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 88(4), 493–497 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, “50-GHz passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100 mW average output power,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(8), 838–847 (2006).
[Crossref]

Rutz, A.

Shafiei, M.

Sibbett, W.

E. U. Rafailov, S. J. White, A. A. Lagatsky, A. Miller, W. Sibbett, D. A. Livshits, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, “Fast quantum-dot saturable absorber for passive mode-locking of solid-state lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2439–2441 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sprague, R.

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, “Design and Characteristics of High-Power (>0.5-W CW) Diode-Pumped Vertical-External-Cavity Surface-Emitting Semiconductor Lasers with Circular TEM00 Beams,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(3), 561–573 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, “High-Power (>0.5-W CW) Diode-Pumped Vertical-External-Cavity Surface-Emitting Semiconductor Lasers with Circular TEM00 Beams,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(8), 1063–1065 (1997).
[Crossref]

Südmeyer, T.

Tropper, A.

A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, V. Apostolopoulos, Z. Mihoubi, S. P. Elsmere, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. Tropper, “A passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser emitting 60-fs pulses,” Nat. Photonics 3(12), 729–731 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tropper, A. C.

R. Paschotta, R. Häring, U. Keller, A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, and A. C. Tropper, “Soliton-like pulse-shaping mechanism in passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 75(4-5), 445–451 (2002).
[Crossref]

Unold, H. J.

D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, M. Golling, H. J. Unold, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Vertical integration of ultrafast semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 88(4), 493–497 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, “50-GHz passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100 mW average output power,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(8), 838–847 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Aschwanden, D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, R. Paschotta, E. Gini, and U. Keller, “2.1-W picosecond passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser,” Opt. Lett. 30(3), 272–274 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, D. J. H. C. Maas, A. Aschwanden, R. Grange, R. Paschotta, D. Ebling, E. Gini, and U. Keller, “Towards Wafer-Scale Integration of High Repetition Rate Passively Mode-Locked Surface-Emitting Semiconductor Lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 79(8), 927–932 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ustinov, V. M.

E. U. Rafailov, S. J. White, A. A. Lagatsky, A. Miller, W. Sibbett, D. A. Livshits, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, “Fast quantum-dot saturable absorber for passive mode-locking of solid-state lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2439–2441 (2004).
[Crossref]

Voss, A.

A. Giesen, H. Hügel, A. Voss, K. Wittig, U. Brauch, and H. Opower, “Scalable Concept for Diode-Pumped High-Power Solid-State Lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 365–372 (1994).

Weingarten, K. J.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

White, S. J.

E. U. Rafailov, S. J. White, A. A. Lagatsky, A. Miller, W. Sibbett, D. A. Livshits, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, “Fast quantum-dot saturable absorber for passive mode-locking of solid-state lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2439–2441 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wilcox, K. G.

A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, V. Apostolopoulos, Z. Mihoubi, S. P. Elsmere, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. Tropper, “A passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser emitting 60-fs pulses,” Nat. Photonics 3(12), 729–731 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wittig, K.

A. Giesen, H. Hügel, A. Voss, K. Wittig, U. Brauch, and H. Opower, “Scalable Concept for Diode-Pumped High-Power Solid-State Lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 365–372 (1994).

Zhukov, A. E.

E. U. Rafailov, S. J. White, A. A. Lagatsky, A. Miller, W. Sibbett, D. A. Livshits, A. E. Zhukov, and V. M. Ustinov, “Fast quantum-dot saturable absorber for passive mode-locking of solid-state lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2439–2441 (2004).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (4)

D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, M. Golling, H. J. Unold, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Vertical integration of ultrafast semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 88(4), 493–497 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Giesen, H. Hügel, A. Voss, K. Wittig, U. Brauch, and H. Opower, “Scalable Concept for Diode-Pumped High-Power Solid-State Lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 365–372 (1994).

R. Paschotta, R. Häring, U. Keller, A. Garnache, S. Hoogland, and A. C. Tropper, “Soliton-like pulse-shaping mechanism in passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 75(4-5), 445–451 (2002).
[Crossref]

D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, D. J. H. C. Maas, A. Aschwanden, R. Grange, R. Paschotta, D. Ebling, E. Gini, and U. Keller, “Towards Wafer-Scale Integration of High Repetition Rate Passively Mode-Locked Surface-Emitting Semiconductor Lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 79(8), 927–932 (2004).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

R. Häring, R. Paschotta, A. Aschwanden, E. Gini, F. Morier-Genoud, and U. Keller, “High–power passively mode–locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 38(9), 1268–1275 (2002).
[Crossref]

H. A. Haus, “Theory of Mode Locking with a Slow Saturable Absorber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 11(9), 736–746 (1975).
[Crossref]

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, “50-GHz passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100 mW average output power,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 42(8), 838–847 (2006).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, “Design and Characteristics of High-Power (>0.5-W CW) Diode-Pumped Vertical-External-Cavity Surface-Emitting Semiconductor Lasers with Circular TEM00 Beams,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5(3), 561–573 (1999).
[Crossref]

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, “High-Power (>0.5-W CW) Diode-Pumped Vertical-External-Cavity Surface-Emitting Semiconductor Lasers with Circular TEM00 Beams,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9(8), 1063–1065 (1997).
[Crossref]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Photograph and sketch of the MIXSEL cavity: The simple linear cavity is formed by the MIXSEL chip and an external output coupler. The MIXSEL structure is optically pumped under an angle of 45°.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

MIXSEL concept and design: The MIXSEL semiconductor structure contains two highly reflecting distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs), a quantum dot (QD) saturable absorber layer, a quantum well (QW) gain section and an anti-reflective (AR) coating. The laser DBR reflects the laser light and forms the laser cavity together with the external output coupler. The pump DBR is placed between the QD saturable absorber and the QW gain layers to prevent bleaching of the saturable absorber by the pump light. The white oscillations in the upper sketches represent the square of the electric field of the laser light. The QD layer as well as the QWs are placed in antinodes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison between a resonant and a antiresonant MIXSEL design: (a) Resonant (red) and antiresonant (blue) MIXSEL design given by the refractive index pattern. The difference between the two structures is the lack of the laser DBR on top of the QD layer for the antiresonant structure. The calculated standing wave intensity pattern for the design laser wavelength is shown in black. (b) The corresponding field enhancements in the absorber and (c) the group delay dispersion (GDD) are displayed as function of wavelength. The red and blue lines show the values for the designed structure assuming no growth errors, whereas the gray lines show the values for 50 random structures, where growth errors of less than 1% have been applied to the different materials.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Characterization of the MIXSEL lasing performance: (a) Microwave spectrum, (b) optical spectrum, (c) intensity autocorrelation and (d) beam quality measurement.

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